The Top Ten Astronomy Images of 2006

By Phil Plait | December 27, 2006 8:55 pm

This past year has been — like most are — up and down for science in general and astronomy in particular. We’ve had stunning successes and heartbreaking setbacks, all of which seem huge when dealing with them at the time. But while the science of astronomy is many things, one of the more subtle yet deeply profound aspects of it is its ability to provide a sense of perspective.

The year’s end is a traditional time to look back and try to gain perspective on the events that occurred during this last circuit of the Sun. Astronomers have been hammering away at the sky, taking images that have profoundly pushed forward our understanding of the Universe. But there’s been more than that, too. They’ve slapped down some bad science — and deleting a negative is indeed a positive. They have also looked at old things in a new way, or new things in a new way, and even some new things in an old way.

With all this in mind, I decided to create my list of Best Astronomy Pictures of 2006. I went through hundreds of images (maybe thousands), checking NASA, APOD, the ESA, BAUT, and a few dozen amateur and professional sites featuring pictures as well. The criteria I kept in mind were beauty, of course, but also scientific value. But both of these could be trumped by the coolness factor. All three are subjective, but what the heck. It’s my blog. So here is what I came up with.

All the images below are hosted at Flickr, and they link to the original sites with higher resolution images (many of the pictures are suitable as wallpapers).

Remember, it’s my list. If you disagree, or you agree but don’t like my ordering, then post a comment! Let’s see what you think should have been here. Maybe I’ll post my runners-up list.

Number 10: The Comet and the Ring

A comet almost had to make this list, since they’re so darn pretty. But there was one this past year that, to me, was extra cool.

Periodic comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann (say that three times fast) was discovered in 1930, and in 1995 it was seen to have broken up into many pieces, most likely due to heating from the Sun. The fragments passed close by the Earth once again in May 2006, where many were easily visible through binoculars (I saw them myself, both through my binocs and my ‘scope).

The comet was big, bright, and passed by many astronomical showpieces… including the famous Ring Nebula, a cloud of gas a light year across ejected by a dying star. When the two were close together, astronomers Paul Martinez & Philip Brents took this spectacular shot:

The Ring is the disk-shaped object in the upper left. Here’s a close-up of it:

A lot of images were taken of this pairing, many showing more detail and with the comet closer to the Ring, but this image speaks to me (in fact, it’s my desktop image at work). The scale is big– a lot of sky is in this shot, and it shows better the contrast in apparent size between the two objects. The comet looks bigger only because it’s so much closer: the Ring is actually about 10 trillion times bigger than the comet! But it’s a tad bit farther away.

Number 9: Painting the Eclipse

Lunar eclipses are fairly common: the Moon passes into the Earth’s shadow roughly once or twice per year on average. Since the Moon is bright and easy to photograph, there are zillions of lunar eclipse pictures available to view.

I thought I’d seen ’em all, but then I saw this one and it floored me:

How cool and wonderful is that? The photographer, Laurent Laveder, set this image up very carefully, making sure that the model was placed just so when the Moon was just starting to be eaten by the circular edge of the Earth’s shadow. The result was this very clever tongue-in-cheek photo. I love it! He has many more images on his site worth checking out, too.

I also wrote about this image in September 2006, and have some more comments there.

Number 8: The Tarantula Writ Large

Our Milky Way Galaxy is a giant spiral collection of stars, gas, and dust. It has many smaller satellite galaxies, and one of them is the Large Magellanic Cloud, or LMC. The LMC is a fuzzy cloud-like object easily visible to the naked eye if you happen to be far enough south of the Equator (I saw it with my own eyes from Canberra, Australia in 2004). Through a telescope, though, the LMC is dominated by a cloud of gas called the Tarantula Nebula, perhaps the most active stellar nursery known.

You’ve probably seen images of the Orion Nebula, right? At 1500 light years away, it’s one of the brightest nebulae in the Milky Way, and is easily visible to the unaided eye. It’s about 30 light years across.

The Tarantula, however, is 160,000 light years away, and yet is still about as bright to the eye as the Orion Nebula. That’s because it’s frakking huge: it’s something like 1700 light years across, fifty times Orion’s size! If the Tarantula were placed at the distance of the Orion nebula, it would fill half the sky.

That’s big.

And so is this next image. The good folks at the European Southern Observatory stitched together several images of the Tarantula to make a mosaic of it that has 256 million pixels. Let’s see your store-bought camera do that!

This is a very, very compressed image of the big one. You could download an insanely monstrous 211 Mb 9000 x 8000 pixel image, but I recommend you go to their zoomable image of it instead, and tour around it. See if you can spot Supernova 1987A, a star which blew up and eventually led to me getting my PhD.

But try not to get lost. It’s a big place.

Number 7: The Face Defaced

Ah, the "Face" on Mars. Where would Richard Hoagland be without it? Shilling some other snake oil, I would guess.

But that’s a dream; people promoting antiscientific garbage always find some way to offload their claptrap. Still, it’s always nice to see them slapped in the face — or the Face — by reality.

This next dose of reality comes courtesy of the European Space Agency, whose Mars Express orbiter took some great high-resolution images of the Cydonia plain on Mars where the face is located. By taking images from different angles and with varying solar illumination, they were able to create a three-dimensional image of the "Face". Perhaps when this image was released Hoagland waited with bated breath to see his ravings confirmed, but that’ll be a long, long wait:

Wow, it’s uncanny, isn’t it? It looks just like a face… if that face was hit repeatedly with high speed projectiles and then covered with lumpy mashed potatoes.

That’s no face… it’s a butte! Yes, I know it’s actually a mesa and not a butte, but let a guy have a joke at someone else’s expense once in a while, OK?

Anyway, the ESA also put together a nifty 3D rotating animation of this, and there is another image taken from a different angle as well. That last one is marginally more face-like, but you have to kinda squint really hard to see it. There is also a cool suite of "Face" images online as well.

Number 6: Robots on Mars

Speaking of Mars, we humans have been sending our machines there for a long time. We still lose the odd one or two (getting to Mars is pretty hard in reality), but in general we’ve been getting better at it, and better at building them as well.

In 2006, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter switched on its HiRISE camera, a phenomenal device capable of taking images of the Red Planet’s surface with half a meter resolution. The pictures returned have been devastatingly amazing, with an incredible scientific return, but sometimes the best pictures have little scientific value, but are still, well, cool!

This is a very small piece of a HiRISE image of Victoria crater on Mars, showing just one part of the rim. And sitting right there on the edge of the crater is a little metal robot named Opportunity. Launched in July 2003, that rover was designed to work for only 90 days, yet it just celebrated its 1000th day on Mars! You might have a hard time seeing it in that image, so here’s a close-up:

There it is! You can see the shadow of the camera mast, and even the tracks of the rover.


Of course, I know in my brain that Opportunity is sitting on Mars, and I have seen all sorts of pictures it’s taken of itself. But somehow, seeing that image makes it really real.

We have robots on Mars! Humans are so smart.

Number 5: The Shuttle, the ISS, and the Sun

I still think it’s funny that most people are unaware that they can see man-made satellites easily with the naked eye. There are even websites that can tell you when a given satellite will pass near you!

The Shuttle, when it’s up, is a pretty bright object, as is the International Space Station. So if you do your homework and plan your observation extremely carefully, you just might make my Top Ten list.

Thierry Legault did just that. Not only did he get a picture of the Shuttle and the ISS, he nailed them while, from his viewing point, they were passing directly in front of the Sun.

This shot is simply stunning, and shows a tremendous effort in planning, timing, and execution. The picture was taken on September 17, 2006, less than an hour after Atlantis had undocked from the ISS. By capturing them in silhouette against the Sun, he could take such a short exposure that any atmospheric distortion was frozen out. This means he got incredible detail in his picture. Take a look at the zoomed image:

You can see different structures on the ISS, and even the vertical tail on the Shuttle! Given that the spacecraft were hundreds of kilometers away from Legault, this picture is truly an amazing feat.

Number 4: Direct Evidence of Dark Matter

This next picture takes a moment to set up, so please forgive me. Plus, I like to lecture sometimes.

As I was perusing images, I realized I didn’t have many that had strong scientific value, which was ironic. But that happens: most scientific images aren’t published because they’re pretty, and pretty pictures sometimes only get in the news because they’re pretty. But there was one image this year that has both beauty and a far deeper scientific significance.

It’s been known for decades that there is a lot of dark stuff out in space, between galaxies. We see its effects on the way galaxies rotate, and the way they behave when they live in clusters (like a city of galaxies). We know that this dark matter is ten times as common as regular matter (like the stuff we are made of: atoms of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and so forth), but it was undetectable, so it was somehow different than normal matter. But how, exactly? No one was sure.

One theory was that dark matter was made of weird particles that could interact with normal matter or other dark matter through gravity, but that was it. In other words, two colliding clouds of dark matter could pass right though each other like ghosts.

But how do you detect something like that? One way is through gravitational lensing. Matter has gravity, and gravity bends light. So if matter, even dark matter, gets between you and some distant object, it can act like a lens, distorting the light from the more distant object. By mapping out those distortions you can "see" dark matter.

So you know what those clever astronomers did? They looked at two colliding clusters of galaxies, which together are called the Bullet Cluster. Galaxy clusters have lots of gas pervading them, like fog in a city. When the clusters collided, the gas from each cluster smacked into the other head-on, grinding them to a halt. But if the dark matter is really this ethereal stuff it would keep on going, undeterred. If this were the case, you’d see the normal matter from the cluster closer to the center, with the dark matter on the outside.

And behind door number two…

Voila! The pinkish light is coming from the normal gas in the cluster. The dark matter reveals itself through its gravitational distortion of more distant objects, which is colored blue here. And look! The dark matter is on the outside, and the normal matter on the inside, just as predicted!

To an astronomer, this is completely convincing evidence that dark matter is real, and that the majority of the Universe is made up of stuff we simply don’t understand. What is it? Beats me, and it beats a lot of other scientists, too.

I love mysteries! That means there’s more to learn.

Number 3: Solar Shock Wave

The next image on my list makes me a little sore. When it was released I was busy and figured it wouldn’t be that interesting. I was completely wrong.

The Sun has a powerful magnetic field. The surface of the Sun is so hot that the atoms of gas have their electrons stripped off (the atoms are ionized), and this in turn makes them susceptible to those magnetic fields. In fact, the field is coupled with the matter: the gas follows the shape of the magnetic field lines, and as the gas moves the field lines also follows the gas. As the gas churns and boils on the surface, the field lines get all tangled up. A lot of energy gets squeezed in a tight space, and when that happens the magnetic field lines can suddenly and catastrophically reconnect, releasing vast amounts of energy in a solar flare.

On December 6, 2006, a big flare detonated on the Sun. The release of energy screamed outward over the surface, expanding in a circle. Astronomers at the National Solar Observatory caught this expanding shock wave in the act:

The fuzzy white ring is the expanding wave. The scale here is numbing: the Sun is 1.7 million kilometers across, so this ring was hundreds of thousands of kilometers in diameter. Heck, just the width of the ring is far larger than the Earth!

So why is this one of my top picks for 2006? After all, the still image doesn’t look like much! Ah, but the astronomers at NSO strung together a series of images into a dynamite animation. It’s totally cool. I couldn’t find the total energy released in this flare, but a typical big flare might blow off 1025 Joules… which is 10% of the total energy emitted by the Sun every second.

Still not sure how much that is? Think of it this way: a big hydrogen bomb might have a yield of about 1016 Joules, so this flare was the equivalent of one billion hydrogen bombs.


See why I picked this as number 3?

Number 2: Evidence of Water on Mars

Mars figured prominently in the headlines this year, and so it does here as well. This third image of the fourth rock from the Sun is my number two pick because it shows direct evidence for what might be the biggest discovery on Mars yet: the presence of recent water activity on the surface!

We know that there’s water on Mars, but it’s frozen. The polar caps have water ice, for example. And we see lots of evidence that water flowed billions of years ago on the surface too: there are gullies, river beds, and flow patterns of erosion. But if there’s any water near the surface, it must be frozen beneath it, like a permafrost.

But we’re humans, and we like our water to be liquid. Could there be any on the surface?

Recent pictures from the Mars Global Surveyor indicate that there is. It doesn’t last long, and there’s maybe not a huge amount of it, but it’s there.

