Update on the Norway Spiral

By Phil Plait | January 20, 2010 10:00 am

You may remember how a bizarre spiral of white light lit up the skies of Norway in December, leading conspiracy theorists and anti-reality proponents everywhere to claim it was everything from an alien spaceship to a transdimensional wormhole.


Saner heads — like mine — saw this immediately for what it was: a rocket booster outgassing while spinning. The question I couldn’t answer at the time was, was this on purpose (gyroscopic spinning for stabilization) or a booster that malfunctioned and spiralled wildly out of control?

It turns out it was the latter. My friend, the space folklore specialist James Oberg, posted an intriguing article in the IEEE Spectrum discussing how this was yet another in a long series of failed tests of the Russian sea-launched Bulava ICBM. He writes about the checkered history of the program and the massive problems it is still facing.

Of course, despite all the evidence that this was a Russian rocket, expect the comment section below to fill to overflowing with nonsensical talk about it being from HAARP, or Big Pharma, or possibly SkyNet. After all, why let silly things like facts get in the way of good conspiracy theory?

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Cool stuff, Debunking, Space
MORE ABOUT: James Oberg

Comments (75)

  1. You are getting sleepy, You are now under my influence.

  2. Douglas Troy

    So wait … that wasn’t caused by the TARDIS?!?!?! I am SOOOOO disillusioned right now.


  3. ND

    “Of course, despite all the evidence that this was a Russian rocket, expect the comment section below to fill to overflowing with nonsensical talk about it being from HAARP, or Big Pharma, or possibly SkyNet. ”

    And you love it when that happens Phil :) A lot of us do too I guess.

  4. RL

    Skynet? Heh. Everyone knows that Skynet related anomalies concern spherical blue flashes, “lightning strikes” and burned up surroundings and/or virus plagued computer networks. And massive nuclear strikes. Clearly this event is not the work of Skynet.

  5. The IEEE Spectrum link gives me “The page you are looking for cannot be found.” Clearly the Mayan Big Pharma ACORN Illuminati Xenu Cylon forces are sabotaging your efforts.

  6. Not to be a nitpicker, but the IEEE URL is wonky. It should be http://spectrum.ieee.org/aerospace/military/russias-ailing-icbm-program
    And I don’t know about portals to other dimensions and whatnot, but that picture makes me want one of those giant lollipops you get at the state fair.

  7. DoctorOHM

    UFO, missile, HAARP or skynet, it’s still really beautiful.

  8. Bahdum (aka Richard)

    Phil, looks like you might’ve doubled the link there. The second occurrence is right on top of the first. I had to search Oberg’s name then sort by date to get the right one.

  9. Bahdum (aka Richard)

    [link deleted, see fixed link above, Bahdum]

  10. It was the Na”vi from Pandora come to seek revenge.


  11. Gus Snarp

    Yeah, but the pictures look so cool and fake!

  12. Yeah, sorry about the cut-n-paste fail. I fixed it.

  13. Correct link to the IEEE article is http://spectrum.ieee.org/aerospace/military/russias-ailing-icbm-program

    Looks like a copy & paste error! Soon to be fixed no doubt, although that may be interpreted as Phil being coerced to remove the TRUE link by the evil conspirators. :-)

  14. Jim

    And here I thought it was the Starship Enterprise arriving from the future to stop global warming (caused, of course, by the Ferengi who have the market cornered on air conditioners in the future)…..

  15. Michelle R

    Well at least all the thing did was pull a pretty show. It could’ve turned out worse.

  16. andy

    expect the comment section below to fill to overflowing with nonsensical talk about it being from HAARP

    I fail to see how a live album by a British rock band could cause this kind of effect.

  17. Venton

    Conspiracy theories are always more entertaining than boring old reality.

  18. Clearly we tore the universe a new space hole!

  19. That’s no rocket spiral….that’s a space station.

  20. richard

    The HAARP one was by far my favorite conspiracy theory on this. Apparently a good blast from HAARP was used to punch a hole in the thermosphere and freeze the northern hemisphere of the planet.


  21. @Venton (18):

    Which is probably why conspiracy theories exist…

  22. Wesley Struebing

    @arensb: You forgot the Rosicrucians! Gotta be careful, there! 😉

  23. davem

    Er, didn’t the Russians own up to this the day aftter the incident, anyway? Why is this news?

