9 Eco Rules Humans Shouldn't Break If We Want to Survive

By Eliza Strickland | September 24, 2009 4:01 pm

earth-user's-manualIn an ambitious attempt to assess how humans are doing as stewards of planet earth, 28 leading scientists have drawn up a list of nine “planetary boundaries” that must not be crossed if we want to avoid drastically changing the global environment and imperiling our own existence. The only problem is, we’ve already crossed three of those thresholds.

The paper, published in Nature (and available for free), aims to define a “safe operating space” for human life on the planet. It’s a first-draft users’ manual for an era that scientists dub the “anthropocene,” in which nearly seven billion resource-hungry humans have come to dominate ecological change on Earth [Wired.com]. What follows is a list of the nine environmental factors, and how we’re doing on living within each limit.

1) Atmospheric carbon dioxide, the main cause of global warming: Obviously, we have trouble with this one. The researchers say the CO2 limit is no more than 350 parts per million (p.p.m.) in the atmosphere, but we’re already at 387 p.p.m. and rising.

2) Nitrogen and phosphorus pollution: This one is split. We’re already over the limit with nitrogen, since industrialized agriculture already has humanity pouring more chemicals into the land and oceans than the planet can process [Time]. On phosphorus, another chemical used in fertilizer, we’re still below the limit.

3) Ozone: finally, some good news! The researchers say that atmospheric levels of ultraviolet radiation-blocking ozone are safe, thanks to a 1987 ban on ozone-destroying chemicals [Wired.com].

4) Fresh water use: So far, we’re beneath the threshold for water use, but if populations continue to boom we may soon be in trouble. One water expert even questions the threshold used in this paper, saying that it would allow further degradation at such environmental disaster sites as the drying Aral Sea in Asia and seven major rivers, including the Colorado in the U.S., that no longer reach the sea [Scientific American].

5) Land use: We also haven’t yet reached the point at which we’ll have converted too much natural terrain, like forests and wetlands, to less biologically useful landscapes, like monocrop agricultural fields and cities. But again, population growth is a looming factor.

6) Biodiversity: Boy, did we screw this one up. Many biologists argue that the planet is in the midst of a sixth great extinction event because of human actions, and the report finds that we’re way over the limit for species loss. “Today the rate of extinction of species is estimated to be 100 to 1,000 times more than what could be considered natural,” they report [Canwest News].

7) Ocean acidification: Again, we haven’t crossed this threshold yet, but the carbon dioxide emitted by our industrialized societies is steadily being infused in the oceans, raising their acidity levels and making it harder for coral reefs to build skeletons and invertebrates to build shells. According to recent surveys, the ocean is now acidifying 100 times faster than at any time during the past 20 million years [Yale Environment 360].

8) Chemical pollution: Human activity is spreading toxic materials like heavy metals and radioactive waste, and researchers believe these materials are causing genetic damage in all kinds of organisms. But scientists don’t yet have enough info to establish a safe limit.

9) Atmospheric aerosols: Ditto with soot and other particles that cloud our atmosphere, causing smog and provoking heath problems in humans. Researchers believe that aerosols can have global-scale effects, but haven’t yet agreed on a threshold.

Image: Nature / Johan Rockström, et al. The green area represents the safe operating space for nine planetary systems. The red wedges represent an estimate of the current position for each variable.

  • Billy Bob

    we’re screwed. I still believe, as I did 20 years ago, that we are way too low in estimating the long-term damage we’re doing!

  • Mr. Obvious

    What about topsoil loss?

  • nparikh

    I want to be optimistic, but things really look bad. I wonder if we’ll make it.

  • Babu Mathew

    what are the solutions? Let’s think and act fast. Let’s preserve something for the coming generations. What about the quickly disappearing drinking water? We experience different seasons in a 24 hour span. What about that?

  • mariana

    James Lovelock, creator of the Gaia hypothesis, said he really can’t conceive of how more than 20% of the human population will be around by the end of this century. I thought he was a pessimist, but I’m wondering if he may be a realist.

  • j.g.alt

    The implications of this article are noteworthy. If you read between the lines, the condemnation is upon man, as opposed to these things that threaten man. The title begins with the premise that these are things that we should do if _we_ want to survive, but the body of the article condemns population and industry. In other words, it condemns man’s life and his capacity to survive. On a scale of virtue, we can infer that western nations, particularly the U.S. are the least virtuous, with low-industrial nations with high populations being more virtuous and the low-industrial nations with low populations being the most virtuous. By this standard, what do the most virtuous nations do for the benefit of the world?

