When you swallow medication in pill form, it’s hard to control where it goes once it goes into your gut. Unless you equip your pills with tiny magnets, that is.
In the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences this week, Edith Mathiowitz and fellow researchers describe an experiment in which they managed to use the power of magnetism to guide gelatin capsules inside the bodies of rats to their intended destination.
The team used a magnet outside the body to direct the movement of the pills in the small intestine, and it used a computer to track the pills to make sure they were responding to the magnet and to ensure that as little force as possible was used, to avoid causing damage). It also took X-rays to visually track the pills’ location in the rats. The researchers found that even after 12 hours, they could control the pill using just 1/60th of the force that would result in damage. [Los Angeles Times]
Beauty may lie in the eyes of the beholder, but morality, apparently, lies just behind your right ear–in an area scientists call the right temporoparietal junction (RTPJ).
In a study that helps explain the mechanics of morality, neuroscientist Liane Young and her colleagues found that activity in the RTPJ is linked to the types of moral judgments we make–and those judgments can easily be tinkered with using a mere magnet. The researchers found that by delivering magnetic pulses to the RTPJ they were able to impact moral judgments; the magnetic pulses made people less likely to condemn others for attempting but failing to inflict harm [Nature]. The findings were published in journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Says Young: “You think of morality as being a really high-level behavior. To be able to apply a magnetic field to a specific brain region and change people’s moral judgments is really astonishing” [BBC].
Most of us make moral judgments based on not just what the consequences of an action were, but also on what the person’s intentions were. So little children and people with mental illness aren’t judged as harshly for their actions, because their intentions usually aren’t bad. It’s not just a matter of what they did, but how much they understood what they were doing [Nature].
The process of figuring out how much blame to attribute to a person involves the RTPJ. So for this study, scientists used a non-invasive technique called transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to deliver small magnetic pulses to the RTPJ; the pulses temporarily stop brain cells from working normally. Then the researchers asked their subjects questions based on different scenarios while monitoring brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).