The image on the laft was taken in August 1999, and the one on the right in September 2006. The difference is obvious: the later image shows a gully filled with a lighter-toned material that was not in the earlier one (in fact, it was later seen on images from Febraury 2004). Something seeped out from below the surface and deposited that material during the intervening time. The evidence that it was water is indirect, but very compelling. Dry dust flows are generally darker, and the flow shape indicates the medium was a liquid like water.

If it was water, then there was only enough in that flow to fill a few Olympic sized swimming pools. Not enough to keep a colony drinking, but then again I wouldn’t have wanted to be standing downstream when it erupted from the ground. It’s a fine start.

Again, while this isn’t rock-solid proof of recent water activity on the surface of Mars, it’s the simplest explanation, and that is extremely exciting.

And the Number One Astronomy Picture of 2006 is…


What else could it possibly have been?

This image has it all. It’s of a familiar object, seen in an unfamiliar way: back-lit by the Sun, a view impossible from Earth. It shows the whole planet, a rarity from space missions. The image shows very faint details and has very high resolution, a must.

But there is sheer artistry at work here. The colors, the lighting… I love the sun splash in the lower left limb of the planet, and the fans of ethereal mistiness shooting out from the rings. The shading on the planet itself is lovely, while the rings provide a geometric symmetry that is very appealing to the eye.

All this is necessary for the image to be the best, and together they may even be sufficient. But like all true winners, it has that extra addition, the over-the-top detail that pushes it into "all-time" status:

That dot in the center of the image is the Earth. It’s us. Cassini was nearly one billion miles from us when it took this image, orbiting a giant ball of gas as exotic and alien as any place we can imagine. From such a terribly removed location, the entire Earth is reduced to a single point of light, just one among an anonymous many as seen from our robotic proxy as our generation, for the first time in all of history, seeks out our neighborhood and takes a really good look.

That’s why this is the best astronomy image of 2006. And it’s one of the best of all time.

Still and all, a year is a long time. In 2007 we’ll see more astronomy missions launched into orbit, more telescopes built, more people than ever perusing the images from Mars, from Saturn, and from the depths of space. What portraits of the Universe will make the list next year?


Comments (258)

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  1. Tom Epps

    After the excitement and acrimony of the on-going debate between god and science (last post) I found this to be a real breath of fresh air! These really are wonderful images; thanks for sharing them.

    Of course, NOW I have to clear away 211 mb of memory for a SERIOUS download…

    Tom Epps
    USNS Arctic
    Persian Gulf

  2. George

    A delightful Top Ten of beautiful and powerful images. I know the new year’s resolutions may be even grander. :)

  3. That last image, the little blue speck from the rings of Saturn – needs only one word. Awesome. My son might add the word, Dude, to the end.

    Awesome, dude!


  4. Kyle_Carm

    I can buy those as being a good top 10. I might have had a couple different ones but they match my personal 10 pretty close. (Actually I’m not sure some of my different ones came from 2006 and I just “discovered” them this year so they might be d/q’d)

  5. John Phillips

    The Saturn photo is very definitely my favourite astronomy photo and is in my list of my all time favourite photo irrespective of subject matter. It is simply stunningly, breathtakingly beautiful and just about any other adjective you care to throw at it and I never grow tired of looking at it.


  6. Pic 5 is awesome. But it’s always nice to check out our robots on Mars. I hope they like music.

    The Saturn Photo strikes as the most impressive one because it shows incredible beauty that was, for eons, inaccessible for human eyes. What other hidden masterpieces will be revealed by space exploration?

  7. Zachary Kessin

    Really nice set of photos. As a begining astro-photographer I enjoy the fact that you mixed some amature done shots into the mix.

  8. Thanks!

    I tried to get some from space, some from the ground, some pro, some not. My original list was about 40 images, and there are five more I dithered about. I’ll probably set up another blog entry about those.

  9. Well, found myself my new PC wallpaper, I wish the Tarantula Nebula was as close as the Orion Nebula, would be a beautiful sight in the night time sky (don’t get to see much due to the city lights, but i bet they wouldn’t be able to blank that out)

  10. Chris Drost

    There’s a surprising amount of touch-up work that you can do on that Saturn image, if you know what you’re about. It needs some brightness-contrast work, a bit of a color saturation hike, and to be made less grainy — but *then*, it truly looks perfect.

  11. skeptigirl

    This is the stuff that sustains my love of astronomy. Wow! The actual visualization of the dark matter is my number one image.

    You did a really nice job picking out these images. The far side of Saturn is one really great image. I can see why it would be number one to many people. All the Mars images are great, keep ’em coming. Now we need to find extraterrestrial organisms somewhere.

    But the one that I’m dwelling on is that visualization of matter we have suspected but can’t detect optically or with other electromagnetic detection instruments. And there it is: a false color gravity image. Well, I’m off to read more about the latest on this stuff.

  12. zachary

    This #1 Saturn photo is awesome, but I remember a post from this blog, where you posted a closeup photo of Saturn from a different angle – with clouds, and everything. That is awesome too!

  13. Zachary Kessin

    There are so many to choose from.
    I’ve decided that as a sky photographer I am not going to try to do the traditional DSO shots, hubble etc will always do that better than I. Instead I am trying to do more widefield shots of large parts of the sky. Right now I am working with a 1950’s model Medium format film camera (which is just a lot of fun to play with) and at some point I am going to go to 4×5 sheet film in a custom astrograph. I have it designed, now I need to find the time and money to build it. Not to mention find the right lens for it.

  14. I touched up the Saturn image and resized it to 1280×1024 — less pixeliness, more vibrant colors. For anybody who wants it, just click my name and it’ll be downloadable.

  15. Kaptain K

    I’m not about to argue with your choices or their order. I’m too busy trying not to drool! Good job BA!!!

  16. valhar2000

    Perhaps you may address this in a future post: How do astronomers know that dark matter is different form other matter? Why are they so sure that dark matter is not, in fact, matter that is dark? For example, planets, asteroids, very diffuse but very large nebulae of hydrogen gas, and in general just objects that are not bright and large enough to be seen, but can have a large effect due to their number?

  17. George

    BA – “My original list was about 40 images, and there are five more I dithered about. I’ll probably set up another blog entry about those.”

    Great!!! I’d love your top 25, soon, hopefully. But, I can wait till the end of the year (just not till Christmas). /wink

  18. Les Dorr, Jr

    Absolutely right about the #1 image, Phil. I adopted it as my background literally the moment it appeared on the web, and it’s been there ever since.

    Now, when we get the first shot of an Earthlike exo-planet….

  19. The barber of civility

    Maybe you should have written, “If that’s a face, it’s a butte!” (It IS pronounced like “beaut”, right?)

  20. Trebuchet

    Lovely, although I guess I’d have liked to see an image FROM the rovers as well.

    I do have a question/nitpick however. Why do you say “Yes, I know it’s actually a mesa and not a butte….”? To me, a mesa (which after all means “table” in Spanish) should have a flat top. The “face” does not. Of course where I grew up (Montana) we tended to call things with flat tops “buttes”. All very confusing!

    Anyway, I really enjoyed the pics and will have to download some when I get back to work and have a “real” internet connection!

  21. I’d forgotten about the image of Earth in the Saturn image, so I’ll agree with the assessment that that’s the best one! But I really feel a kinship with the Rover picture, too. Any image that “puts us in our place” is something that stretches my imagination to that place.

    The image of Earth from Saturn reminds me of the Sagan quote at:

    All the people we know about, all the history, all the wars — happened on that dot, which pales in significance when we begin to see the larger picture of where we are and how insignificant we are, physically, in the Universe at large.

    And yet, our existence accounts for something because “we” took that picture. We surpassed our own imaginations, with programs like Starry Night, by seeing what the REAL image would be from that exact angle.

    That’s why the Rover picture on Mars is significant to me. It shows that “we” are there — insignificant again on the scale of how large Mars is or even how large that crater is. But our little Rover is sitting there, attesting to the idea that the human spirit and human curiosity have transcended our physical world to work on another physical world.

    Whatever happens to humanity, what with our propensity towards killing each other or changing our climate, those Rovers or humanity’s footprints on the Moon, or the Voyagers traveling to the stars fill me with great pride at our positive accomplishments so far. We’ve already made a positive difference to our Universe, because through our inquisitiveness and undaunting desire to know “the real story”, we’ve allowed the Universe to learn about itself, through our eyes.

  22. ruidh

    valhar2000:How do astronomers know that dark matter is different form other matter?

    20 years ago, there were two cometing theories about dark matter. MaCHOs and WIMPs: Massive Cosmic Halo Objects or Weakly Interacting Massive Particles. MaCHOs would be ordinary matter that just happens to be dark. But observations like the one pictured above tend to rule out the MaCHOs. The point of the observcation is that the dark matter has passed through and not been affected other than gravatationally. It hasn’t interacted with the normal matter passing by. The normal matter, OTOH, has clumped together more through interactions. It is observations like this that tend to support the “exotic matter” explanations and rule out ordinary but unobserved matter.

    Speaking of the sun… I’ve always wondered about where the electrons which have been stripped from the plasma in the sun go. Are they part of the “soup” or are they ejected in the solar wind? If they remain behind, they must make some huge surrents in the massive magnetic field. Do they combine with protons making a neutron and a nutrino (which escapes) so that there are relatively more neutrons than protons than the relative amounts of hydrogen and helium would lead you to expect?

  23. Astrogirl

    Very nice, Phil. That beautiful list made coming back to work today not so bad! I agree with the Saturn picture as being the best, and the rest of your ordering of the rest. Except if it was me, I would have made the dark matter picture the second best one. That having been said, they are all drool worthy and I tip my hat to you on your choices!

  24. John Schroeder

    When did Cassini take the picture of the earth and moon in front of the sun?

  25. Every one is overwhelmingly striking, Dr. BA. Wonderful choices.

  26. Great post Phil, all 10 inspire awe. Thanks for sharing.

  27. ruidh: If 0.084 C of electrical charge leaves the sun, then the electrostatic force on the outgoing electrons would already equal the massive gravitational force that the Sun exerts on them. (Google Calculator link above.) Wikipedia says that the latter is a surface acceleration of 28 g’s. I think it’s safe to say that the Sun keeps most of its electrons, and they just fly around the plasma most of the time.

  28. TJ McDermott

    Y’all are focusing on that little blue dot in the left quadrant, but did you see the little black object (sorta domino-shaped, isn’t it) in the lower right?

    OK, so I’m wishing a little bit that Clarke got it exactly right.

    BA, if you keep throwing frakkings into your posts, we’re going to know exactly what you’ve been doing Friday nights. Do you mix some frellings in with the frakkings?

  29. On a more humorous note, I’d like to name this for the worst Bad Astronomy photo of 2006:

    And, Bad Astronomer, please show the other 30 if you have the time.

  30. Folks, if you liked this blog entry, please Digg it! I spent a lot of time on it, and I’d like to see it get as wide an audience as possible.

    Digg is a social network of online articles, and it does have a lot of good links, so you should check it out anyway.

    Oh– I also blogged about this on The Huffington Post, with a slightly different take.

  31. Sean

    Thanks! This made my end-of-the-year!!!

  32. Excellent Images…

    I think my favorite is definitely The Saturn one along with Sun, Shuttle & ISS and the Rover on Mars…

  33. Pat

    I am wowed by your number one choice. Thanks Phil Plait. It surely does put things into perspective.

  34. Damien McKenna

    I was looking at the picture of Saturn and your description while listening to “It’s Beginning to Get to Me” by Snow Patrol when I overheard a line talking about Saturn’s rings… creepy! Simply awesome lineup, and it is utterly mindblowing how amazing, wonderful and awesome the universe truly is! (faints in awe)

  35. Ha! thanks, now I have a great reply for those stupid “Look at these” pictures some of my friends mail me. Going for the big DL and put it on the living room
    Tanks Mon!

  36. Jobst Schmalenbach


    Fair Dinkum!

    Saturn has always been my favorite planet, #1 shows why.

    Thanks Phil.

  37. Dorothy Gale

    How do we know it’s water and not some other fluid? Plus, I thought the Martian icecaps were made of CO2. Great post, otherwise.

  38. Dorothy, the link from that picture has more info on why they think it’s water and not some sort of liquid CO2. I talk about it a little in my original post about the picture, too (which is also linked from that part of this post).

  39. CR

    Can’t wait to see the rest of the “runners up” that didn’t make the top 10! (Sorry if this is a double or triple post; my comments have not been showing up lately, to my knowledge.)

  40. I remember the public excitement about the Apollo Program during the sixties. We would also would wait for what the Top 10 songs would be at the end of the year on the Billboard Music Charts.