  • Sanchas

    CO2 main cause of global warming… NOT !! Only 2% of the greenhouse gas in the atmosphere is CO2 generated by human activity. The majority is water vapor. We’ve already proven increases in atmospheric CO2 FOLLOWS increases in average temperature, NOT the other way around. Stop listening to those who only want attention for themselves (Mr. Gore, et. al.) and look at the data yourself.

  • http://www.onecitizenspeaking.com OneCitizenSpeaking

    And if you believe this, you will find yourselves enslaved by a socialist government and a burgeoning bureacracy that will severely curtail your freedom. Consider the cap and trade to control CO2 — the program provides indulgences for polluters to keep polluting (the cost being born by the public) and big money for Wall Street derivative traders. If CO2 is the cause of global warming, why does it lag temperature rise by 600 – 1000 years (depending on the dataset)? This is pure political manipulation by the socialists who have infiltrated the environmental movement and an out-of-control government acting in their own self-interests. Conserve, be stewards of the land, don’t polute — but don’t give more power and money to corrupt politicians.

  • Josh

    Reading this article just makes me want to hop in my SUV and drive a long long way. Maybe I’ll be lucky enough to hit a panda on the way.

  • ben

    haha this stuff is all funny… these joksters just want more funding, plain and simple. don’t believe, and don’t fall for that cap and trade crap that obama and pelosi are trying to ram through congress.

  • GameOver

    Denialists like some of the people commenting here give me ZERO hope for the future. Witless and self-centered, we’re slamming headfirst into a brick wall of our own making, and some of us are pressing harder on the accelerator pedal. I applaud the heroic few who are trying to apply the brake, but (sorry to be so grim), isn’t it ultimately the “mere bellies” that will (dis)inherit us of the earth? No country will be make the necessary sacrifices to avert doom. In the aggregrate, it’s simply not our nature. Au revoir l’humanité.

  • Cheryl

    Global Warming isnt real. Its liberal theory to control industry.

  • GW

    Volcanos and other natural occurances affect the environment far more than us measly humans. Humans needs to realize that we don’t have that kind of power yet. Don’t be scared by people who want more money to come up with ridiculous scare tactics for more money.

  • James C.

    All half-truths and theorizing. I am a scientist myself, and don’t buy into all the doom and gloom. The earth has changed remarkably over the last 50,000 years, let alone the 4,500,000,000 years it has been around.

    Climate change is real. It has always been real even before humans were on the planet. Who is to say that our tiny little activities are causing the changes now??? What hubris to think we have such control. Even if we did have the power, it is also the acme of pride for ‘climatologists’ to think we know how to manage our way out if it. Hell, we can’t even tell what the weather will be like in 24 hours.

    The majority of these studies are all propaganda to secure finances for those whose livlihoods depend on funding to continue studying climate. Often they are from universities, but many are part of coporations, or are looking for their way into the big money.

    We should be more ‘green’ for our own sake (who wants cancer from pollutants?) and to prevent species from being pushed into premature extinction. But remember…all species become extinct eventually. Even humans. The sun will go off the main sequence and fry our planet in 5 billion years. Even if we colonize space, the universe will end in 15 billion years. There is no escape :)

  • Sad

    It really is terrible what we have done to this planet in the last 200 years. My opinion is that the human race was the most advanced so far and will be on the planet the shortest. We need to stop the population grow, but that is politically incorrect to say. Mother Nature will win, she always does, and will reject us all.

  • Expert

    Fact: There is no global warming.

  • Wayne Maoha

    The earth is fine, people. Don’t take my word for it, believe your own eyes! Go outside and look around, do you see those trees? Do you see those clouds and blue sky? If we were so bad off, why are all these things doing just fine? Global warming is a HOAX, that’s why.

    This is all just another example of scientists manipulating the public in order to further their atheistic liberal agenda. These are the same people who claim evolution is true, while ignoring the almighty word of God and the reams and reams of scientific PROOF against it.

  • Aurenia

    Fact? Opinion…

    People can argue about this all day, but how does anyone know what is really going on.

    Also saying us measly humans can’t have an impact seems a little off, as there are almost 7 billion of us, we produce much much more CO2 emissions from breathing, livestock and industrial activities than a mere volcano can ever hope to possibly achieve. Look it up, don’t blindly believe what someone writes!

