Dim, faint, and small is no way to go through life, son

By Phil Plait | December 12, 2008 11:00 am

Here’s an unusual record broken: astronomers have found the dimmest stars ever!

Artist view of twin brown dawrfs, the faintest ever detected
Artist’s conception of 2M0939. Credit NASA/JPL-Caltech

Adam Burgasser (and old friend and colleague, married to an old friend too; hi Gen!) led a team at MIT that found the dim bulbs. They are brown dwarfs, objects with too much mass to be considered planets but too low mass to maintain hydrogen fusion in their cores like normal stars. Some people call them "failed stars", but I don’t like that. Maybe they’re just overachieving planets.

Adam’s team observed the brown dwarf 2MASS J09393548-2448279 (which they call 2M0939 for short), which lies about 17 light years away. They used Spitzer Space Telescope to get spectra of the star, which allowed them to get its temperature as well as its chemical composition. They found a temperature of about 600K (330 C or 620 F), making this the coolest brown dwarf ever discovered!

However, they had a mystery on their hands. They can measure how bright the brown dwarf is, and found that it was almost exactly twice as bright as its temperature indicates. What gives?

The answer was obvious enough: 2M0939 is actually a binary star, two brown dwarfs in a tight orbit around each other. They are so close together they appear as one star. This means that each star has a luminosity — that is, total energy emitted from the surface — of only about one-millionth the luminosity of the Sun. So not only are they the coolest self-luminous objects ever seen, they are also the dimmest.

They each have a mass of about 0.01-0.05 times that of the Sun, or about 10-50 times that of Jupiter. That means they are too low mass to have sustained fusion of hydrogen into helium in their cores, so they aren’t proper stars. Most likely they were able to fuse deuterium when they were young and hotter, but that has long since shut down.

Looking at the spectra Adam got makes me smile (the journal paper with the spectra is posted as a PDF on Adam’s site). There are clear indications of ammonia, methane, and even water vapor (steam!) in the atmospheres of these two lightweight objects. The Sun, for example, is far too hot to have those molecules, and you usually see that sort of thing in planetary atmospheres! That’s why brown dwarfs are so weird. They have characteristics of both planets and stars. You have to be careful when studying them, because their borderline stance between these two classifications can be a little confusing. I studied brown dwarfs for a couple of years, and never got tired of how simply weird they are.

The pair making up 2M0939 (taken together) are the fifth closest brown dwarfs known, yet they are so dim you need a big telescope to see them at all. If you put them in place of the Sun in the solar system, from the Earth they would appear far dimmer than the full Moon in the sky! And they would look, oddly enough, magenta to the eye because of their peculiar spectral properties; they don’t put out much light at all in the visible part of the spectrum. But you probably wouldn’t enjoy the view much, because at that distance from the 2M0939, we’d be frozen solid. Oh well.

So my congratulations to Adam and his team. Of course, records were meant to be broken… but then again, I’d put money on Adam being the one to break his own record. Because they are so dim, brown dwarfs like this are extremely tough to find, even though they may be among the most common objects in the Universe. But our telescopes get better, and we have smart, dedicated people like Adam and his team out there looking. Who knows if we’ll find one even closer? Or, in this case, find two.

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Astronomy, Cool stuff

Comments (61)

  1. IVAN3MAN

    I read about this yesterday in NewScientist. Cool!

  2. Charles Boyer

    Very cool!

    Ironically, tonight the moon will its brightest until 2016 — it will appear 14% bigger and some 30% brighter than a typical full moon because the moon is at it’s perigee to the Earth and the full moon is coincidental. Tides will also be about 1.5 feet higher due to the perigeal tide.

    All this and the Geminids too!

  3. At 330°C, would these objects even be noticeably self-luminous in visible light, and does the magenta colour still persist at such cool temperatures?

  4. JoeSmithCA

    I hope this isn’t going to open up the planet definition topic, but is there criteria that differentiates a Gas Giant from a “Sub-Brown Dwarf” and a Brown Dwarf? Besides mass.

  5. Todd W.

    Not planets, not stars, but rather an unholy union of the two…stanets! Or maybe plantars. Although then one’d need to check with a podiatrist.

  6. MrMarkAZ

    Nice article.