    Now-a-days I cannot even think of any songs that stick in my brain. Those Top 10 astronomical pictures for 2006 do haunt the brain (in a good way) for sure.

    NASA just might be winning the public relations war with out even knowing it.

    Hmmm……..Songs: Telstar, Apollo 100…….. Blinded by Science….

    Any more Space Songs People?

  41. Your blog entry makes it to the best link of 2006

  42. Anyone know if there’s a company doing prints of any of these? I’d love a large framed image of the Saturn pic.

  43. Always a pleasure to read your posts, Phil. I use APOD as a class period opener and your top 10 list will be a great way to start the new year! Have a great end of the current orbital period!

  44. Sasquatch

    Richard Hoagland is a non-committal kind of guy. No degree, no marriage, no children, changes topics (just like Ed Dames).

    If he has the goods, he needs to expose them soon. He is not getting any younger…

  45. Chris, there are companies online that will do that. Try Vistaprint.

  46. Randall Smock

    Great list, the Saturn picture is awesome, am I also correct in noticing orion in the upper left hand corner between the reddish orange plumes? if so that just adds another reason to love this shot.

  47. Kristine

    I love the images you’ve picked but news-wise you really ought to have included something about Pluto. To the general public that was *the* news this year. Plus New Horizons launched to Pluto this year.

  48. Mark Adler

    To Chris Drost: very nice job on the Saturn image. Can you make an unshrunk version available? I have a larger screen. (2560 x 1600 — yes, I know the original is only about 1300 high, but with a little interpolation I can fill it out.) Thanks!

  49. Gaurav

    Wow. That’s an amazing collection of images. Thanks so much for putting them together!

  50. Astounding collection. Thank you for this. I completely missed the Tarantula one, and now i know where my free time today will be spent!

  51. Mattyjim2

    This stuff is wonderful to see. I’m on the road to becoming a professional astronomer, and it is keeping in touch with the sheer awe and beauty that the universe has to offer that makes it so worthwhile. Many thanks for the collection and keep up the good work!

  52. My Very large Image Viewer for Windows ( will open the 211 Mb image instantly on limited memory/CPU machines.

    Panning is immediate, Zooming would require converting the format to a specific
    TIF one. Please ask for this converted image.

  53. Arun

    Simply Awesome ..

  54. Excellent choices Phil! I particularly loved the Saturn shot as #1, and hadn’t seen it from that perspective before. AMAZING!

    One small note: In your number 2 choice, you mention in the text that the second image on Mars was taken in September 2006, but the image’s actual date shows September 2005…

    Love the site, and send Apollo skeptics who I met during my nightly star tours, here all the time. Fabulous resource for information!

  55. Siva

    Excellent site… Thanks for the collections.

  56. I can never get over the apparent beauty of the universe.

  57. drk

    Good work here – nice roundup – well done

  58. BH Jodo Kast

    Great work!

    The comments are hilarious. apparent beauty?

    These images are “heavenly”.

  59. Dude, I came here from the /. link, great round up. Some of these pictures really brought a lump to my throat.

  60. Am happily sending to all on my list. Been using computers since 1950 at White Sands Proving Ground N.M. Your computer based pioneer work here greatly amplifies human intelligence/understanding on a global scale!

  61. Knute

    great work.. thanks for expanding my universe

  62. slang

    Great choice, Phil. Thanks for collecting them in one post, great for showing to people who are less interested in astronomy.. There are guaranteed a couple of pics in there to wow anyone.

  63. none

    Your Hoagland comments are unjustified, moron.

    Considering that moving water was on Mars as little as a few years ago.

    The pics, kind of boring.

  64. Ismael Jones

    This is great!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Nice site!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  65. George

    Per the BA…”Folks, if you liked this blog entry, please Digg it! I spent a lot of time on it, and I’d like to see it get as wide an audience as possible.”

    Dang proud to do the dig, too. :)

  66. Voislav

    For those who are interested this is the original image, I think it has a certain elegance lacking in the touched up image.

  67. Steve Bratt

    Something no-one seemed to mention about the Saturn image (Not that I read all the posts) is the lighting of the planets surface. Since the sun is behind the image, the lighting of the surface is actually comming from refraction of light through the rings! That is why the lighting is brighter on the sides and almost non-existent on the top and bottom. Pretty Cool!

  68. dave

    “Wow, it’s uncanny, isn’t it? It looks just like a face… if that face was hit repeatedly with high speed projectiles and then covered with lumpy mashed potatoes.”

    Or subjected to several million years of wind and water and hit every now and then by meteorites.

    The Sphinx doesn’t have much of a face either…

  69. These are simply amazing. Thanks for putting this together for all of us to enjoy!

  70. DMZ

    Looks like you’ve been posted up on Slashdot… Any problems with the server going down? (Doesn’t appear that way…)

  71. Dale

    Wow. What an amazing collection of pictures! I’ve never been to this site before but it’s bookmarked now!

  72. Craig Bustrin

    The image of Saturn is absolutely gorgeous. Then the detail of Earth as a pinpoint of light shining faintly through the rings… and suddenly, I was in tears.

    Astronomical catharsis, indeed!

    Can’t thank you enough…

  73. Dujke

    Direct Evidence of Dark Matter and the super-sized one are my favorite!

    Bad Astronomer dude, this is very good stuff you have here.

  74. James

    Thank you – another story on the site that led me here talks about how space exploration does not interest young people – how sad that is when there is such astonishing beauty and technical achievement represented in the images you have selected for us.

  75. Patrick Lowry


    I kept waiting, as I looked at stunning image after stunning image, for the Saturn image. Surely, I thought, he can’t have missed it, and, suddenly, IT WAS THERE!! Great job.

  76. KilgoreTrout

    I heard mentioned in reference to the dark matter image on NPR’s Talk of the Nation Science Friday this afternoon. Sure, it was by one of the callers, but, hey, still pretty good.

  77. Absolutely stunning… I am still in awe at some of these. I keep coming back over and over and over to view them again!


    Thank you for the informative tour of the universe as well!!

  78. Atul

    simply breathtaking!! the dark matter and the saturn would be my runner-up and winner!!

  79. Wow. Just… wow. It’s humbling to see just how small a part of the universe we are, both as a people and as a planet, and how much spectacle and glory there is outside of our “mostly harmless” blue-green sphere of influence.

    This is why I’m a firm believer in the power of science–it has given us so much information on our stellar neighbours, interstellar regions, a view to the past (both recent and far-flung), and a glimpse into how it may all have started.

    Simply awesome.

  80. Sheila

    You’ve just expanded my universe! Saturn was the best! Thank you!

  81. Melusine

    This is a great collection of 2006 photos, but I would have put the Mars picture at #1 or #2 for the same reason Louis Friedman said in an email I got today from The Planetary Society. Here was a picture of something we put on Mars that’s also taking pictures of Mars at ground level – it’s like, “Yes! We have a presence on another planet!” That is just such a cool concept. I’m so proud of those rovers.

    But I have a softspot for the sublime Cassini images, so I can’t argue with that choice of #1. There really are not any disappointing Cassini images (at least that we see).

    For me, a favorite photo of 2006 was Hubble’s close-up of the Pinwheel Galaxy. I also liked Hinode’s Mercury transit photo, and then Greg Piepol put it in 3-D, which was on APOD.

  82. Roger

    Wonderful to see such inspiring images but why aren’t they available to the public domain…We pay the taxes that make this all possible?

  83. Melusine

    Roger Says:

    Wonderful to see such inspiring images but why aren’t they available to the public domain…We pay the taxes that make this all possible?

    I’m wondering what you mean: Except for those photos taken by individuals, not agencies, they are all accessible to the public domain – you can download them to your heart’s content. Now, if you want prints, say from Hubble, you have to pay for those, naturally. I’ve seen all of these photos online, and so can you. :-)

  84. Eihab SEDRA

    proof of eternity and how small humans are…
    it is time to believe in God the Almighty.. isn’t HIM who created all this?
    Imagine the beauty of Heaven..

  85. Gerry

    Thoughtful and certainly thought-provoking stuff. The pictures are gorgeous, and as for them being your rather arbitrary choices, so what? As you say, it’s your site, and you know what you’re talking about, so that’s a given.

    Thank you so much for posting the images, with accompanying text. Lecture away! You obviously know whereof you speak, and you do it in an engaging, personable manner. People who popularize science do us all a huge favour.

    I’m curious… why did you go for such a self-deprecating handle for your site? There’s nothing the least bit bad about it! All the best, GJ

  86. Great collection! The Atlantis/ISS transit, the MRO picture of Opportunity, and of course the nocturnal Saturn are my favorites!

  87. Portela

    congratulations Phil, these pictures are really fantastics, Number 3: Solar Shock Wave and Number 8: The Tarantula Writ Large are glorious and number Number 9: Painting the Eclipse is verry funny.

  88. That picture of Saturn is truly awe-inspiring! As a graphic designer, if it didn’t know it was a photo, I’d have said it was rendered CGI… which leads me to my question: Looking at the rings where they pass between the planet and the camera, I noticed a few anomalies:

    1) The dark band in the ring, if I remember my astronomy aright, is the Cassini Division, a region where there is less matter in the rings because it has been perturbed out of that orbit by the shepherd moons. Why then does the Cassini Division obscure the view of the planet considerably while the denser portions of the rings (which you would expect to obscure the planet more) do not?

    2) Around the planet’s equator is a dark band and below that band the bottom (south?) hemisphere is noticeably brighter than the top one. The bright portion does not line up with the ring matter (as one would expect for the ring matter to be obscuring the front of the planet) so it seems that the brightness of the bottom hemisphere may be the effect of refraction or reflection off the rings? What actually causes this effect?

    3) The lighter parts of the ring system appear to vanish completely when crossing the limb of the planet – as though the ring system were entirely on the far side of the planet (except for the Cassini Division, which makes the shot look rather Escheresque). Why is this?

    4) Finally, I can see a “notch” in the outer edge of the wide, light part of the ring system, which I assume is caused by the planet’s shadow casting across the rings. Yet this shadow does not seem to affect the faint outermost ring. While I realise that the outer ring may be beyond the shadow, it appears that the “notch” is a widening shadow that one could expect to therefore encompass the outer ring as well. Why is this outer ring not thus obscured, or is there a reason why the shadow appears to be widening over the inner rings but not over the outer one?

    All of this adds up to make the picture look “faked” (even though I’m sure it isn’t – don’t worry, I’m no HB! :), so it would be interesting to be enlightened about the strange conditions in outer space that defy common sense and make the Universe such a weird and wonderful place!

  89. Patrick

    Number 5: The Shuttle, the ISS, and the Sun

    Surely that is ET falling off of Henry’s bike!

  90. Beautiful description, and wonderful material to work with. Giving credit to Dr. Plait is a pleasure, and being able to pass this view (easily) to all my friends is possible using this sharing site. Thank you, Dr. Plait, for all you do!

  91. Waz

    This is great collection, mashalla. Thanks for sharing folks .. the good is always there.

  92. Supernova

    Cool, you got a link from Edward Tufte too (one of my idols!):

    Ask E. T.: Top 10 Astronomical Images

  93. futoque

    Ever since I first saw the picture of Saturn I have wanted to hang it on my wall. Unfortunately I have not been able to find it. Is there anyone here who could point me in the right direction?

  94. That’s an amazing collection of images. I like the Saturn pic it’s awesome.
    Thanks for sharing it.

  95. Brian Waiting

    Worth the effort. Loved Saturn & the Solar eclipse. Dark matter… oh hum, but the rest, i liked. Hadn’t heard of the Tarantula thingy, as i’m not big on Astronomy. It’s one topiv that won’t stop growing. The more we learn, the more we realize what we don’t know.

  96. Ecenaz Erman

    It is gorgeous,amazing. I want to be an astronot

  97. Alicia

    Amazing. Thank you for putting these together. Now off to choose a wallpaper!

  98. Brad

    The best pic of the year……..Now I’m by no means an astronomer, but I have a question I’m sure is easy to the astronomer enthusiast, but myself being a passive observer of astronomy…….
    If that picture of jupiter is lit from behind by the sun (a view not possible on earth)….where is the light coming from on earth then? Because spatially looking at the picture, How could the earth be a concentric circle of light (presumably lit from the front then) and have Jupiter lit from behind. To me this could only happen if the sun were between the two bodies, thus not allowing to see one of them from any given angle. Thanks.