  24. Muse put it up there? (HAARP is the name of one of their live albums – I get to see them in about a month here in Atlanta! WOO!)

    Still a pretty pic!

  25. Torbjörn Larsson, OM

    Apparently a good blast from HAARP was used to punch a hole in the thermosphere

    Yes… Not to unduly haarp on this matter, but unless I’m mistaken, I hear from what I suppose are informed sources (persons within the astrophysics community) that these accusations happen on a continuing basis. Say, every winter.

    Seems LHC wasn’t the first victim for conspirationists.

  26. Michel

    HAARP is Big Pharma??

  27. Of course, it doesn’t rule out testing of an anti-missile system. That isn’t so much of a conspiracy theory.

  28. DemetriusOfPharos

    Facts are meaningless. You can use facts to prove anything that’s even remotely true. Facts, schmacts. – Home Simpsons

  29. Tig

    If the missile doesn’t work in the first place, it makes little sense to shoot it down. Conversely, if the missile was successfully launched you would want to allow a good deal of distance to present an appropriate challenge to the interceptor. The former seems more likely here.

  30. Gark

    @Leander: half the purpose of the blog is to tighten one’s grip on the realities of things. if you really don’t like the way he goes about it, go read something else.

  31. Ron

    I always thought the sprial looked like wormhole thta is next to the Deep SPace Nine Station. I expect Captain Sisko to emerge from it any moment.

  32. Lonny Eachus

    Obviously this was a Communist conspiracy to build an enormous, cool spiral in the sky.

  33. I believe that the Spiral was a Russian Missile Fail… BUT, what explanation do you have for the glowing object in the right of the picture?

  34. Sorry, but I deleted leander’s comment. Not because he made fun of me — I let those stay, generally — but because he used a bad word. My rules are clear on commenting, and linked in the sidebar.

  35. Steve


    The glowing thing to the right is part of a conspiracy to put Phil and his colleagues out of business by making astronomy impossible by lighting up the sky.

  36. Lol @ Leander… oh, sorry, you’re being serious, but thanks for the giggle anyway. [edit: oh good, Leander was deleted. Limited intelligence gets you nowhere.]

    It’s funny. We see rockets launch, and explode. There’s no conspiracy, no weirdness, no special-mystery-secret-strange-phenomena needs to be invoked. It’s an exploding rocket, that’s all, the conspiracy nuts are silent.

    BUT we see a rocket launch producing a pretty pattern in the sky before failing and EVERYONE (and his dog) is an expert. It MUST be HAARP punching a hole through the stratosphere, it MUST be EISCAT generating a superheated vortex in the ionosphere, it MUST be aliens, secret weapons or the LHC. IT CAN’T JUST BE A FAILED ROCKET LAUNCH, THAT’S JUST CRAZY!

    Cranks annoy me.

  37. ND

    The glowy thing is symbolic of conspiracy theorists lifelong pursuit to enlighten the rest of humanity with the deep secrets only they have come to understand.

  38. LSandman24

    It was just the anomaly that brought an end to Project Farscape and shot John Crichton through the wormhole. Now he’s on a ship, a living ship…

  39. Dennis

    I don’t care what actually caused that incredibly cool spectacle.
    What I want to know is how can I get to see one in person?
    If it looks that beautiful by accident, imagine what could be done on purpose!
    Annually on the 4th of July would be just fine.

  40. magista

    In one of those coincidences that mean nothing at all, a student came in this afternoon and asked me if I had seen ‘that thing, in the sky, last December, and was it really aliens’, and after I deciphered his cryptic comment I came here to search the archive for the original post.

    Imagine my surprise when it was top of the page. Very handy!

    This same student is just ripe to be plucked by conspiracy types; I’m very glad he comes to ask me questions.

  41. BS. SkyNet had its chance back in August of 1997.

  42. BJN

    I thought the Cold War was over. Why’s Russia working on ICBMs? Why it’s the Russian military industrial complex in action!