    Non-astronomer question: would the planet Jupiter qualify as a brown dwarf? It seems to share a lot of the same characteristics as those described in this article.

  7. Nice Animal House reference. lol.

  8. [pedant]
    If you replaced the sun with these brown dwarfs, wouldn’t the moon still be dimmer since it would be reflecting their dim light?
    [/pedant]

  9. phunk

    Would their combined masses be enough to start fusion? Could tidal effects someday cause them to spiral in to each other and become a ‘real’ star?

  10. Todd W.

    @jtradke

    Heh, I had the same thought, but decided not to be nitpicky.

  11. phunk

    MrMarkAZ: My understanding is that brown dwarfs are big enough for some deuterium fusion to happen in their cores, and Jupiter isn’t.

  12. DGKnipfer

    “Non-astronomer question: would the planet Jupiter qualify as a brown dwarf? It seems to share a lot of the same characteristics as those described in this article.”

    Good question. I thought that BA has said in one of his many topics that Jupiter is way too small to fuse deuterium. That keeps it out of the Brown Dwarf category, right? Any comment from one of our resident physicists or astronomers on this subject?

  13. DGKnipfer

    Here’s an interesting question (in my mind); How close would an Earth sized planet have to be to these two Brown Dwarf stars to be in the liquid water or life zone?

  14. Well played, jtradke. Well played.

  15. Totem

    It says the two stars are in a tight orbit. How close are they? How close do stars have to be in order to be considered in a tight orbit?

    I guess the followup question would be, what are the known closest orbiting stars?

  16. redx

    @jtradke:

    If you switched them out fast enough(instantaneously), the Full moon would appear brighter than the sun for about 1.28223039 seconds.

  17. Greg in Austin

    @redx, et. al.,

    Ahh, but if the moon is full and in the sky, then the sun (existing sun or existing sun instantaneously replaced with brown dwarf) will have already set. So, you’d really have to swap out the stars the day before, when the moon is only 96.6% full. Therefore, the dim sun would actually appear slightly less far dimmer than the moon. ;)

  18. Bill Nettles

    jtradke,
    I WAS going to say it, especially since Phil decided to make the point that we’d be frozen solid. Ah, consistency, that hob-goblin….

    I just reminded my Elementary Ed. space cadets (said affectionately, of course) they would have to know the main constituents of the H_R diagram. Where would these guys fit?

  19. @redx

    Ah, touché, but I think you should add about 8 minutes ~23 seconds (IIRC) to that number, since the last photons of the now-vanished sun still have that long to hit the moon.

    I’m sure that’s what Phil had in mind anyway. :)

  20. Gnat

    I second phunk’s question…could the two stars collide and then have enough mass to start the fusion reaction?

  21. Jumblepudding

    overachieving planets…I like that. reminds me of my quest to assert that pluto was still a planet, only a dwarf planet, just as dwarf people are still people.Until the classification “plutoid” came out and rendered my argument moot. Oh, well.

  22. Brodie

    “the coolest self-luminous objects ever seen”

    ..I see what you did there.

  23. Jerry

    @DGK

    The habitable zone for brown dwarfs is likely to be nonexistent or “within” the radius of the dwarf.

    Gliese 581c is a slighly larger-than-Earth sized planet orbiting only 11 million km from it’s parent red dwarf. Whereas the prototypical brown dwarfs like Gliese 229B and Epsilon Indi Ba and Bb have methane atmospheres suggesting even lower temperatures–perhaps similar to Jupiter-like gas giants.

  24. Andy Beaton

    From the apex of a sufficiently tall mountain, it would be possible to see both the sun and the full moon simultaneously, if one had eyes on stalks.

  25. I don’t think that 300C emits visible radiation at all…

  26. tacitus

    From Wikipedia:

    Currently, the International Astronomical Union considers objects with masses above the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium (currently calculated to be 13 Jupiter masses for objects of solar metallicity) to be a brown dwarf, whereas those objects under that mass (and orbiting stars or stellar remnants) are considered planets.

    The Wikipedia discussion over the difference between planets and brown dwarfs is interesting (type “wiki brown dwarf” in your Firefox address bar (a link would put this comment in moderation). I didn’t know that all brown dwarfs are thought to be about the same size of Jupiter, even though they could be 90 time more massive.