  99. I’m an infrequent visitor. Came to this article after Bill ( posted a link to it from one of his readers. I snagged a few images and posted some of the text on my site, along with a link (prior to any snagged content) to this article. Didn’t want to steal your bandwidth to show the images, and felt I needed to provide enough context to give my readers (only a few dozen a day, unfortunately) enough reason to come read the full thing. Hope I didn’t take to much – let me know if I should pare it down.

    Awesome list and images, BTW.


  100. Jan

    Brad, two points:

    1) It’s not Jupiter, it’s Saturn. Didn’t you read the text?

    2) The Sun is not big enough to block the view of the Earth, even if we’re seeing the sunny side of Earth. If it was, we wouldn’t be seeing Earth as a bright dot, but rather as a black dot crossing the Sun’s surface (like the Mercur and Venus passages). Also, by your logic, we shouldn’t be seeing Venus or Mercur at all.

  101. Dave Miles

    An excellent selection. Many thanks.

    It was probably deliberate on your part, but I note you refer to “normal” and “regular” matter when referring to our matter. Surely it’s the dark matter that should be so described, as it is far more common.

  102. AOZacher

    No way anyone should be able to argue about your pick (tho all were good)for the number #1 pic. I found myself out in space, looking back at my home planet. I felt an internal shiver…

  103. Dave Waalkes

    Thanks, Phil, for posting these images along with the descriptive text; very rewarding. The movie clip of the solar tsunami (image no. 3) is a close second to the image of Saturn for me. It is thrilling to contemplate the sheer scales involved! I would like to know the velocity of the expanding wave- I guess I could estimate it because the time hacks are there but I’m too lazy/it’s too early in the morning to do the math… and can they determine the vertical displacement in the envelope during the transient?
    (2) The Chandra webpage linked to image no. 4 indicates that it is an x-ray image. The normal matter collision results in x-rays that appear reddish pink in the image. What is generating the x-rays in this case, Bremsstrahlung? Then, why does the background light that is being lensed by the dark matter appear blue in this image? Does this imply that it comprises higher-energy x-rays than those emitted by the colliding normal matter? If so, what is generating THOSE x-rays? -Dave Waalkes

  104. Jay Collins

    Great site, except… most of the text is black on a navy ground, which makes it almost unreadable. At least that’s how it is on a Mac, with various browsers.

  105. Wow, i didnt know that earth’s part of the shot of Saturn. Really cool.. Thanks for sharing the photos!

  106. Lewis Jones

    I would love to read all of your commentaries on the pictures. Perhaps you would allow me to do that. This would involve ditching the dark blue background that wipes out the black text and blue links.

  107. Lenny

    Nice to see one other person point out the truth of who is responsible for all this wonder. Scientists get far too arrogant about their little acheivements when they pale compared with the glory of God’s creation.

    Everything that is created requires an intelligent creator and the universe is no exception. All the complexity of the universe can’t have come from random chance, only a supreme being could have made it, one who deserves our worship.

    When we look upon these images we should be in awe of the beauty of the universe, but we should fall down on our knees and praise the Lord for creating them and putting us among them.

    Science isn’t enough, only Jesus can save you and give you eternal life.

  108. The pictures that are being shown are so cool.I love astronamy. I hope to be an astronamer when I get a little older.My favorite planet is Jupitor and favorite constilation is Orion’s Belt because it looks like other stars and people can’t tell which is Orion’s belt from other constellations and stars.I can tell which is which easly.My other favorite planet is Saturn and my other favorite constillation is Gemini.I like the Gemini because my Zodiac sighn is the Gemini. I wonder if other people have favorite planets and constillations.I also wonder if they know what there zodiac sighn is.Maybe everyone does and knows.

  109. michael autin

    GREAT images, even the “creatorist” photo of “Painting a solar eclipse”.
    BUT I must contest the “dark Matter” image as not perhaps being “factual” it might be “True” (IE an interpretation of the photo) but there is no mathematical information about spectroscopy and the analytical breakdown. I have seen images at NASA ames which were labeled incorrect about marine biology and astrophysics, and given that you have stated that dark matter IS NOT chemical (ie standard elements— but not have rules OUT aubatomic “pieces” as well as “light and Gravity waves”) I understand you have more direct access and a larger time of day in such matters, but as a physics student myself I always have an eye for Hoaxes— OR unconsentual experiments involving MY perception by political students OR scientists— I would expect Issac Asimov and Carl Sagan and You, to correct my technical inadequacies, BUT I have met a PHD or two who might like to “Lord over me” and so not give ANY foundation or support to at LEAST the basics of science and for that I always have the urge to punch such PHD’s and shout what an arrogant SOB they are and compare them to steroid athletes, or power mad politicians. BUT alas I mostly am a “gentle reader” but boy my athletic side gets its dander up, not to mention my Democracy side as well. (AND professional courtesy…. If I can’t talk baby talk to science people and BUILD my knowledge or “anchor” my education what does that say about todays science people? The science people of old would not DREAM of misleading me in the area of natural science…. EVER!.

    Thanks again…
    OH PS The water trickle on MARS is also suspect, BUT more plausable! Of course now I am rushing to my chemistry, and phsyics tomes to get temperature of other liquid compounds and elementals to see what range of liquids MARS could Support! Now that is food for thought to us science types. May the Spaghetti Monster hover with you always.

  110. Joe Johnson
  111. Anon

    This may be a bit late, but I would like to know something regarding Picture 4, the dark matter evidence from collision. How did the astronomers know that the blue areas have already passed through each other, and thus constitute dark matter? To my untrained eye, it could simply be the start of a collision.

    If the astronomers took several time-spanning images and could conclude that the blue clouds are moving apart, how would they know even then that it’s composed of dark matter? Perhaps it simply consists of matter that simply didn’t collide (one wouldn’t expect every single piece of matter to collide). It would be more convincing if the blue cloud subsequently interacted with another cloud without the development of the pink area, but I can certainly understand that this isn’t something one can arrange to happen at one’s convenience. Any comments? Apologies if the question is rather stupid, but for now, I’m kind of in the dark.

  112. Rico


    Love the pictures. Miss you over on the SDMB.

    Keep up the fantastic work. Happy New Year!

  113. julie

    oooh, Nice. Good bloggin’, I must say. I like mucho.


  114. Jeff Wright

    Thanks to Dr. Douglas “Everett” DeSalles and “Radio Parallax”-KDVS/90.3 fm-UC Davis-Cal. for the interview, and exposing me to these wonderful pictures!!!

  115. About Shock Wave on the Sun- see my page
    where the Van der Meer prediction of the Sun explosion is cited

  116. Dan Magraw

    Is there a way we can order hard copies of these photos?

  117. Ray Riley

    What great pictures and images. Thanks for the hard work. The Riley family

  118. this is good and nice cooooooooooooool

  119. sassybrat

    PLEASE read Job 26:7…..

  120. JONBOY

    There were many great pictures taken by Spitzer,I am
    suprised you did not include one of them.
    Spitzer Space Telescope

  121. BADEA

    i don’t have a website.sorry/……..

  122. Jacqui

    There are good things to look at on here
    it is really carry.

  123. wyvernone

    Very nice image.

    Is the Earth dot in the Saturn image a touch-up? The dot looks too big, even bigger than any of Saturn’s moons.

    I wonder on which side of the Sun the planet Earth was in this image? If it was on the far side of the Sun, then it’ll be reflecting the light back to Cassini, but then the dot looks too big to be on the far side.

    If it was on the same side of the sun as Saturn when Cassini took the picture, then it shouldn’t be a bright dot, a should be at most a half-earth, or even a dark crescent.

    I wonder if someone did a touch-up in this image….

  124. Chuck Dann

    A beautiful collection. Saturn and the Earth! How insignificant the Earth. When man has poisoned this earth and man has become extinct, the universe will little note nor long remember what happened here. But the universe will go on forever and be beautiful, awe inspiring, and in a word….cool!

  125. I’d like to add that at the Beyond Belief meeting in November 2006, Carolyn Porco, leader of the Cassini Science Imaging Team, gave a wonderful presentation of that mission, the findings (especially Enceladus’ geysers) and the background of this wonderful Saturn image with Earth in it (just click on my name above and search for “Porco”).

    Also watch Dawkins’, Druyan’s and Tyson’s talks, they’re really good.

  126. rob

    This is my first time visiting this site it was a very good experince. I’m so glad I came here now I can show my neice & nephew these pics. I’m shore they will enjoy them as much as I did. Thanks I didn’t know that outer space was so beauitful.

  127. I’m not sure if anyone else has pointed this out, but I noticed the “water on mars” picture pair are stereoscopic. They were taken at slightly different vantage points, and if you go cross-eyed it becomes a 3D picture! :)

  128. DiskoVilante

    Thanks Phil for collecting these images in one place. They are truly beautiful.

  129. Here you have my top in case you’re interested

  130. Ravi

    This site is just marvellous.
    Congratulations Phil !
    Best Regards,

  131. Catalina

    hola, me encantaron las imagenes y me interesaria ver muchas mas.
    Tambien me gustaria ver como estan los planetas desde 1999 hasta el 2007.
    Muchas gracias.

  132. These are some great images! I am sure that astronomical photography will be gaining more popularity as more amd more people are paying for land on the moon and mars. It is nice to just kind of look around out there. Thank you for posting your picks. They are all in contention for top ten in my book!

  133. very strange pictures, but very cool.

  134. Absolutely stunning photos.
    We were so self important – what i can always remember is the tv pictures beamed back from the moon – and the earth as a small blue and white swirling globe just suspended in the view – like a tiny marble .
    And yet its our earth , our land , our home.
    Puts it all in a great perspective.

  135. djenyce agrees with most of the y’all out there… keep picturing it up! part-time astronomer full time dj…. djenyce-peaceout

  136. awesome page! and keep looking to the sky..

  137. There are good pictures to look at on this web site
    it is really cool

  138. EUGENIO
  139. bill1x9

    wow nice saturen its glowing

  140. Aly

    i used this for a school project!
    don’t worry i sited the sources 😛

  141. This is cool! The presuposition of what “outer space ” is like really comes out here!

  142. I do not suppose anyone is even on this blog anymore, huh?

    Wow, A deserted BLOG! Awesome!

    You know…. The only thing that would make this even more exiting would be if this was a deserted, HAUNTED BLOG.


  143. multitudinous thanks for the info specified on a locality. With questions I shall speak to the administrator on a soap.

  144. Dr.Phil Plait @ Just how old are Saturn’s rings?:

    IVAN3MAN: more importantly it was my top pick for astrophoto of 2006.

    Now I see what you mean, Phil. How the bloody hell did I miss this blog back in late December 2006?

  145. ANCELMO

    Brazilian, professor, theoretical researcher, graduated philosophy.



    is ONLY the ABSOLUTE One.

    Tel. 27- 32167566 Street Itabira, nº 5, Itapemirim Set, Rose of the
    Penha, Cariacica, -269, E.S. cep.29143 Brazilian, professor,
    graduation in philosophy and theoretical researcher. Published books

    Collaborator – Marcio Piter Rangel.

    Presented work the SECT- Spirit Brazil Saint. E the Brazilian Society
    of Physics. Introduction published in the WEB for the Vestibule Brazil
    Factor – Channel Profile. In day 30.01.2008. If other theories with
    beddings and you formulate had had acceptance, why these will not
    have? Therefore, it possesss all the beddings and all the forms of
    calculations, and that the reality and the comment until today reached
    are confirmed with. With more than one hundred and ten formulas, the
    most varied forms of if calculating one same phenomenon, with more
    than two hundred beddings in all the areas of the modern physics.
    Also, with new forecasts inside of cosmology and astronomy.

    Presented the Magazine of Education of the SBFISICA. Soced. Bras. de
    Física. Brazilian Journal of Physics – SBFISICA.

    The work will be complemented with.

    1-A theory of the estruturante fluxonário universe and cosmofísica
    graceliana. 2-Teoria of graceliana astronomy of energeticidade and
    maser. 3-Teoria of alternancidade astronomy and variance. 4-Teoria of
    astronomy of the origin, rotation, removal and progression. 5-Teoria
    of astronomy of fisicidade, disintegration and reintegration. General
    6-Teoria for astronomy and cosmo. 7-Teoria of the microphysics and
    chemistry. 8-Teoria of the general unit.


    ON the MOON.


    The Moon for being produced by one astro with little energy, in the
    case the Land, it possesss dezessete times little speed of translation
    of that Io – Jupiter satellite, a time that Jupiter possesss greater
    diameter of that the Land. Therefore both are almost to the same
    distancia of its elementary schools, in the case Io de Jupiter and the
    Moon of the Land. It also has of if considering that Io is a satellite
    more energy of that the Moon, exactly Jupiter being older of the one
    than the land, therefore still conserve tectônicas activities, these
    activities already had been observed by by telescope.

