Controversial Technique Could Prevent Genetic Disease by Making 3-Parent Babies

By Andrew Moseman | April 14, 2010 3:36 pm

embryotransferThe good news: By combining the DNA of parents with genetic material from a third person, scientists might have developed a way for women with rare genetic disorders to have healthy children. The bad news: The ethical complications involved are so messy that it might be a long time coming.

The researchers outline their work in a study in this week’s Nature. On the surface, the idea is fairly simple. They took the nuclei out of the father’s sperm and the mother’s egg, and transplanted them into a donor’s egg cell that had its nucleus removed, but whose mitochondria remained in the cell’s cytoplasm. What you get is the genetics of both parents, plus the mitochondrial DNA of the host. This technique was pioneered in monkeys last summer, but researchers have now done a proof-of-principle study with human cells.

Mitochondria are often called cellular power plants, because they provide most of the cell’s energy. They also contain their own batch of so-called mitochondrial DNA that can, when mutated, give rise to disease. “What we’ve done is like changing the battery on a laptop,” said lead author Professor Doug Turnbull. “The energy supply now works properly, but none of the information on the hard drive has been changed. A child born using this method would have correctly functioning mitochondria, but in every other respect would get all their genetic information from their father and mother” [BBC News].

In the study, which used eggs that had been fertilized abnormally and so were not usable for in-vitro fertilization, Turnbull transferred 80 nuclei and found that 18 continued to grow beyond the eight-cell stage of division, suggesting that the manipulated embryos were viable.

Only 2 percent of mitochondrial DNA transferred over to the new host, which is a big deal. People need about half of their mitochondrial DNA to be mutated to see the sorts of muscle and heart diseases the researchers are worried about. About one in 250 live births see some kind of pathogenic mutation in the mitochondrial DNA, which is passed from mother to child (that’s why scientists often use it to trace back the maternal line). “We’ve proved in principle that this sort of technique can be used to prevent transmission of mitochondrial diseases in humans,” says Turnbull [Nature News].

This Nature paper is just that, though: proof of principle. IVF clinic are not authorized to perform the procedure, and some scientists aren’t as optimistic as Turnbull, saying the procedure may never be approved. The resulting embryo would carry DNA from three parents, and to prove the technique could work in the clinic, scientists would have to try the technique in healthy human embryos — a task that would be “impossible” due to the associated ethical issues [The Scientist], argues researcher Jun-Ichi Hayashi, who wasn’t part of the project.

Related Content:
80beats: DNA Swap Could Make Healthier Babies–With Three Genetic Parents
80beats: Vatican’s New Bioethics Rules Grapple With 21st Century Medical Advances
80beats: Is It Ethical To Pay Women To Donate Eggs For Medical Research?
80beats: Genetics Study: Will IVF Babies Face Health Problems Later in Life?
DISCOVER: Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Baby
DISCOVER: IVM: A Fertility Treatment That Could Mean Pregnancy at Half the Cost

Image: Turnbull et. al./ Nature

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Health & Medicine
  • Dedalus1953

    For some reason, I’m reminded of the “AlienNation” TV series, which posited a life form that required a third “catalyst” parent for actual conception. Talk about population control — every child, by definition, was 100% planned!

  • Jennifer Angela

    I suppose many people are still very frightened by artificial ways of conceiving. (See comment above).

    Question: How high are the costs involved? I tend to think people would be paying a fortune for any kind of artificial conceiving procedure, so this particular new method sounds very expensive to me.

    I think there are reasons why most people still have kids with other people (apart from temporary, long-lasting or enduring love): The costs involved in any other process that leads to the bearing of children are apparently tremendous.

  • Richard D. Stacy

    Since not all nations have our “ethical issues”, I fully expect this technique, using human zygotes, in the not-tto-distant future.

  • http://www.digestionguide.com Delilah Lazzaro

    The Chinese have developed many techniques that can help cure many diseases such as infertility. They also developed the treatment of acupuncture for infertility in both males and females. This technique has proven effective for many and there is evidence to prove it. Acupuncture treatment is more effective if the cause of infertility is ovulation irregular.

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