  27. Phil:
    Did you have any classes with Shiv Kumar? These things were his favorite objects.
    I, too, got the Animal House reference, :lol:

  28. kelle

    The whole planet/brown dwarf (BD) definition is still debated within the BD community. In general, there are two camps:

    – FORMATION based: Jupiter is not a BD since it presumably formed in a disk around the Sun. Most people I work with (including Adam) are in this camp. The *problem* with this definition is that you can’t always tell how an object formed {b|m}illions of years ago by observing it today. So far, most planetary-mass brown dwarfs (with mass estimates <13 M_Jup) are far enough away from the primary star to rule out it being formed in a disk. 2M1207B is the proto-typical example of this scenario. Another way of thinking of this definition is "We know a planet when we see one."

    – MASS based: anything 13 M_Jup = BD. This is a bit less complicated since we have a reasonable chance of determining an objects mass. The problem is that it can lead to nonsensical results like “free-floating planets”…that is, a single object (not a companion to a larger star) that is <13 M_Jup. Not a planet as we know it, but fits the definition.

    The way i think about it is simply that the mass and temperature regimes of planets and brown dwarfs *overlap*…and we'll just have to deal with that.

    In conclusion, MrMarkAZ, your question *is* an astronomer question and a topic that is actively argued about in papers and at conferences. And, with KBOs and BDs complicating matters, the definition of a planet is wishy-washy at both ends of the mass spectrum.

  29. Greg in Austin

    @jtradke,

    “Ah, touché, but I think you should add about 8 minutes ~23 seconds (IIRC) to that number, since the last photons of the now-vanished sun still have that long to hit the moon.”

    Ah, hah. But the first photons of the now-visible brown dwarf will also take ~8:23 to here. That last ~1.3 seconds is the time it takes the new dim-light to pass the earth and reach the moon!

    8)

  30. GK4

    I have a question about the researchers’ nickname for these objects. The first four digits of that designation are for hours and minutes. (Right?) So couldn’t there be another “2M0939″ somewhere else in the sky?

    It’s nice to have a nickname, but only if it’s unique.

  31. So are this brown dwarfs in a stable orbit? If not and they where to merge would they then have enough mass to become a star?

  32. kelle

    @GK4,
    yes, there are many 2M0939s in the sky but only one of those is a brown dwarf. Plus, it is only a nickname that’s used after giving the full name with the full RA and Dec. The official non-abbreviated name (the 2MASS designation) is unique.

  33. Pete

    I thought that Jenny McCarthy was the dimmest star…..

  34. justcorbly

    I feel sorry for these little failed stars. Can’t even get rid of water vapor. I’m sure they get no respect from the wannabe novas in the neighborhood.

  35. @Lab Lemming “I don’t think that 300C emits visible radiation at all…”

    You are almost correct. There is very little visible light or ultraviolet light being emitted. Our best instruments probably can’t measure it but according to Planck’s law for blackbody radiators we have:

    Ultraviolet: 1.38E-29 suns
    Visible light: 6.92E-17 suns
    Infrared: 1.00E-6 suns

  36. @DGKnipfer “Here’s an interesting question (in my mind); How close would an Earth sized planet have to be to these two Brown Dwarf stars to be in the liquid water or life zone?”

    The CHZ (Circumstellar Habitable Zone) goes from 7.70E-4 AU (115,000 km) to 1.14E-3 AU (170,000 km) assuming a surface temperature range of 0 deg C to 50 deg C and an Earth-like albedo (0.37) and Earth-like greenhouse temperature increase (40 deg C). Assuming that brown dwarfs have a Jupiter-sized radius of 71,000 km the CHZ goes from 0.6 to 1.4 stellar radii above the surface of the star. So this is very close to the surface of the star. Tidal locking of the planet is almost guaranteed.

  37. @phunk “Would their combined masses be enough to start fusion? Could tidal effects someday cause them to spiral in to each other and become a ‘real’ star?”

    The New Scientist article gives the mass of each one as 30 to 40 Jupiter masses. That leads to a very exciting possibility, merging them leads to a combined mass of 60 to 80 Jupiter masses. The upper part of that range is just large enough for the merged entity to qualify as a real hydrogen-fusing star. There were no orbital parameters given so I don’t know how likely a merger would be in the future.