    Io possesss much more energy, maser, atmosphere of that the Moon for
    being been produced for a planet – Jupiter – with much more energy of
    that the Land. This if confirms in the relation enters the dynamic
    between the two planets.

    Io also possesss approximately the same diameter of the Moon.

    Diameter Moon 3470 quilometro. Speed of Translation Moon 1,03 km/seg.
    Io 3650 quilometro. Speed of Io Translation 17,4 Km/seg.

    Distancia of its Io Elementary schools – 420,000 quilometros.
    Lua-384.000 quilometros.

    Rotation – Io possesss a bigger rotation 16,44 times of the one than
    the Moon, or either, almost the same difference of that the
    translation. This all confirms the displayed one until here that the
    rotation, as the translation and the removal is produced by the energy
    and maser of astro. Here if it confirms with clarity that has a direct
    relation between the dynamic.


    That Io possesss a bigger atmosphere 10 times of the one than the Moon
    By that is confirmed with the difference of its dynamic.

    Io possesss a magnetic activity, electric conduction, seismic
    activity, atmosphere, bigger tectônica activity ten times of the one
    than the moon. This already was proven for the experience. What it
    confirms displayed for the difference in the dynamic and the orbits.


    The Moon possesss a orbital inclination of 5,9 degrees in relation to
    the ecliptic, and an eccentricity of 0.05 degrees, and this confirms
    the relation with the translacional speed and rotation, or either,
    little dynamics and great irregularity in the inclinations of the
    orbit and the rotation, and with great eccentricity.

    As it was displayed above, the Land is finishes it planet to produce
    satellite until today, therefore the Land was produced by the Sun when
    the same already if it found in a phase of little production of
    energy, we see that the Moon produces little maser and no tectônica
    activity, while Io produces great activity tectônica. Why Io was
    produced by a planet with much energy and intense maser, therefore it
    is very bigger of the one than the Land, therefore that the rotation
    and translation of the Moon are 17 lesser times of that Io. and a very
    bigger eccentricity, and a bigger inclination of the one than of Io.
    Or either, the elementary school produces the energy in the secondary
    one that it goes to produce the phenomena.

    Thus, the inclination and eccentricity of the satellites are always
    next or bigger of the values of its elementary schools.

    E with the Moon and Io if confirms displayed previously, that the how
    much bigger energy and maser, greaters here will be the dynamics, the
    stability and the perfection of the circularidade of the orbit, and
    minor the eccentricity and the inclination of the translation and the
    rotation. E vice versa.

    We will see that the satellites of the planets most distant and next
    to its elementary schools will have greaters rotations and translation
    and minors eccentricity and rotational and translacional inclination.
    E that occurs in the proportionality of the life time and of
    diâmetros that represent its energy and maser.

    This if confirms with the satellites of all the planets.



    The ratio enters the removal of the astros is increasing with the
    removal, where most distant they magnify the removal, for that the
    ratio of the distancias is always increasing. However, the removal
    depends on the energy in the processing of its production, and the
    proper energy represented for the diameter, for that it has the
    removal peaks, as the diameter of astro with its neighbor. This
    difference if confirms between Tritão and Nereida, two satellites of
    Neptune, where the difference of removal between the two is enormous,
    compared with satellites of planets next to the Sun.

    The ratio of the distancias suffers to increasing peak as astro goes
    producing its dynamics and its removal, this if it confirms between
    Titã and Réia of Saturn, Febe and Jupet of Saturn, between Titânia
    and Umbriel

    of Uranus, and between the Planets Jupiter and Mars. E between
    ganimedes and Europe de Jupiter.

    Therefore ganimedes has the double of the diameter of Europe and the
    double of the distancia. Or either, the energy of astro determines its
    position in the space, therefore with more diameter it will have
    greater energy, greater rotation, greater removal of its elementary

    The same it happens with Titânia and Umbriel Uranus satellites,
    therefore the ratio of the diameter is two times, or either, and the
    ratio of the distancia between the two satellites is 1,8, while the
    others with next ratios of diameter, and the ratios of the distancias
    also are minimum.

    The theory of the gravitation does not make mention to the position of
    the distancia for the diameter, that represents the energy and the
    time of construction of astro and its action of removal of astro next
    – neighboring -, and that this influences in the position and
    distancia of astro in the space.

    The translation speed enters these astros also folloies approximately
    in a value of ratio between neighboring astros. We see that the
    translation difference is bigger between bigger diâmetros and
    position. The same it happens with the rotation, the inclinations, the
    eccentricity, and all the other physical and structural phenomena, as
    achatamento of astro, atmosphere, tectônica activity, etc.

    The Saturn satellites if had moved away less from the one than of
    Jupiter for being lesser of diameter and with little energy.

    The skips of removal and position for the skip of diameter between the
    planets, satellites and comets confirm the theory of the
    energeticidade and maser.

    E as in Jupiter that has a bigger interval of Mars removal, for being
    Jupiter with bigger diameter, the same happens between Titã and Réia
    of Saturn, that is four times bigger. Between Febe and Jupet, and
    ganimedes and Europe, and Titânia and Umbriel de Urano. This
    difference also enters the ratios is present in asteroids and comets.


    The same it happens with the translation speed where the difference of
    the ratio is bigger in the astros that a difference of diameter keeps,
    as it is the case enters the displayed Saturn satellites above, and
    between Jupiter and Mars. For that it has it an enormous difference
    enters the speed of translation of Jupiter and Mars, therefore exactly
    bigger Jupiter being that Mars it had more time if moving away from
    the sun, diminishing gradually influences it received for the sun in
    the origin of the translation. For that it has a bigger ratio twenty
    times in the diameter, three times and stocking in the removal, two
    times lesser in the speed of translation of Jupiter for Mars, two
    times and bigger way in the rotation. This confirms the displayed one
    until, that the translation has an origin for the elementary school
    and diminishes gradually, until proper astro co-ordinating all
    dynamics and translation, rotation and removal here if it is
    equivalent as the energy that the same produces. This confirmation if
    approaches for distant Pluto, asteroids, comets and distant
    satellites, where rotation, translation and removal if are equivalent
    in its values. We have the reason has a skip in the ratio of the
    translation, removal, rotation, eccentricity and inclinations of orbit
    and rotation here.

    This difference of ratio also remains in the eccentricity and
    inclination, and is increasing with the removal.


    1 it question of skips in the ratio enters the phenomena in
    agreement its energy and diameter,

    2-e the increasing ratio of removal, orbital and rotational
    inclination, and in agreement eccentricity astro goes being old and
    burning its energy. That it depends on the time of life and the energy
    of astro, represented for the diameter.

    The Jupiter satellites are approximately five compared bigger times
    with the ones of Saturn, for that they in average are two times more
    distant of the ones of Saturn, if compared with the ones of Jupiter.

    The translation of the satellites diminishes as the removal of the
    planet to the sun and diameter of the planet. Or either, the energy
    that it conserves depends on the energy who formed it, for that the
    Saturn satellites possesss greater translation of that of Uranus,
    exactly being the same distancia and with the same diameter.


    Orbit of Quíron – the principle of the proportionality is also
    confirmed in the Quíron asteroid, therefore for its extensive removal
    of the Sun, it it develops the biggest inclination of orbit and the
    biggest eccentricity.

    It is confirmed in asteroids EROS, with eccentricity of 0.83 degrees,
    Quiron, hidalgo, and others. Also in comets, that the distancia of the
    Sun is not the basic one for the thread of astro in the space, but yes
    its energy and maser represented for its diameter.

    As already it was since the removal and position that it marks
    distanciam of the elementary school depend on the energy of astro.

    E the inclinations and eccentricities depend on the energy of the same
    ones, therefore lesser and more distant asteroids, comets and
    satellites of its elementary schools possess the biggest inclinations
    and eccentricities. E the biggest planets the lesser eccentricities
    and inclinations and the set of the dynamic – translation, rotation,
    and removal also folloies the energy of astro.


    GANIMEDES has a diameter 5,250 km, and TITÃ has a 5,800 diameter km.

    Ganimedes if finds to a distancia of 1.070.000 km of the elementary
    school. TITÃ if finds to a distancia 1.222.000 km of the elementary

    Ganimedes has a 10.9 speed km/s. Titã has a speed of 5.6 km /s.

    E the difference enters the diâmetros of Jupiter and Saturn is

    Soon one concludes that if the gravitation had some influences on the
    translation speed the difference of the translation between the two
    would be minimum and it would not be approximately the double. With
    this if it concludes that all dynamics depends on the energy of astro,
    and if Jupiter is new of the one than Saturn, then its satellite also
    is new, also considering that while ganimedes is the third Jupiter
    satellite, Titã is the seventh Saturn satellite. Soon, titã is older
    and spent more energy, with this develops little speed of translation.
    For that the difference of the translation speed is the double.

    While for the theory of the gravitation it would have to be equivalent
    in the values.

    We see here that the distancia with the diameter did not influence in
    the translation speed, but yes, the time of life and the energy
    represented for the diameter.

    This confirms the theory of the energeticidade and maser.


    The diameter and the removal of the secondary ones vary as the
    diameter of the elementary school and its time of life.


    One confirms that the value of the Jupiter diameter is next to the one
    of Saturn, and Jupiter with its satellites five times the distancia of
    the ones of Saturn, three times the diameter of the ones of Saturn and
    the values of the translation speed if approach.

    With this if it concludes that it is not the distancia and some force
    that acts on astro, but yes the proper energy of exactly.


    The distancia one marks the time of life of astro, and diameter of the
    elementary school with its diameter and the distancia of the primary
    one marks the time of life and processed energy already and the energy
    still to be processed.


    As well as Saturn and Uranus also it possesss rings, with speed of
    translation of more than twenty Km/s, and that Jupiter possesss a
    spiral atmosphere with translation and widening, next to its equator.
    This confirms that the translation of the secondary ones if originates
    from energy and maser of the elementary school, and that it has left
    of this maser if it transforms into rings next to the equator, and
    that it goes to esferificar itself, giving new beginning a secondary
    one. We see in Uranus rings that they more than develop a translation
    of twenty kilometers for second.

    E that the translation appears initially of proper the secondary one,
    and for that all secondary ones produce an orbit with little
    inclination and always next to the equator.

    To if distanciar of the elementary school, the secondary one goes to
    produce its proper dynamics, goes to give to beginning the tertiary
    ones that its energy and maser will initiate its in agreement

    E will leave the axle of translation of the elementary school, having
    given beginning to a new system of astros, minors, slower and with
    more irregularities in its dynamics of translation, rotation and

    The ORIGIN Of the SECONDARY Ones.

    The centrifuga action of the rotation and the magnetism of astro make
    with that its maser and atmosphere if dislocate for the equator, where
    go if form in atmosphere filaments and the future ring. Of rings
    cubical tablets of gases go to form themselves from there and the
    esferificação, of where it goes to form itself in secondary.

    For that the secondary ones possess a decreasing translation of the
    next ones for the last ones. E that the orbit always is next to the
    equator. With passing of the times, the energy diminishes and the
    astros start to produce its orbit and irregularities in the space.

    In the future probably we will have new astros and with new energies,
    therefore the process is constant.


    Secondary more moved away and the lesser ones are most irregular in
    its inclinations of orbit and rotation, and eccentricity. This if
    confirms, in the satellites most distant, asteroids and comets.


    The satellite when very small very distant e tends to magnify its
    inclination and eccentricity gradually, and this type of inverted
    movement can be found in Saturn the Febe satellite. Therefore Febe
    possesss an inclination of orbit of 160 degrees and a great
    eccentricity. What it takes astro to develop the retrograde orbit is
    that it normally initiated its translation since its birth for its
    elementary school. Only that all astro that possesss little dimension
    and if finds of the elementary school it distant possesss little
    energy if processing, therefore it already spent great part of its
    energy, and thus, it starts to produce irregularities in its dynamics
    in the space. That he starts with an increasing irregularity until the
    retrograde movement.

    Uranus is a planet that walk of side, or either, the irregularities is
    bigger with the distanciamento, aging and reduction of energy
    production and maser.

    With enormous distancias of its elementary schools, astros small,
    tertiary, with little energy and aged will be astros with little
    dynamics, great distanciamentos, great eccentricities and inclinations
    and many with retrograde movements.