  43. Jeffersonian

    Just to assume you were being serious (and that perhaps younger people are reading):

    Russia is still a treaty-signature, nuclear arsenal country with over 3,000 deployable warheads. Updating of ICBMs is part of the maintenance of the weaponry. The Cold War with the US wound down but there are 4 other treaty countries plus India, Pakistan, North Korea and, soon, Iran (matter of time). The latter plus Pakistan are seen as a threat, plus there’s the free-pass Israel gets with the “we have WMDs but will not admit it or allow inspections” stance that causes a regional race. From what I’ve read, Russia feels more threatened now, in some ways, than during the Cold War.


  44. Astrofiend

    It really was a very puuurty spiral – man I wish I was there to see it.

    And I wanna know what Leander wrote dammit! How can I possibly go about innocently enjoying my day when there isn’t some nutter’s colon to stomp on a science blog?

  45. Markle

    You’re a tool Dr. Phil. A tool. Anybody can see that this an apparition. A warning from the great space narwhal telling Norway to give up its whaling ways. OR ELSE

  46. Andrew Frenette

    HAARP? Isn’t that big radio antenna thingy in Alaska that’s responsible causing global warming, controlling the weather, and creating earthquakes? Maybe it was Dr. Who making an unscheduled stop in Norway with the phone booth. Maybe it was a ballistic missile gone wonky. Someone at Russian Flight Control have a little too much vodka?

  47. Crudely Wrott

    Most likely the spiral manifestation indicates that a hurkle is here. If you feel a sudden itch it might be near you.

    But don’t worry, the hurkle is a happy beast.

  48. It’s funny: this is essentially a good control test for a real UFO sighting. It was clear and obvious, hundreds of people saw it, and we have an embarrassment of riches of evidence – tons of videos and photos. These days, a huge number of people have a camera with them at all times on their mobile phone, and plenty of people own digital cameras which can take video.

    But whenever the UFO proponents point to the latest “evidence” of extraterrestrial visits, it’s either no pictures at all, or a single fuzzy blurry one, or a wobbly camera shot of a distant blob. If a UFO really did come to Earth, you can expect hundreds of witnesses and photos, just as with this incident.

  49. Nurse Grace

    Hey, it still looks really cool. Fox Mulder would have creamed himself upon seeing this, that is until he figured out what caused it.

  50. Stanley H. Tweedle

    Reminds me of the Universal Union’s superportal from the Half-Life series!

  51. Rift


    Thanks, in no way a youngster here, but was also wondering why Russia was testing new ICBMs.

    Thanks for putting it so succinctly, doesn’t seem so ‘evil empire-ish’ now. We here on North America basically have the place to ourselves, all those nuclear armed neighbors of Russia has to make them jittery…. (but also makes you wonder why they didn’t understand why Poland had the jitters too and wanted a anti-missile system)

  52. It’s Torchwood Norway, darn it. It’s gotta be! Though I could just be saying that as an excuse to pimp my blog. *coughs, casually gestures to a nearby link* http://wilybadger.wordpress.com/2009/12/11/torchwood-norway-a-forsvaring-jorden/

  53. Petrolonfire

    @ 37. Ian O’Neill Says:

    Cranks annoy me.

    Really? They can be kinda useful when it comes to starting up some bits of machinery like old-fashioned cars & planes though can’t they? 😉

    BUT we see a rocket launch producing a pretty pattern in the sky before failing and EVERYONE (and his dog) is an expert.

    My dog is an expert! Neat. I’ll ask him what he thinks of this once he’s finished barking at his own shadow* & licking his .. well I can’t say what he’s licking here can I? 😉

    It MUST be HAARP punching a hole through the stratosphere, it MUST be EISCAT generating a superheated vortex in the ionosphere, it MUST be aliens, secret weapons or the LHC. IT CAN’T JUST BE A FAILED ROCKET LAUNCH, THAT’S JUST CRAZY!

    I think the Russians should look at it not so much as a failed rocket but more as a very successful firework. I’d like to see them hired for the next “skyshow’ (my local city-wide fireworks) event to do one of these sky spirals! 😉


    * Yes he really does that. You should see him go nuts when I use a torch too! Funny little dog – but a good boy though! :-)

  54. amphiox

    (but also makes you wonder why they didn’t understand why Poland had the jitters too and wanted a anti-missile system)

    Oh, I’m sure they understood. But Poland having an anti-missile system would mean and diminishment of Russian influence (the veiled threat of their massive military power being just a little less threatening) in the region. It’s not that different to how the U.S. reacted to the possibility of Cuba obtaining nuclear missiles (or, god forbid, Canada! :-))

    Realpolitick means understanding fully where the other side is coming from – and then going ahead and screwing them over anyways.