  • John Astroturf

    As long as we have the right to own fire arms we can always just off each other before the planet casts us into starvation or death by radiation poisoning…

  • >:/

    I hate, hate hate hate when scientists try to disprove certain aspects of science while trying to prove their own niche of it. I’m looking at you up there, Mr. Astronomer. You don’t know for sure that the universe will end in 15 billion years any more than you know that the earth is doing okay. Science is an ever-growing discipline, and the one true thing about it is we keep learning we were wrong. So, don’t use hypothetical science to disprove other science.

    As for you, Legion of Right-Wing Nutjobs, I don’t think asking people to be “stewards of the earth” is an atheistic, liberal agenda. Sounds like common sense to me. Hopefully all of you that are so backwards that you believe in a faith that refuses to evolve with time will just stay amongst yourselves until you die out, probably from your H3 fuels poisoning your streams where you fish, but it’s cool guys, the sky is still blue so that’s probably Satan giving everyone cancer.

  • James C

    You made my point very well. First off I am not an astronomer, don’t even own a telescope. The whole point about hypothetical science is spot on. That is why I don’t buy the climatologist’s hypothetical science that our cars are causing the earth to melt. These guys tell us they know exactly what is wrong, and exactly how to fix it. What crap! Wisconsin used to be a warm inland sea, the great redwood forrest was a marsh, they used to farm in Greenland, and on and on. I am NOT trying to disprove anything, I am just saying that the climatologists haven’t proved anything to start with, so we shouldn’t go running around saying the sky is falling..when it ain’t/

  • A-Dub

    It isn’t atheist or liberal to want to take good care of the planet that has taken such good care of us, is it?

    After all, conserving the planet (or anything really) should fit in a conservative box, shouldn’t it?

    Plus, the creationist theory / The Bible ARE FAIRY TALES!!!!

    Did any of you happen to notice that every major religion’s main characters/prophets died and were resurrected on almost the same days after spending identical periods of time being deceased? Did you also happen to notice that those stories, Jesus’ too, are all rip-offs of the ancient Egyptian god Horus’ story… Down to the dates!

    If I have to choose…

    I’ll take socialist & cancer free w/biodiversity


    being a socialist in a democracy’s clothing (our current US government) and facing the bleak future that all of you “faith-based” lunatics are forcing us into w/ your low IQ’s and uncontrolled breeding practices.

    James C, nobody said the sky was falling… This is just trying to get more people to help make sure it doesn’t fall.

  • James C

    Oh by the way, I lied, I am an astronomer, but that is DR. Astronomer to you..not Mr. Here is my proof:

    Just remember that you’re standing on a planet that’s evolving
    And revolving at nine hundred miles an hour,
    That’s orbiting at nineteen miles a second, so it’s reckoned,
    A sun that is the source of all our power.
    The sun and you and me and all the stars that we can see
    Are moving at a million miles a day
    In an outer spiral arm, at forty thousand miles an hour,
    Of the galaxy we call the ‘Milky Way’.
    Our galaxy itself contains a hundred billion stars.
    It’s a hundred thousand light years side to side.
    It bulges in the middle, sixteen thousand light years thick,
    But out by us, it’s just three thousand light years wide.
    We’re thirty thousand light years from galactic central point.
    We go ’round every two hundred million years,
    And our galaxy is only one of millions of billions
    In this amazing and expanding universe.
    The universe itself keeps on expanding and expanding
    In all of the directions it can whizz
    As fast as it can go, at the speed of light, you know,
    Twelve million miles a minute, and that’s the fastest speed there is.
    So remember, when you’re feeling very small and insecure,
    How amazingly unlikely is your birth,
    And pray that there’s intelligent life somewhere up in space,
    ‘Cause there’s bugger all down here on Earth.

  • David

    I think the impact of number 5 is greatly under estimated. Look at an aerial map of the world sometime, basically every square inch of land that’s not mountain or sand is in production.

  • A-Dub

    Sweet! I love Monty Python… and how true that little song is… as far as we know anyway…

  • onevote

    To James C.