    This does not exist, therefore all the astros are untied in the space,
    and it does not have this of field pulling for its orbit, and also by
    the maser the astros are moved away and not attracted, as it is
    thought today. E what it produces the orbits irregular is to little
    energy of proper astro to co-ordinate its dynamics, this happens with
    all distant small astros e of its elementary schools, then the small
    Saturn satellites had been never captured, but yes produced for

    It can be compared that all distant astro small e possesss great
    irregularities in its dynamics, since the rotation, the translation
    and the removal.


    The density of the distant astros is a invencionice to give a
    proximity in the results for the translation speed that is calculated
    by the gravitation, however if badly we know the density of the Land,
    as we can know the density of distant planets.

    For that in my calculations, use diameter and temperature for being
    next to the reality.


    In the most distant and lesser ratio of the removal, inclinations and
    eccentricity are always bigger and increasing with the distanciamento
    and the reduction of the size of astro.

    The distancia and removal also are increasing, therefore with the
    energy reduction they start to produce orbits always more irregular.


    The Saturn satellites if had moved away less from its elementary
    school for being lesser and with little energy, while from Jupiter if
    they had moved away more, for being bigger and with more energy this
    confirms that the astros alem of the rotation and translation they
    move away as its production from energy.


    TRITÃO is one of the giant satellites and possesss a great
    eccentricity and a orbital inclination of 160 degrees, considered one
    of the satellites that a retrograde movement for possessing so great
    has inclination in relation to the plan of the equator of Neptune.
    This only comes to contribute with the theory displayed until here.
    Therefore satellites of distant planets also possess great
    irregularities, exactly being a giant.


    NEREIDA is another satellite of Neptune who possesss a great
    inclination of orbit of 28 degrees and one of the biggest
    eccentricities, with 0.75 degrees. This only comes to contribute with
    the theory of the energeticidade, of that distant planets, distant and
    old and small satellites produce great irregularities, and Nereida is
    the satellite with bigger eccentricity of the satellites until
    discovered here.

    NEREIDA also possesss a great removal of the neighboring satellite, in
    the Tritão case. Or either, the satellites most distant and of more
    distant planets are most irregular in its eccentricity and


    We see that Tritão and the Saturn satellite – febe possesss
    retrograde movement.

    Probably its rotation is minimum and with great inclination of

    Probably the more distant satellites of Pluto, minors and of it will
    be of bigger irregularities and with retrograde movements.


    Probably titã with its atmosphere will produce one fourth generation
    of astro. That it will be the first satellite with satellite.


    Probably Charon, satellite of Pluto possesss a great eccentricity and
    orbital inclination.

    Funny Charon around Pluto in 6,39 days, that it is the same time that
    the planet leads to turn around its axle, keeping always same face one
    for the other. This if confirms in the displayed one until here, that
    the translation of the secondary one before starts exactly of the
    secondary one if to esferificar, or either, still as filaments and
    rings of atmosphere and maser of the elementary school, that with its
    rotation starts to transladar rings and filaments of atmosphere, until
    if esferificar. If esferificando it starts to produce this initial
    translation in rollback of the elementary school. To if moving away it
    starts to produce its proper translation.

    To if esferificar it starts to produce the proper rotation. With the
    time and removal this secondary one, goes to produce another secondary
    one, becoming a elementary school.

    As astro goes if distanciando and being without energy, it abandons
    the initial orbit, producing irregular and random orbital systems in
    the space. Always new with little less dynamic energy and and more
    irregularities of inclinations and eccentricities. This can be
    confirmed with asteroids and comets.


    That is a process that starts with little irregularity, it passes the
    stability and it returns the irregularity and great instabilidades and
    nomadic and random orbits.


    This if confirms enters the satellites of the planets, therefore with
    the same distancias the Uranus satellites less develop three times the
    period of revolution compared with the ones of Saturn. Therefore the
    equatorial Saturn speed is three times bigger of the one than of

    the Saturn and Jupiter satellites are of 1,25 of period of bigger
    revolution for the Jupiter satellites for the same distancia,
    therefore the difference of the equatorial speed between the two is of
    1,25 greaters for Jupiter. As also the difference is next to the ratio
    one for diameter and rotation, and 1,3 for translation.

    It is good for standing out that the energy produces the rotation,
    that produces the equatorial speed that with the maser go to produce
    tran and the difference between slação of the secondary one. E the
    secondary one will be produced by the expelled material as form of
    maser of the elementary school. To if esferificar and becoming astro
    it goes to initiate its rotation, for whom secondary the very next
    ones possess little rotation, therefore still is starting to speed up
    itself rotationally. This if confirms in all the very next elementary


    1 – the elementary school produces the secondary one that also it
    initiates its translation. Then we have here the beginning of the
    translation and the origin of astro.

    2 – because the tertiary one folloies the secondary one, and both
    follow the elementary school for the space. Therefore, in the
    beginning they had had an origin of the translation produced for the
    elementary school, to put, to if moving away and losing energy this
    secondary one, or tertiary it goes to leave the system full,
    therefore, he himself inside of the solar system already produces its
    proper dynamics, only that it are of the system, it more will not
    follow the elementary school for the space. This already happens with
    some comets and asteroids, that to the times enter inside of the solar
    system and leave without suffering and influence of action none of the

    3- why astro all very next to the elementary school possesss little
    rotation. Therefore still it is in formation and all its dynamics
    still is minimum.


    Thus, we have here the beginning of astro, the beginning of the
    rotation and equatorial speed, of the translation.

    Thus, to if moving away it goes to produce its proper rotation and
    translation, and with its energy and maser he goes to produce new
    filaments of gases, from there new spheres, that with its equatorial
    speed go to produce the translation in new astro, and from there its
    esferificação and rotation.

    Before exactly of being sphere astro already possesss translation.

    It goes being moved away for the maser and temperature from the
    elementary school, and starts to produce its proper translation and

    For that a tertiary one folloies the translation of the secondary one,
    exactly this secondary one following the translation of the elementary
    school. To put with the removal it will tend to produce an orbit
    isolated, with other inclinations and eccentricities.

    To if distanciar it it will have little energy, and consequently less
    dynamic and more irregularities. TO SEE PRINCIPLE OF THE



    Jupiter – 2,3 * 5 = 13. Saturn – 2,1 * 5 = 10. Uranus – 1,1 * 5 = 5,5
    Neptune – 1 * 5 = 5. Pluto – 0,2 * 5=5.

    This relation between rotation and translation for planets, also are
    confirmed for the exterior satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus.


    Uranus walks of side for possessing little energy and being initiating
    an orbit and rotation with great inclination.

    The trend is that in the future the astros are in greater number and
    slower and all with random and irregular orbits. E many reactionary. E
    that also does not follow the elementary schools for the space


    Uranus possesss three times little diameter of that Jupiter and four
    times more of the one than the Land, and being older and with little
    energy, therefore the energy had more time spending, then the value of
    its rotation has that to come close itself to the value of the Land,
    being between twenty and twenty five hours.

    E this already was confirmed with the comment.

    The rotation of Neptune also is next to the Land.


    ASTEROID ÍCARO possesss an eccentricity of 0.83 degrees and goes next
    Mercúrio and Mars, and in the perihelion it is the 28.000.000
    kilometers of the Sun, and in the aphelion it is the 307.000.000
    kilometers of the Sun. With this if it concludes that the orbit
    depends on the energy of astro, and not of the gravitation. Therefore
    astros minors produce orbits more irregular.

    ASTEROID HIDALGO, with a orbital period of 13.7 years, and an
    eccentricity of 0.67 degrees, and with a orbital inclination of 43

    QUÍRON possesss a orbital eccentricity of 0.379, and with a orbital
    inclination of 6.9 degrees.

    With this we evidence that the orbit is not determined by the
    gravitation of astro or the Sun, but yes for its energy, therefore
    approximately in the same distancia of the planets to the Sun very,
    the asteroids produce orbits irregular, for possessing little energy,
    and with a period of short while lesser revolution of that the

    With this if it evidences that the astros are free and producing its
    proper dynamics.

    With this, the displayed one is confirmed until, of that astros small
    they possess little irregular dynamics and orbits, for produces little
    energy, and this here independe of the distancia of the Sun.






    The diameter is divided by 1.000.

    The removal is divided by 100.000 for satellites, comets and

    The removal is divided by 100.000.000 for planets.

    SCHOOL. 1680/1000 = 1,68 equatorial speed of the Land. 3470/1000 =
    3,47 diameter of Moon 384,000/100,000 = 3,87 removal of the Moon in
    relation Land. Moon – 1,68 * 3,47/3,84 = 1,5 /2 = 0,75 km/s.

    For Jupiter satellites.

    Io – 45000/1000 = 45 3670/1000 = 3,67 420000/100000=4.2 45*3.67/ 4,2 =
    39,3 /2 = 19,5 km/segundo.

    Europe. 45000/1000=45
    2980/ 1000 = 2,98 671000/100000=6.71 45*2.98/ 6,71 = 19.9/2=10

    Ganimedes. 45000/1000 = 45 5250/1000=5.250 1.070.000/ 100000 =
    10 45*5.2/10.7=22/ 2 = 11

    Calisto. 45.000/1000=45
    4900/1000=4.9 1.884.000/100000 = 18,8 45*4.9/18.8=11.7 /2 = 6

    For the Saturn satellites.

    Satellite janus 37000/ 1000 = 37 quilometro/segundo. 300/ 1000 = 0,3
    159000/100000=1.59 37*0.3/1.59=7

    Titã 37 * 5.8/12.2 = 17.5


    To calculate planet orbit if it divides the distancia for 100 000 000.
    To calculate satellite orbit if it divides the distancia for 100 000.

    The equatorial speed if divides in such a way per 1000 in the
    calculation for planets how much for satellites. In quilometro for the

    The diameter if divides in such a way per 1000 for calculation for
    planets how much for satellites.

    The formula is equatorial speed of distancia elementary school /1000 [
    diameter /1000 ]/[/for 100 000 000 for planets 1 ].


    Equatorial speed of Sun for the moment = 60,000 km/s/1 000=60.
    Diameter of the planet = 4,500 quilometro/1 000 = 4.5.

    Distancia of the planet to the Sun. = 58.000 000
    quilometro/100.000.000. [ 1 ].

    60 4,5 /[0.58 1] = 41 quilometro for second.

    Venus. 60 8/[ 1,08 1 ] = 32,7 quilometro for second.

    Land = 60 12/[ 1,5 1 ] = 28.8. Mars = 60 6/[ 2,2 1 ] = 20.6. Jupiter =
    60 144/[ 7,8 1]=20. Saturn = 60 120/ [ 14 1 ] = 12. Uranus = 60 46/[
    28 1 ] = 3.6. Neptune = 60 45/ [ 45 1 ] = 2,3 Pluto = 60 6/ [ 59 1 ] =


    Equatorial speed of the elementary school in quilometro for the moment
    divided by 1.000. The diameter of the satellite divided for 1.000. The
    distancia of the satellite of its elementary school divided for
    100.000 [ one hundred a thousand ]. Comment. For the 000 planets [ is
    100 000 one hundred million ].


    1,000/100,000 [ DISTANCIA/].

    FOR the SATELLITE Of the LAND, the MOON.

    Moon. [ 1680/1,000 ] [ 3,470/1,000 ]/[ 384.000/100.000 ] = 1,3


    Equatorial Jupiter speed /1,000 diameter of distancia satellite
    /1,000/of satellite/100.000. Io. [ 45,000 /1,000 ] [ 3,650 /1,000 ]/[
    420.000/100.000]=11.5 km/segundo. Europe. 45 2,98/6,71 = 7,1
    quilometro for second. Ganimedes. 45 5,25/10,7 = 4.7. Calisto. 45
    4,9/18,8 = 2.6


    [ Equatorial Saturn speed/1,000 ] [ diameter of distancia
    satellite/1,000 ]/[ /100,000 ].

    JANUS. [ 37,000/1000 ] [ 300 /1000 ]/[ 159 000/100 000]=23.4 km per
    second. MIMAS. 37 0,4/1,86 = 20,1 quilometro for second. ENCÉLADO. 37
    0,6 /2,38 = 15.7. TÉTIS. 37 1. / 2,95 = 12,8 DIONÉIA 37 0,8 /3,77 =
    10 RÉIA 37 1 /5,27 = 7,2 TITÃ 37 5.8/12.2 = 4,3 HIPÉRION 37 0,4
    /14,8 = 2,5 JAPET. 37 1,6 /35,5 = 1. FEBE 37 0,2/129 = 0.28



    The equatorial speed of elementary school for the moment/1,000 the
    diameter of satellite/1,000/of the distancia/of 100.000.