  55. amphiox

    And the thing is, spheroids, discs and spirals are such common natural shapes!

    Now, if that image had been a perfect square (or a 3D representation of a hypercube), or had scrawled out in cursive english “Nyah, nyah, Dr. Plait! Analysis THIS!! HA!” then we might have reason to suspect something unusual going on. . . .

  56. disownedsky

    Well, it would have been nice had something that beautiful been done on purpose, but no.

  57. maija

    Joking around about HAARP is not all that funny. This following part is from a report on the environment, security and foreign policy from the Eu parliament site.

    http://www.europarl.europa.eu (archives)

    HAARP – a weapons system which disrupts the climate

    On 5 February 1998 Parliament’s Subcommittee on Security and Disarmament held a hearing the subject of which included HAARP. NATO and the US had been invited to send representatives, but chose not to do so. The Committee regrets the failure of the USA to send a representative to answer questions, or to use the opportunity to comment on the material submitted.(21)

    HAARP (High Frequency Active Auroral Research Project) is run jointly by the US Air Force and Navy, in conjunction with the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Similar experiments are also being conducted in Norway, probably in the Antarctic, as well as in the former Soviet Union.(22) HAARP is a research project using a ground based apparatus, an array of antennae each powered by its own transmitter, to heat up portions of ionosphere with powerful radio beams.(23) The energy generated heats up parts of the ionosphere; this results in holes in the ionosphere and produces artificial ‘lenses’.

    HAARP can be used for many purposes. Enormous quantities of energy can be controlled by manipulating the electrical characteristics of the atmosphere. If used as a military weapon this can have a devastating impact on an enemy. HAARP can deliver millions of times more energy to a given area than any other conventional transmitter. The energy can also be aimed at a moving target which should constitute a potential anti-missile system.

    The project would also allow better communications with submarines and manipulation of global weather patterns, but it is also possible to do the reverse, to disrupt communications. By manipulating the ionosphere one could block global communications while transmitting one’s own. Another application is earth-penetrating, tomography, x-raying the earth several kilometres deep, to detect oil and gas fields, or underground military facilities. Over-the-horizon radar is another application, looking round the curvature of the earth for in-coming objects.

    From the 1950s the USA conducted explosions of nuclear material in the Van Allen Belts(24) to investigate the effect of the electro-magnetic pulse generated by nuclear weapon explosions at these heights on radio communications and the operation of radar. This created new magnetic radiation belts which covered nearly the whole earth. The electrons travelled along magnetic lines of force and created an artificial Aurora Borealis above the North Pole. These military tests are liable to disrupt the Van Allen belt for a long period. The earth’s magnetic field could be disrupted over large areas, which would obstruct radio communications. According to US scientists it could take hundreds of years for the Van Allen belt to return to normal. HAARP could result in changes in weather patterns. It could also influence whole ecosystems, especially in the sensitive Antarctic regions.

    Another damaging consequence of HAARP is the occurrence of holes in the ionosphere caused by the powerful radio beams. The ionosphere protects us from incoming cosmic radiation. The hope is that the holes will fill again, but our experience of change in the ozone layer points in the other direction. This means substantial holes in the ionosphere that protects us.

    With its far-reaching impact on the environment HAARP is a matter of global concern and we have to ask whether its advantages really outweigh the risks. The environmental impact and the ethical aspect must be closely examined before any further research and testing takes place. HAARP is a project of which the public is almost completely unaware, and this needs to be remedied.

    HAARP has links with 50 years of intensive space research for military purposes, including the Star Wars project, to control the upper atmosphere and communications. This kind of research has to be regarded as a serious threat to the environment, with an incalculable impact on human life. Even now nobody knows what impact HAARP may have. We have to beat down the wall of secrecy around military research, and set up the right to openness and democratic scrutiny of military research projects, and parliamentary control.