    But we must also remember that 5 billion years is a long time :) Much potential for humanity yet, and then we rudely maximize our species in this one century. A bit egocentric towards future generations, don’t you think? In my eyes, 5 billion years worth of sustainable humanity deserves our compassion as much as those born in this particular century. Not a very popular thought, since first, one has to realize that future generations of human culture is a reality just like the culture outside your door. You just have to take a walk out this room – this century, and tell yourselves that there will be people dependent on what we do here and now.

  • Chris

    To all those who will not accept the blame of our own undoing, I say screw you and your arrogance. It’s pretty clear we are doing something wrong when there is a plastic garbage island floating in the ocean the size of texas. We are also losing species at an exponential rate, more so than ever before in the history of the world. But hey, don’t worry, sit back, relax and lets bask in the awesomeness that is the world destroying human. Ignorant arrogant slobs.

  • Personne

    The opinions expressed in the above comments are all over the place, and this is why I think we are really screwed: We humans can’t agree on anything of importance (name any issue) and therefore we are condemned to watch the events unfold until it bites us in the ass. History repeats itself.

  • Chris

    Top 7 reasons why Americans have a responsibility to reduce our meat consumption are on that list. Global warming, nitrogen and phosphorus pollution, fresh water use, land use, biodiversity, chemical pollution and atmospheric aerosol emissions all have an intimate relationship with our diet.

  • Dude

    James C.

    You are not a scientists so do not say you are a scientists,

    all these things are real your talking the propaganda.

    Plus i can tell your not a scientist because you use ridiculous amounts of ????.


  • Jeff

    The fact is that the earth has been experiencing periods of heating and cooling. We may lend to the current warming trend or we may not. Many have used meteorlogical maps and data for their own ends, yet we all know we can bend numbers to lend credit to our own theories. I believe that the earth has and will continue regulating itself. Eventually, it will become uninhabitable for our species and we will die off, or be dramatically reduced, as many species have before us. To believe that we shall forever inhabit this tiny sphere and have the capability of altering our climate at our whim is mere fantasy. So relax. It’s not doom and gloom, it is life. We humans have had a good run, so enjoy your life and let everyone else enjoy their life.

  • Jenn

    It doesn’t matter if global warming is true or not. This plant is our mother and we are slowly poisoning her. Is that how you should treat your mother.

  • StevieMac

    To Aurenia and all others who believe natural disasters can not impact the earth more than humans, please look up the Mt. Pinutabo eruption from 1991. Scientists across multiple disciplines measured the CO2 and CFC emissions from that single eruption and confirmed it had spewn more of each into the atmosphere than all of humanity since the start of the industrial revolution.

    Quit ignoring fact in deference to your opinions. The idea or “theory” that gobal warming is caused by human activity is nothing more than a myth. Michael Crichton had it right: Climatologists need an urgent cause to raise money. Humans causing a rapid rise in CO2 levels is just the latest version of such an urgent cause. Does anyone remember the “Global Cooling” concerns from the 70’s? Amazing how short our memories can be.

    Look at it this way: The earth is 8,000 miles in diameter, which means it has a total surface area of 201 million square miles. 70% of that is water (141 million square miles). That leaves 60 million square miles of actual land. Now, how much of the 60 million square miles is really inhabitable? Turns out about 40% (Antarctica, Greenland, northern Canada, and Siberia are all largely uninhabitable due to extreme cold and lack of sun for half the year). The arctic is all ice (no land under it), but this is not included in the 70% number either. So, that leaves 24 million square miles of inhabitable land. A grand total of 12% of the total surface of the earth to be shared by 7 billion people. Now take into consideration what I said about the Mt. Pinutabo eruption and really think about the assertions that humans are causing global warming.

    It’s sad that we have been made victims of greedy, liberal climatologists who have skillfully employed our liberal media to further their cause. The truth is, the data can be manipulated by either side of this grand argument because the scientists performing the studies and experiments are the same scientists “objectively” reviewing the data. In layman’s terms, that’s called the fox watching the henhouse.

    One question before I close: What claims more human lives: extreme heat or extreme cold? Just some facts: In 2005, 1400 people died across Europe due to 3 weeks of extreme heat. In 2003, 700 people died in Chicago alone due to a major heat wave. Both events were heavily publicized in the media and shown as “evidence” of global warming. The sad fact is that in Britain alone, 25,000 people die every year due to the cold. Has anyone heard about this epidemic?

    Please people, look up the facts and make informed decisions. Opinions are like assholes: everyone has one, and most of them stink.

    And never underestimate the stupidity of the common man.

