Paleontologists in California announced this week that fossils excavated in the early 2000s represent four new species of ancient whales. The toothed baleen whales apparently stuck around longer than scientists once thought, and they may hold clues about how and when whales evolved from toothy giants to the baleen-equipped beasts we see today.
The color you see is a perceptual trick of your brain: it is not, no matter what your preschool teacher told you, an inherent physical property of that red apple or green leaf. The truth is that colorful objects just happen to be reflecting wavelengths of light that our brains interpret as specific colors. Do we all see those reflected wavelengths the same way? Because the experience of color vision is impossible to share, we simply don’t know. It’s quite possible that they’re not. In fact, a certain subset of people may well see a hundred times as many colors of the rest of us, but, because of the essentially privateness of color vision, have never realized that they are different.
In a tour through recent research on the perception of color, Natalie Wolchover at Life’s Little Mysteries also turns up another weird insight to add to the long list of strange things about color vision: It could be the blueness of light around twilight that makes us calm, and the yellowness of light around dawn that wakes us up, rather than brightness and darkness:
Why’d the zebra evolve its stripes? Perhaps because stripes seem to keep off horseflies, a new study suggests. There’s good evolutionary reason to escape the ravages of horseflies, at least for horses and their relatives; though flies are just annoying pests from the human perspective, horsefly-bitten horses can grow skinny and have trouble producing milk for their young. And as soon as baby-making is affected by something in the environment, adaptation isn’t far behind.
Other research has shown that horseflies prefer to land on black horses instead of white, which got Gabor Horvath, author of the recent study, thinking about how they’d react to black-and-white specimens, such as zebras. Of course, actual zebras can be hard to experiment on, as The Economist notes in an article on the research:
[Real zebras] insist on moving around and swishing their tails. The team therefore conducted their study using inanimate objects. Some were painted uniformly dark or uniformly light, and some had stripes of various widths. Some were plastic trays filled with salad oil (to trap any insect that landed). Some were glue-covered boards. And some were actual models of zebra. They put these objects in a field infested with horseflies and counted the number of insects they trapped.