  38. JoeSmithCA

    @Tom Marking
    Thanks for the info! Interesting. I’m guessing a planetary orbit in a binary system would be far from stable so the odds of having a planet within the habitable zone would be difficult.

  39. I suspect the magenta colour doesn’t apply here anyway: IIRC the predicted magenta colour of brown dwarfs is caused by the alkali metals (mainly sodium) absorbing light in the red and green parts of the spectrum. At these low temperatures, these metals would have rained out of the atmosphere (and even if they hadn’t the absorption would be narrower), so you wouldn’t get magenta.

  40. gopher65

    The discussion here was hilarious:). “If you had eyes on stalks”. Ahahahahaha:).

  41. GK4

    @Kelle,

    Thanks for the clarification.

  42. KC

    >I guess the followup question would be, what are the known closest orbiting stars?

    Alpha Centuri is the closest star system to us and it is a multiple star system. Its about 4.4 light years away.

    Would you get a star if you jammed these two brown dwarfs toether? Hard to say since the masses aren’t known precisely – range is from 10 to 50 Jupiters. If they at the higher end of the scale, and the resulting mass was about 75 Jupiters, then yes you’d have a small star.

  43. HvP

    “Totem Says:
    I guess the followup question would be, what are the known closest orbiting stars?”

    Someone correct me if I’m wrong, but I believe there are cases of stars which are so bloated but so close that their “surfaces” actually touch each other.

  44. T.E.L.

    HvP Said:

    “Someone correct me if I’m wrong, but I believe there are cases of stars which are so bloated but so close that their “surfaces” actually touch each other.”

    That’s an interesting thing to consider. In that case, we need to clarify what’s meant by close. Two stars may be bloated and grazing, but how far apart are their centers of mass? Two smaller stars may not graze each other yet have closer centers of mass.

  45. Todd W. said:

    “Not planets, not stars, but rather an unholy union of the two…stanets! Or maybe plantars. Although then one’d need to check with a podiatrist.”

    Yeah, I can’t imagine giant space warts.

  46. Lucas

    “kelle Says: FORMATION based: Jupiter is not a BD since it presumably formed in a disk around the Sun. Most people I work with (including Adam) are in this camp. The *problem* with this definition is that you can’t always tell how an object formed {b|m}illions of years ago by observing it today. So far, most planetary-mass brown dwarfs (with mass estimates <13 M_Jup) are far enough away from the primary star to rule out it being formed in a disk. 2M1207B is the proto-typical example of this scenario. Another way of thinking of this definition is "We know a planet when we see one.""

    Couldn't you tell with an HR- diagram? I mean, a BD that formed just like a star but didn't have enough mass would still appear in the right place in an HR-diagram for it's luminocity and surface temperature.

    I'm not sure if that's the case for a jupiter like planet

  47. Totem

    Wow, what must the period of revolution be if their surfaces are touching? It’s gotta be staggeringly fast…

  48. kelle

    @lucas,
    the problem is that Jupiter-like planets and very low-mass brown dwarfs overlap on the HR-diagram.

  49. Lucas

    kelle,

    Isn’t that the case only if the BD has reached equilibrium?

    What I’m saying is that you should be able to place the BD someplace along a theoretical evolutionary path corresponding to a model of a given collapsing mass. Planets might share with BD the end of the line, but not the path.

  50. amphiox

    A question about the formation definition for BDs. What’s to stop a STAR from forming by disk collapse? Is there some mechanism that makes it impossible for an object collapsing out of a very big disk to exceed the 75-80 Jupiter mass limit and start fusing hydrogen? If you go by the formation definition, you’d have to call such an object a planet, even though it is fusing hydrogen and shining.

  51. Torbjörn Larsson, OM

    What I’m saying is that you should be able to place the BD someplace along a theoretical evolutionary path corresponding to a model of a given collapsing mass. Planets might share with BD the end of the line, but not the path.

    For a layman, a population based measure seems natural. (And biologists do great with those). But if you are lucky you may not need to observe the contingent history to distinguish between sufficiently different populations.

    What comes to my mind is tacitus comment above, that brown dwarfs obey a possibly distinct mass-volume relationship. If so, perhaps you don’t need to know the path to distinguish them from stars and planets – and it would be a natural measure to base a definition on?