  • Dave

    Seems all i hear now is how horrible we are in the way of being good stewards to our planet. Most people play “tug of war” between if it’s real or not, or what’s causing it.
    But has anyone ever thought for a moment that humanity has an answer in itself? that perhaps the solution to this problem is not ONLY to clean up our act, but to also create viable means of collecting these toxins? Perhaps the answer isn’t asserting blame, or even acknowledging it’s happening. But just thinking of new and brilliant ways of cleaning up the mercury in the water, or scrubbing the atmosphere of carbon dioxide? Even if republican fanatics are right and the liberal softies are spouting hippie crap about preservation, it can’t hurt. Just go along with to get them to stop complaining!
    The fact of the matter being, don’t just complain about it, do something about it. Steviemac made a good point about the common man “Never underestimate his stupidity,” but underestimating his brilliance would be the real downfall.

  • Dan C.

    I can narrow all 9 items down to one concept: Net Usefulness. A species will survive based upon whether it creates more future usefulness (“net”) than it consumes. In other words, living things must be useful overall to the universe, or they die off. In the case of humans, we are not only consuming OUR share of resources, but all of the shares of all of the other species that are dying off, AND we are leaving behind pollution (a form of consumption) that is analogous to going backward in time and consuming our ancestors’ usefulness.

    For those who are arguing about “socialism”, you should get rid of the patent office, the school systems which feed the capitalist factory model, the highways, the military, the post office, and all public systems which give subsidies to corporations. We are already a socialist country, but the socialism is based on the corporation as the dominant life form.

    We are all screwed. Have fun with that ‘recovery’ thing.

  • Dave

    You’re right Dan, the survival of a general species depends upon the niche they occupy. But the true purpose of life is to further perpetuate itself, all other things follow behind that purpose. To think were totally doomed kinda shows a lack of commitment to humanity. The species thrives on higher resources, true.
    But what i was proposing was an effort to stem the amount of degradation to allow us a chance at technological advances that are important to getting off this rock. Yes, i know the earth is doomed, from the first moment a man figured out how to create a spear, it was over, a chain reaction was set in motion that would undeniably lead to the end of life.
    Perhaps that was the purpose of humanity all along, to bring about the end. But just because the earth is going to die doesn’t mean we have to. “Recovery” was never the thought i really had in mind. It’s over, and i know it, most people should try to accept that the earth will die, but humanity may be able to live on. It would be a solution to give us time. The way you word it, it seems as though the whole world is going to go down, but you’re just going to step off the edge and be somewhere where it can’t get you. As much as many people would like to think that way, it’s impossible to walk away from something that could be this bad.
    If were all going to die on this rock, you’re coming with us! So either go with the ride or fight it.

  • goulet

    bacteria changed the world by converting a “poisonous” atmosphere into the oxygen one we have today.
    Of course, that oxygen proved poisonous for everything on the planet except a handful of organisms. So “poisonous atmosphere” is highly relative

    change is change. It’s not the end of the world. Maybe the end of humans. But I think Earth will do just fine

  • morgan

    seriously, I am a college student right now following a marine environmental law degree, bioenvironmental sciences AND possibly minoring in wildlife and fisheries sciences. I’m considered a “kid” to some of you guys. But I have a perfectly functioning brain, and I can understand the consequences we are leading our species into. Maybe some of you “adults” should stop thinking you know it all, because if you did, you wouldn’t be leaving such brainless, dense, and overall idiotic responses. “All of this is fake” HA please, pick up a scientific article, a book, or maybe just try to educate yourselves in the most basic way. We are killing our species, we are killing the earth, we have already killed numerous species but none of ya’ll want to take the blame. We will face doom, no, your grandchildren and their children will face doom, and it will be because you were too arrogant to do something to save the people you will love. I agree with someone who wrote “the earth will do just fine” but we, humans, will become extinct. Foolish creatures we are.

  • http://www.stueyspace.ca stueysplace

    morgan is right on. I’m one of the old foggies who happen to have been watching as we destroyed everything we touched. It is far too late to save us now. Our polititions have no concept of the seriousness of the problem. Of course the real problem is over population and nobody seems to want to address that problem. Actually I don’t think humans have the mental capacity to deal with climate change. We are like locusts who will ravage the planet until we run out of food and die off.