    MIRANDA – 13,7 0,24/1,3 = 10 quilometro for second
    ARIEL- 13,7 0,7/1,92 = 7,5 UMBRIEL – 13,7 0,5/2,67 = 5,3 TITÂNIA –
    13,7 1/4,38 = 3,3 0BERON – 13,7 0,9/5,86 = 2.3


    [ 9,000/1,000 ] [ 3,800 /1,000 ]/[ 340,000/100,000 ] = 9 3,8/3,2 = 4
    quilometro for second.


    Equatorial speed of PLUTO [ 140/1,000 ] [ diameter 1,200/1,000 ]/[
    Distancia 20 000/100 000 ]. = 0,14 1,2/0,5 = 3,1 quilometro for

    It gives to observe itself that as the planets go if moving away from
    the Sun, the orbit of its elementary schools also becomes slower,
    therefore satellites with the same diameter and the same distancia in
    relation the satellites distant planets, these diminish its dynamics
    gradually and magnify the irregularities in the eccentricity and the
    inclinations. With this it is only had to more still confirm the
    theory of the energeticidade and maser.

    Of that the planets most distant had been the first ones to be
    produced, and had produced its satellites first, with this they
    possess little energy, therefore they had had more time spending and
    processing the energy. E this full runs away any relation with effect
    from gravitation. E goes of meeting to supported here for the theory
    of the energeticidade and the maser. Of that the energy and the time
    of processing of this energy determine the life, the processes,
    thermal structure, orbit, activities, sismos, energy, magnetism,
    tectônica activity, maser, tectônica activity, orbit, dynamics and

    In this form of calculation to meet the translation of the secondary
    one for the equatorial speed of the elementary school, it is Express
    that in agreement the diameter also diminishes the energy is lesser,
    decreases the maser. Also it decreases and the tectônicas activities
    and the atmosphere it folloies the decrease, the rotation of the
    elementary school diminishes decreasing its equatorial speed, with
    this sees that as the diameter decreases, diminishes the translation
    of the secondary one, for that the more distant minors and possess
    lesser dynamic.


    The universe is a constant process of construction and
    desconstrução, and some universes if they find in phase of decrease
    of energy and its phenomena, that is the case of ours. Comment

    The results found for the calculation of translation for the
    equatorial speed and its proximity with the exactness alone come to
    confirm the action of the equatorial speed produced by the energy and
    maser in the production of the translation and orbit of the secondary
    one in the space. E that the satellites of the planets most distant,
    with the same distancia in relation to other satellites, and that of
    the distant planets they develop dynamic little. This if also confirms
    in the removal and the rotation of the satellites. E its orbits are
    most irregular for the removal and the diameter.

    It is good for knowing that use fancy of values of densities of astros
    not to arrive the results that do not come to beat with the formula,
    as he is used in the theory of the gravitation.

    It is confirmed exactly that the rings and the atmospheres also
    possess translation, with this before existing as sphere, therefore
    astro as filament already develops its translation.


    It has a skip of values of diameter between Saturn satellites, and
    this skip if it repeats enters the distancias of the same satellites.
    That it is between Réia and Titã, and JAPET and Hipérion all of
    Saturn, and this difference is of three times for the diâmetros and
    the phenomena of the satellites. Also with the removal.

    This difference if also makes gift between the distancia and diameter
    of Titânia and Umbriel Uranus satellites. As already it was seen this
    skip equivalent also is present between Jupiter and Mars. E as already
    was seen this skip if it must the energy that astro produced more and
    the time that the same led to distanciar themselves of the next
    neighbor who is in formation.

    The skip, or better, the time of production of astro with the time of
    acceleration for the upgrade of energy registered for the difference
    of the diameter, determines a skip in the removal and all the other
    phenomena, orbit and structure.

    It is equivalence of skips also goes to be present in the removal,
    translation, revolution, rotational and translacional rotation,
    inclinations, eccentricity, achatamento of the sphere of astro, and
    other phenomena, variations of structure and irregularities,
    temperature, tectônica activity, rings and atmosphere, and all the
    other structural and orbital phenomena and formations.

    This skip equivalent proves all the phenomena displayed until here,
    developed and displayed for the theory of the estruturante fluxonário
    universe and for the theory of the energeticidade and maser.

    The streams also follow and vary as vary these skips.


    The energy produces the maser, the maser produces the rotation, the
    atmosphere, rings, and astros that if they form and that they are
    parts of the elementary schools, and as part of the elementary school
    what we have translation notion is in the truth still part of the
    rotation of the elementary school. More only moved away than this
    secondary one it goes to produce its rotation and its proper
    translation. Exactly before being sphere astro already possesss
    translation and rotation.

    We see in Mercury that the same possesss great translation and little
    rotation, why it still is part of the Sun and its rotation and
    equatorial speed. The same Jupiter satellite happens with the first
    Amaltéia, and with first Janus Saturn satellite.

    To if distanciar all they will produce its proper rotation and
    translation, leaving the elementary school and producing its proper

    This confirms because exactly producing its dynamics and removal the
    satellite folloies its planet, and this in turn the Sun.

    However comets exist that produce orbits without following its
    elementary school.

    Translation of astro if initiates still as atmosphere, later filaments
    of atmosphere that is the case of Jupiter rings, later as rings that
    are the case of Saturn and Uranus, and finally as sphere.

    ON the ORIGIN Of the ROTATION.

    When still new the rotation still is if initiating, for that all the
    astros next to its elementary schools possess little rotation, this if
    it confirms of the planets to the satellites.

    The same it happens with the removal of the elementary school.
    Therefore the energy is in agreement that astro acquired during the
    formation that the same will develop all its dynamics, orbit,
    phenomena and physical and chemical structure. E chemical processings.


    Considering the diameter and the removal, one confirms that the next
    greaters and possess little eccentricity, and vice versa.

    The same it is succeeded with the orbital inclination and of rotation.

    It follows thus, the principle of the stability and circularidade for
    the energy production. The diameter in quilometro and not in relation
    to the Land.

    JANUS – 0,2/diameter/100 progression retroceding of 10 until one as
    the number of the satellites.

    JANUS – 0,2/3 10 = 0,038 MINES – 0,2/4 9 = 0,038 ENCÉLADO- 0,2/ 6 8 =
    0,035 TÉTIS – 0,2 /10 7 = 0,03 DIONÉIA – 0,2/8 6 = 0,035 RÉIA –
    0,2/ 16 5 = 0,023 TITÃ – 0,2/58 4 = 0,008 HIPÉRION – 0,2/4 3 = 0,07
    JAPET – 0,2/16 2=0.028 FEBE – 0,2/2,4 1=0.147

    This calculation if approaches to the reality and is accurate
    for the majority of the Saturn satellites.

    Here one confirms that the more distant and lesser, bigger it is the
    eccentricity of astro.

    E as Jupiter, titã for being immense and same being distant, possesss
    a minimum eccentricity.


    FEBE the JAPET – diameter 16 of febe, divided for the diameter of
    Japet 2,4, is equal the six times – that is come close to the removal
    between the two.

    Between Japet and Hipérion = diameter of Japet 16 divided by the
    diameter of Hipérion four, = the ratio of the difference of the
    removal if approaches to two.

    Between Titã and Réia – titã possesss a 58 diameter of quilometro,
    and Réia is 16, 58/16 = 3, then the ratio of the distancia if
    approaches to three.

    Between RÉIA and DIONÉIA – the diameter of Réia is 16 kilometers
    and dionéia he is eight, dividing 16 for eight, then the ratio of the
    removal between the two if approaches to two.

    For the others, the ratio between the diâmetros diminishes for less
    of the one than two, then the ratio also enters the removal beats for
    less of the one than two.

    The same it happens enters the URANUS satellites, where all possess a
    ratio of diameter below of two, and all possess a ratio of removal
    below of two, however between Titânia and umbriel the ratio of the
    diameter arrives next to two, where also the ratio of the removal
    arrives next to two.

    The same planets happen with other satellites of other, and between
    planets, this difference of removal for diameter, that in the truth is
    the processed energy that moves away astro, if has with clarity

    This difference folloies for all the phenomena, variation of
    structure, disintegration, intensity of phenomena, dynamics and orbit.

    With this if test that the astros are in removal produced for the
    energy and maser.

    E that the theory of the gravitation used the distancia, but did not
    obtain to calculate it. However I calculated here in such a way for
    planets, how much for satellites. E was not necessary to make use of
    the distancia as constant to meet the dynamics, orbit and other
    phenomena and structures of the astros.

    This confirms that the astros if move away for the energy, and they
    are not attracted by the gravitation.

    E that the ratio of the distancia is bigger enters most distant, this
    if confirms between Tritão and Nereida, and Japet and Fege.


    With the diameter in kilometers divided by 100, with the
    progression of 1 the 10 for the respective satellites, divided of the
    result of the diameter.

    JANUS -1/3 = 0,3 MIMAS – 2/ 4 = 05 ENCÉLADO – 3/ 6 = 05 TÉTIS – 4/
    10=04 DIONÉIA – 5/ 8=0.62 RÉIA – 6/ 16=0.37 TITÃ – 7/ 58=0.12
    HIPÉRION – 8/ 4 = 2 JAPET – 9/16=0.5 FEBE – 10/ 2.4=4.1

    It is confirmed for this calculation that the inclination is
    increasing with the removal, and that the greaters and with more
    energy if processing the inclination are lesser.


    , thus more distant they possess little energy, therefore already he
    had more time processing and spending the energy, and the minors
    possess little energy for being its lesser structure. With this the
    instability is bigger, taking astro in these conditions to develop
    great eccentricities, great orbital and rotational inclinations, and
    some even with retrograde movements, that are moved away and lesser
    and unstablest.

    This form of calculation with the diameter representing the energy can
    be for all the planets, satellites, comets and asteroids. Of the
    diameter the rotation can be found, of the rotation the equatorial
    speed, the equatorial speed the translation, inclination,
    eccentricity, and all the other phenomena. Or same it can directly be

    The energy is more practical to use the diameter representing,
    therefore the diameter can directly be calculated in proper astro.

    While in the theory of the gravitation the mass is calculated with the
    movement of astro in the space, and from there to find the movement,
    or either, the result is arranged, created for a measured phenomenon
    already. Therefore the mass is the addition of the diameter with the
    density, however if we do not know right nor the density of the Land
    or the Moon, as to know the density of distant astros.


    The more distant minors and are most irregular, therefore they are the
    ones that possess minor amount of energy if processing.

    ON the ROTATION. The achatamento does not determine the rotation,
    therefore, astro that it has the lesser achatamento is Jupiter and
    produces the biggest rotation. To put rotation and achatamento is
    produced by the energy of astro, represented for diameter and removal.


    Already one confirmed that the Land is diminishing its rotation in
    sixteen seconds for a million of years. This confirms the principle of
    the removal and the reduction of the dynamics.


    The achatamento of the Mars satellites is great for being minimum,
    then they had passed little time if forming.

    E with great achatamento possesss minimum rotation, what it confirms
    that the rotation if must the energy and maser of astro.


    One confirms above for the displayed one that it has a direct relation
    between energy, diameter, maser, rotation, equatorial speed and
    translation between the astros and its secondary ones.

    ON the MOON.


    The moon is the new satellite of the solar system, why the Land
    already was formed of the sun when the same it met with little energy,
    for that it possesss little dynamics in relation to its diameter,
    exactly being produced for the Land. Therefore the planet Land alone
    is older of the one than Venus and Mercúrio.

    For that the moon possesss as many irregularities in its orbit and
    rotation in the space.

    With diameter of 3.470 kilometers, it only develops a translation of
    1.03 quilometro for second, and a rotation of 708 hours, or 29,6 days


    Diameter of Jupiter in relation to the land 12 times, divided for the
    diameter of the land, 11/1 = 11 times the translation of Io, that is
    faster of the one than the moon, if compared that one meets
    approximately in the same distancia and approximately with the same

    The same it is compared enters the rotation of the two satellites.

    These numbers are not accurate, but the formula will be necessary can
    be approached.

    Compared with the Jupiter satellite the Io, it it approximately
    possesss the same distancia of the elementary school, and
    approximately the same diameter, confirms that Io produces a bigger
    translation 16,8 times of the one than the Moon. With this if it
    confirms that Jupiter produced Io with much more energy of that the
    Land produced the Moon and Io – Jupiter satellite possesss energy if
    not processing, with bigger temperature, sismos, magnetism and
    tectônica activity.