  52. Torbjörn Larsson, OM

    Hmm. So analogously, while biologists study the paths of processes (genetic lineages undergoing evolution), they use traits (analogous to mass-volume relationships for example) to distinguish fossils when they can’t observe the path as it evolves. It is still a valid species definition, just different, forced on them for observational reasons.

  53. StevoR

    Charles Boyer Said on December 12th, 2008 at 11:16 am :

    “Very cool! Ironically, tonight the moon will its brightest until 2016 — it will appear 14% bigger and some 30% brighter than a typical full moon because the moon is at it’s perigee to the Earth and the full moon is coincidental. Tides will also be about 1.5 feet higher due to the perigeal tide. All this and the Geminids too!”

    But there’s the problem – Geminid meteors & full Moon don’t match up well -the brighter moonlight washes out the dimmer meteors. :-(

  54. StevoR

    T.E.L. Says:
    December 12th, 2008 at 9:49 pm
    HvP Said:

    “Someone correct me if I’m wrong, but I believe there are cases of stars which are so bloated but so close that their “surfaces” actually touch each other.”

    That’s an interesting thing to consider. In that case, we need to clarify what’s meant by close. Two stars may be bloated and grazing, but how far apart are their centers of mass? Two smaller stars may not graze each other yet have closer centers of mass.”

    Look up W Usrae Majoris stars, contact binaries & FK Comae Berenices stars – these form a progression of binary stars that are merging.

    1) Start with a close binaries – eg. RS Canum Venaticorum (or perahspo Spica or Beta Centauri or this coolest new brown dwarf.) After awhile they will be tidallylocked and conserve tehri angularmomentum by spuiralling inwards until ..

    2) they meet to become contact binaries like W Ursae Majoris the prototypical example of two stars in the process of fusing together, stars that have spiralled in together until their surfaces are in contact. The process continues as gravity and angular momentum continue to conspire to ..

    2) Fully merge the two stars into one FK Comae Berenices being the prototype here – a weirdly spotted highly active fast spinning single stars – that used to be two stars.

    Source & further reading : James B. Kaler’s book ‘The 100 Gretaest stars’ Copernicus books, 2002. FK Coma Berenices is on page82-83 star 40- & W Ursae Majoris is pages 198-199, star 98.

    If you can find a copy somewhere there’s a great article “Dance of the Double Sun” [ER Vulpeculae] by Ken Croswell which has awesome accompanying spaceart in the July 1993 issue ‘Astronomy’ magazine. Pages 27-33 -& cover illustration.

    That discusses the variable star and close binary or contact binary ER Vulpeculae which is a G1 & G2 class dwrafs -just like our Sun! Until it finally fuses completely & then it will become more like a hyperactive spotty version of Sirius!s

    In that article Ken Croswell notes (p.33) :

    “Roughly one in every thousand stars is a contact binary so our galaxy is full of these exotic objects. The ..nearest contact binary is 44 Bootis B which lies a mere 38 light years away. …ER Vulpeculae has raised the slim possibility that our own Sun was once a contact binary.”

    Pretty amzing huh? ;-)

    I think that answers the question asked by Totem on Dec 12th, 2008 at 11:57 am :

    “It says the two stars are in a tight orbit. How close are they? How close do stars have to be in order to be considered in a tight orbit? I guess the followup question would be, what are the known closest orbiting stars?”

    The closest orbiting stars – the nearest binary star as someone else has pointed out is the Alpha Centauri pair @ 4.3 ly off which may also have Proxima Centauri as a distant companion but the stars with the tightest (closest) orbits are so tight they are actually touching and merging into one!

    Then too there is also the strange case of the star that apparently orbits *inside* the atmosphere of Betelgeux (Alpha Orionis) for at least part of its orbit!

    As what distance qualifies a binary as being “tight” well that depends on two things – how close the two stars are in their own orbits and how far they arefromus and thus how they appear in our telescopes. Which also depends on what telescope your using to view the stars.