  • Pat

    I feel sorry for those humans that come from monkeys and are parasites who’s population and activities need to be restrained because they are so stupid and monkey like that they can do nothing but destroy the earth and eat granola. I don’t come from the Roman church or any other religion, I am a proud human, I come from the beautiful harmony of life, nature, the earth. I am the great human shepherd and caretaker of nature. The more of us there are, the more healthy nature will be because we perform permaforestry. There is no limit to our population, the more hands we have the better nature will be, the better we will be. We are creators of life, not death. We pray to harmony and life, not books, stories, idols, movements, technology, or history. Wake up you evolutionary monkeys, wake up you creationist religious fanatics, you are all wrong, there is more to life then to acquire yourself an explanation to life’s greatest mystery, especially in this day and age. What is not harmonious with the harmony of nature will be extinct, it’s the only rule, it’s the reality of adaptation.

    PS. I didn’t mean to insult real monkeys, they play their part quite well in the harmony of life.

  • Pat

    It’s funny how it is the city dwellers that are all screaming mercy and that the end of the world is near yet they know nothing of nature aside what they see on their TV. How it’s city dwellers that are becoming vegetarians but they know nothing about animals aside their pets and what they see at the zoo. Doesn’t it make you wonder that the only real problem is those very same people and their illogical existences in their cities. City dwellers, DON’T DESTROY THE EARTH because you think it’s too late already. YOU are the problem, not the earth. CHANGE YOURSELF, not humanity’s goals and aspirations. DO NOT DESTROY OUR HOME to escape your own stupidity! Startrek is a TV series, not a religion!

  • badnicolez

    Posters 1-5: Your posts are a perfect indication of how completely and utterly naive people are on this subject. The whole point of the drivel spewn in these articles is to make you weak and fearful, because people who are afraid are very, very easy to control, which is the same reason the church invented a place called Hell.

    @Chris (#27) The giant plastic dumps in the oceans are the exact reason we need to stop wasting time (and energy and money) on imaginary AGW “caused” by CO2 and clean up the real problems in our environment.

    @A-Dub (#22) “The planet that has taken such good care of us”?! The “planet” wipes out massive numbers of people every day in natural disasters across the globe. Takes care of us? REALLY?! Oh, and thanks for admitting you’re okay with the Socialist agenda, most who believe in AGW won’t. Finally, I’d love to know exactly what you eat, because diet is a significant and completely controllable factor in cancer risk.

    I have liberal friends who believe in AGW and cap & trade, yet they consume excessively (own every infomercial gadget imaginable and eat out nearly every night), don’t know what is and isn’t recyclable (toss plastic bags and used paper plates & napkins in the recycle bin), run ceiling fans constantly, leave lights and TVs on, keep a huge house at 70 degrees in the summer and grow grass in the front & back yards (in Phoenix), while us “evil conservatives” haven’t turned the heat on in two years, or the gas fireplace in one, keep the AC at 82 in summer and have an organic garden, compost bin and desert landscape (except for the garden). It’s enough to make me break out the h-word.

  • A-Dub

    @ badnicolez (#42) My version of the planet “taking care” of humanity definitely does involve people getting wiped out when they live somewhere they probably shouldn’t. The weather & natural disasters have been mostly known quantities for a long time.
    Let’s use New Orleans as an example… If you live in a wooden box where there are usually hurricanes and flooding… and that box happens to sit 20 ft. below sea level… between a giant lake and a giant river… You should probably expect your box to get scrubbed off the planet every now and then. If you get killed in the process… Boo Hoo… Why did you live there? Duh.


    I think cap & trade is a scam. (along with many of the warming “studies”)
    I am fairly minimalist… so not too many gadgets…
    But I def. am guilty of eating out too much and keeping my 1300 sq. ft. house @ 72…..
    Organic garden & compost pile are under construction at the moment.

  • chuck

    I’m not worried. god made us in his/her image and he/she is perfect or really stupid. glad i’m older and won’t be around when ya’all finish screwing up the remainder of what is left. the greenies are talking to the choir and money still talks. no population limits, less food, less good water, bad air, bad soil and greed still rules.

  • http://www.egenergy.com/ load shedding

    We’ve broken at least Three of the thresholds, but I take hope (today at least) that global action taken in 1980’s sorted the hole in the ozone layer. Unfortunately too many of the really big problem shave a chance of creating a perfectly terrible storm!

  • in passing

    It is almost impossible to overestimate the unimportance of most things.


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