    With the rotation the same it is happened again, Io produces the
    rotation speed 16,8 times faster of the one than the Moon.

    For incredible that it seems the difference between rotation and
    translation she is minimum.

    The eccentricity varies of 0.0432 the 0,0667 of degrees, and an
    inclination of 5.0 the 5,08 degrees in the ecliptic. The ecliptic is
    the plan in relation to the sun.

    Io develops orbital inclination of 3 degrees and practically null
    eccentricity, thus confirming that the irregularity of the Moon is
    fruit of its condition of energy production, that the elementary
    school granted to it in its formation. This matching with Io is
    important why the data of the Moon, its irregularities are fruit of
    the energy production that formed it and that it processes.


    It goes to be proven for this theory that the irregular Moon and its
    phenomena – great enigma of astronomy, that these irregularities are
    produced by the condition of energy production where if find, and as
    all astro with little time of existence and young is very irregular in
    its phenomena. It is what we will see ahead.



    The solar maser produces the evecção of the orbit of the moon.

    What it produces the evecção phenomenon is the variation of maser
    and energy of astro, and the moon for being next to the Sun, suffers
    more the action from the temperature and solar maser, for that its
    ellipse possesss a bigger variation of that other satellites.

    As also its inclination is bigger variation.

    Its removal, rotation and translation also possess great variation.


    The variation stream that is the evecção in the eccentricity varies
    of 0.0432 the 0,0667 degrees when the ellipse if finds strained, or
    either, up to fifty percent more of the eccentricity of the ellipse
    when strained.


    The evecção of the moon always is bigger when the Land if approaches
    to the sun, with this if it confirms that the annual inaqualities of
    the evecção are bigger when the Land if approaches to the Sun
    Therefore is not that the ellipse magnifies, but yes that during this
    period of approach the evecção is bigger. Or either, the solar
    thermal maser speeds up the energy of the moon and the stream also
    magnifies. This stream also happens with the land, however the
    variation is minimum.


    The satellites accurately do not develop the same position directed to
    the center, as the planet as reference, or either, it has satellites
    that exactly inside of the ellipse it develops orbit with a side next
    to the center and the other most distant one. Or either, the majority
    of the elementary schools does not meet in the accurate center in
    relation to the orbit of its secondary ones. With this if it concludes
    that the energy develops the proper movement.

    Exactly with the eccentricity and the Inclination Pluto and Netuno
    they produce its orbit keeping always a removal for one of the sides
    of the ellipse. This if also confirms in the satellites Nereida,
    Charon and Febe with its respective planets. The comet of Halley and
    the Quíron asteroid also produce this removal for one of the sides in
    relation to the Sun. This distanciamento of one of the sides is bigger
    in the astros more moved away from the sun and its elementary schools.
    Or either, the irregularity magnifies with the distanciamento, size,
    production of energy and time of life.


    1-A evecção is bigger when the Land if finds next to the sun, in the
    perihelion. 2 it moon develops ellipse imperfect, when the moon if
    approaches to the Sun, in the new moon, it is sped up by the solar
    thermal maser, making with that this if approaches to a format of a
    hen egg, always with one of the parts pontuda, that the part less
    pontuda is next to the sun. Or either, one same orbit can start with
    0.432 degrees of arc and in the other tip to finish with 0.0667


    Why when the new moon always is next to the sun, with this it receives
    thermal energy solar, speeding up and magnifying its processes and
    production of energy.

    E when it leaves the new and if moves away and starts to be the
    increasing one, exactly with its magnified energy the gravitation of
    the sun attracts it and it pulls it for the center, being late its
    movement. E as the amount of energy

    it determines the circularidade of the orbit and dynamics of astro in
    the space, with the upgrade of energy in the pass of the new moon for
    the increasing one makes with that the moon closes its orbit,
    therefore the production and energy processes had had an upgrade.

    For that after the pass next to the sun the moon leaves with the
    closed orbit, that goes opening passing for the full one and in the
    declining room already if it finds well open, and enters open with
    39,5 degrees of shift arc in longitude. For this we have in the
    evecção I begin it of the egg. E this happens mainly with the moon
    for being the satellite next to the Sun.

    Thus, it is not the Sun that however strains the ellipse, and however
    it compresses it, but yes, the natural condition of energy of the moon
    in the production of its present orbit in the declining room. E
    influences it of the thermal energy of the sun that makes with the
    orbit comes to be compressed, therefore for the principle of the
    circularidade the ratio of that the energy magnifies circulates it of
    the orbit always tends more the perfection. Thus, with the condition
    of energy of the moon, with the temperature of the Sun it makes with
    that the moon has great irregularities in its orbit and dynamics.


    The other point is the variation of the dynamics, therefore in the
    increasing room the same moon receiving the upgrade from the dynamics
    for the proximity with the solar thermal maser, when it enters in the
    increasing room that goes to leave the proximity of the sun, the moon
    starts to receive influences it of the solar gravitation, delaying and
    decelerating its output. It is deceleration is not uniform, is a
    deceleration that goes losing intensity. Soon it is an increasing

    the full moon already finds with its proper dynamics, when passing to
    the declining room it passes to be sped up, therefore the solar
    gravitation in this point starts to act, making with that the moon
    magnifies its dynamics in route to the sun. This acceleration is

    VARIATION Of the EVECÇÃO And the DYNAMICS. 1- Thus, we have an
    increasing deceleration in the increasing room. 2-Uma proper
    acceleration in the new and full moon. it is an increasing
    acceleration in route to the sun in the declining room.

    4- the ELLIPSE Of The HEN EGG ALSO Is not UNIFORM,

    Therefore the side that if it initiates in the increasing room
    is well closed, while the side that finishes and goes in route to the
    sun in the end of the declining room more is opened of the one than
    the side that if it initiates in the increasing one. Soon, exactly
    being oval the preciseest one in one of the extremities, one of the
    sides also is more closed of the one than the other.


    Thus we have –

    Natural speed of the moon for its production of energy,
    deducted from the action of agent against principal of the gravitation
    of the sun, is equal to the deceleration of the moon in the increasing


    Thus, we have.

    Natural speed of the moon for its production of energy, added of the
    favorable action of the gravitation of the sun, is equal to the
    acceleration of the moon in route to the sun in the declining room.


    Deformation of the egg for inside.

    Thus we have.

    In the increasing room the natural energy of the moon is added with
    the thermal maser of the sun making with that the moon develops its
    orbit for inside. E the egg of hen with a achatamento for inside.

    Therefore the moon starts to still close its orbit when in the new
    moon phase, therefore it is the phase next to the sun, and if the
    circularidade is produced by the energy, then the more energy, more
    perfect the circularidade.

    Added natural energy with the solar energy is equal to the orbit of
    the moon for inside.


    The moon possesss a variation of nine minutes of arc for more or for
    less, in its five degrees and nine minutes of average orbital
    inclination, this variation occurs in the period of 173,3 days. Being
    maximum of nine seconds for more when the string that passes for the
    nodes, also passes for the sun. Or either, nothing it has to have with
    action of gravitation, therefore it was had would have to happen in
    the period of the perihelion of the land, when the land if finds next
    to the sun, that is during the new moon. Therefore what it happens
    that the inclination is pra inside during the periods of the nodes in
    nine minutes. To put that is a constant process of dynamics that
    already is part of the nature of the irregular dynamics of the moon,
    produced for its condition of small production of energy.

    This variation of nine minutes had an origin that it started with the
    beginning of the orbit of the moon, that as the distancia moon if of
    the land, it widens its inclination, diminishing this variation with
    passing of the times and reduction the energy production. More the
    fronts summer that the astros pass for three phases.

    This happens in the eclipse nodes, or either, in the plan of orbit of
    the moon in relation to the ecliptic, therefore the moon if formed of
    the land, and started to develop its orbit from the alignment of the
    land with the sun, however as all astro, it moves away itself, he
    loses energy and dynamics, and he starts to magnify its inclination
    and eccentricity.

    In this it has a variation of nine minutes of arc for inside during
    the nodes, that occur to each 173,3 days. Or either, any relation with
    the dependence runs away full from the gravitation, therefore it
    confirms there that what determines this irregularity is the condition
    of the origin of astro and the energy production.

    Also it has a stream in the eccentricity, the removal and the
    inclination of rotation. If this was proceeding from the gravitation
    would occur during all perihelion of the land, when the land if found
    next to the sun, or same during the new moon.

    Soon, this phenomenon if must the condition of the origin of the moon,
    therefore it has six of each moon phase that goes if envergando until
    arriving at the time of the node, or either, half year of eclipse,
    that is 173,3 days, and is not year of 365 days as ours.

    Soon, that is all a process that if develops all during the time,
    stops at that time of eclipse node this comes to occur in its maximum.
    Or either, it goes if envergando slowly during 173,3 days, or either,
    this envergamento is occurring in each as that during the eclipse
    phase it is in the maximum position for inside.

    4,5/86,65 = 0,05193 minutes of increasing arc, initiating in the
    eclipse node.

    E 0,05193 minute of decreasing arc, continuing and closing the arc
    until the eclipse node and to form all variation, and comes back to
    remake the variation. It is the time that the sun leads to pass of a
    node to another one, or either, half year of eclipse, that is the
    period of 173,3 days.

    The average is 5,9 degrees of orbital inclination.

    Later slowly it comes back if to open.

    This difference can be calculated with 4.5 minutes increasing
    initiating in the eclipse node that arrives until the half of 173,3
    days, or either, in each day it has an increasing fraction of the 4,5
    minutes up to 86,65 days, later starts to decrease in each day divided
    in fraction of the 4,5 minutes of arc.

    However, this stream this diminishing with the millions of years.

    The land and all the astros produce this stream of irregularities.


    In the declining room the moon continues some time, of the full one
    until the decadence far of the sun and a good time without receiving
    with more intensity the solar thermal maser, thus in little energy the
    moon opens its orbit, deforming it for it are, and the egg of hen with
    a lump for is.

    Natural energy, without upgrade of solar energy is equal to the orbit
    for is.

    ON the REMOVAL Of the MOON And the LAND, And ALL The OTHER ASTROS.

    The moon possesss a removal of the land of four centimeters per year,
    and this already was proven by comments in previous eclipses. This
    seems little, but if treating to thousand of years we see that the
    moon if moves away from the proportional land its production of
    energy, and it is not attracted by the gravitation.

    The AGE Of the MOON And the UNIVERSE. It has to also confirm that the
    moon is well older of the one than if thinks, if to take in
    consideration the time of relative removal the four seconds per year,
    and the esferificação time, then, the age of the moon, the land and
    the universe must be well older.

    The removal, the stream of orbit and the principle of the hen egg that
    is the evecção all the other astros also produce, that in scale only
    lesser, therefore they are very far of the sun.


    Why a side of the land is next to the moon of the one that the other
    side, therefore the moon as it will be seen ahead originated from the
    land and if it moves away, and as already was seen the origin of astro
    if it initiates in the phase of gases and atmosphere until filaments,
    esferificando and forming astro secondary. Thus for being the land and
    to always keep a side next to the equator next to the moon if it must
    its formation and initial phase. As already it was displayed by the
    theory of the energeticidade and maser of that all astro very young
    tends the irregularities, and is irregularity not alone of the land,
    but yes of its secondary one, that it was formed and in the beginning
    of its translation if located of side of the elementary school.

    This excrescência not if must the calls tides of the land, but yes
    the proper moon that if located of side of the planet land, its
    elementary school, during its process of formation, that started of
    the maser, atmosphere, atmosphere filaments until rings, later reels
    of atmosphere layers, until the phase of sphere.


    As already it was seen and calculated that the rotation if must to the
    production of energy of proper astro, it confirms that the planet land
    is decelerating its rotation in sixteen seconds in each million of
    years. Therefore this phenomenon and variation if must to the
    consumption of energy of the production of the same one, and not it
    tides and effect Land-moon, much less if must to the effect of the


    The secular acceleration of the moon is in the truth the gradual
    removal of the moon in relation t

  146. Great Space photos! I especially liked the “The Shuttle, the ISS, and the Sun”.

  147. Jacques Meade

    Damn typos! I misspelt my name above. Should be MEADE.

  148. Thanks for the spectacular Images in Space!! I love them all, and am quite fascinated with Your indulgence. Keep Up The Good Work. Please show Us more.

  149. The number five is amazing. The technology of a mankind and a yellow sun in the back. Beautiful!


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