    Example : A binary with its stars physically spaced 30 AU apart may not be considered “tight” if its located 20 light years away and seen in a 20 inch scope but if the same pair is seen from a distance of 200 light years away using an 8 inch scope it may well be considered very tight indeed! ;-)

    So “tightness” then is also in the eye (or equipment) of the beholder!
    At least that’s as I understand things – better informed observers are welcome to correct me if I’ve stuffed up here! .;-)

  55. StevoR

    @#!@@#$%$@ non-ability to edit & correct italics & bold &quotes &ad nauseam .. here. Sigh. :-(

    The start of this post was meant to have quotes in italics & names in bold like (hopefully it’ll actually work this time!) this :

    ***
    T.E.L.
    Said (not says btw. hasn’t anyone programmed these machines foir past tense basic grammar?) on Dec. 12th, 2008 at 9:49 pm :

    HvP Said:

    Someone correct me if I’m wrong, but I believe there are cases of stars which are so bloated but so close that their “surfaces” actually touch each other.”

    That’s an interesting thing to consider. In that case, we need to clarify what’s meant by close. Two stars may be bloated and grazing, but how far apart are their centers of mass? Two smaller stars may not graze each other yet have closer centers of mass.”

    Look up W Usrae Majoris stars, contact binaries & FK Comae Berenices stars -these form a progression of binary stars that are inthe process of merging.

    ***

    Oh & I’ll also and merging white dwarfs and neutron stars (aka pulsars & magnetars which are varieties therof) can lead to supernovae and even perhaps Gamma ray bursts I’m pretty sure ..black holes -even supermassive galactic core ones also merge ..

    All these binary objects get incredibly close given their high densities and small radii until they do fuse. The tightest orbit well matter of opinionI’d say but hard to beat that! ;-)

    PS. Being very pedantic and picky here but do brown dwarfs count as stars? If not not there’s a bit of a misleading claim here. But I’ll forgive it!
    ;-)

    As for where they fit on the HR diagram – spectral classes L (mixture of coolest red dwarfs & warmer brown dwrafs) & T (methane type coolest and least massive brown dwarfs were added below M. The HR diagram doesn’t usually show them but they lie below and to the right of class M on the main-sequence. Haven’t seen the stats but I’d figur ethese two brown dwarfs wopuld be spectral class T.

    If (hypothetically-speaking!) we continue along these lines, I suppose Jupiter would be listed as spectral class W, Saturn class X, Neptune Y and Earth (& incidentally Pluto!) Z! ;-)

  56. Joker

    Pete Says:
    December 12th, 2008 at 4:11 pm

    “I thought that Jenny McCarthy was the dimmest star…..”

    Nah. Ben Stein’s gotta be surely! ;-)

  57. Joker

    Or Paris Hilton? Anna Nicole Smith? Tom Cruise?

  58. StevoR

    Actually Joker I think you got it right first time. Paris Hilton may be dumb ..but I’d call Ben Stein as being dumber! ;-)

    For what its worth I suggest the IAU adopt the names ‘Stein’ and ‘Behe’ or “ken ‘ & ‘Ham’ respectively for the two brown dwarfs uneuphonically currently named as .. “oh stuff it I can’t be bothered looking up the code numbers” … let alone trying to pronounce them! ;-)

    Hmm .. or maybe we should call them Bush & Cheney? ;-)

  59. Todd W.

    @StevoR

    @#!@@#$%$@ non-ability to edit & correct italics & bold &quotes &ad nauseam .. here. Sigh.

    May I suggest, perhaps, proofreading your post before you post it? I know it’s a bit tedious, but it would save you the hassle of posting corrected versions of your posts until the edit feature comes along.

  60. IVAN3MAN

    @ StevoR,

    Furthermore to Todd W’s suggestion, it would be easier for you, StevoR, and save yourself a lot of frustration, if you were to initially write out your posts on Microsoft Works Word Processor — which will automatically underline in red any spelling/spacing errors — and then, when you’re satisfied with your comment, simply “copy and paste” the finished article into the comment box. Finally, before hitting the “Submit Comment” button, make sure that the paragraphs are spaced out properly because ‘copying and pasting’ will not do this adequately.

    I hope this helps before you lose your mind!

    :-)

  61. StevoR

    @ ^ 60. IVAN3MAN

    Thanks. :-)

    But I’m afraid its too late – I lost my mind ages ago! ;-)

    And despite much looking, I’ve been unable to find it since.

    Maybe if I just sit here & wait, perhaps drink another beer or two, my mind will come back & find *me* instead? ;-)

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