    A series of international treaties and conventions (the Convention on the prohibition of military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques, the Antarctic Treaty, the Treaty on principles governing the activities of states in the exploration and use of outer space including the moon and other celestial bodies, and the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea) casts considerable doubt on HAARP on legal as well as humanitarian and political grounds. The Antarctic Treaty lays down that the Antarctic may be used exclusively for peaceful purposes.(25) This would mean that HAARP is a breach of international law. All the implications of the new weapons systems should be examined by independent international bodies. Further international agreements should be sought to protect the environment from unnecessary destruction in war.

  58. @maija:
    And there are people on Youtube who think sundogs and rainbows never existed before HAARP, and so are blaming HAARP for these rainbows coming from their sprinklers or around the sun.

  59. Torbjörn Larsson, OM

    HAARP – a weapons system which disrupts the climate

    Because a (High Frequency Active) Auroral Research Project can’t be about auroras.

  60. Mark Hansen

    Jaydeejapan, why accept a perfectly accurate scientific explanation available to all for a natural phenomenon when you can be one of the {awed voice} fortunate few {end awed voice} who know what teh ebil wurld gummint™ is actually up to. The “I know a secret” feeling is just as addictive as any narcotic.

  61. brageboogie

    Seems this thread hasn’t been visited for a while, but here’s my immediate thought, nonetheless. In my humble opinion, Occam’s razor dictates we use the explanation that introduces the least amount of hidden variables. In cases such as this, where only ‘innocent bystanders’ comment and ‘analyze’ the event in question, it seems to me that all the available explanations exhibit the same amount of hidden variables. That amount is UNKNOWN. To claim one explanation is better than another, when all the empirical evidence we have is an assortment of amateur video and photos, seems rather unscientific and biased in my opinion.
    The norwegian military (norway is a part of NATO) has explained this as being the result of a russian missile malfunctioning. The russians themselves have, to the best of my knowledge, not as of yet confirmed this explanation. However, the diplomatic consequences of Russia firing missiles for testing into norwegian (NATO) airspace, would NOT go unnoticed in the norwegian press. No diplomatic aftermath to this event has so far been documented by the norwegian media, as far as I know. This would be a historically unprecedented lack of diplomatic sanctions following such an event. By comparison; when russian fishers started fishing in norwegian waters some years ago, the norwegian reaction was IMMEDIATE, prompting heavily armed coastguard patrols guarding the norwegian resources. As far as I can deduce, russian rockets penetrating norwegian airspace is a FAR greater threat to norwegian homeland security than russian fishers stealing norwegian resources. Nonetheless; no publicly announced political aftermath thus far. This, of course, proves nothing, but it seems like an anomaly concerning the usual way of handling such affairs between nations, and an anomaly in the medias role of doing the necessary follow-up to a news item of such explosive (no pun intended) proportions.
    On a completely different note, I have to add that the norwegian EISCAT station (rumored to facilitate up to one gigawatt of electricity at max. output) is geographically situated in a completely straight line behind those mountains where the phenomena was sighted and documented. (The distance from tromsø to the mountain over which the phenomenon was spotted is less than 10 km. The distance from those mountains to the EISCAT facility is only another 3 or 4 km. Assumed distance from photographer to phenomenon: approx. 10 km. Actual distance from photographer to EISCAT: approx 14 km. Assumed distance from phenomenon to EISCAT: approx 3-4km) Actually, the lower part of the blue beam in the available photographs point directly to the geographical position of this huge research facility. Documentation exist on the internet claiming that on that very same morning, the EISCAT were to perform an experiment called ‘tequila sunrise’, which was supposedly to be seen as some formation of lights on the morning sky. Energy consumption readouts from EISCAT are available for the specific date and hour when the phenomenon occurred. They display a power consumption of almost one gigawatt at the time of the phenomenon.
    I have to add that the existence of the EISCAT research facility is not a conspiracy theory, and is sufficiently documented by independent sources on the internet, includindg EISCAT itself. All available speculations about what the facility can do (and does), however, may be considered as such, or educated guesses at best. The available documentation concerning the ‘tequila sunrise’ experiment and the power consumption at the facility during the time of the phenomenon is not evidence of anything; it may well be fabricated. But the geographical position of the EISCAT facility CAN be documented, without hassle. It is freely available for those who do the search, you can even go to tromsø and see it (from a distance.)
    Feeling that something seems ‘to good (or bad) to be true’ is not in ANY way a valid scientific, or logic, argument. Reversed; seeing a phenomenon that seemingly defies all rational explanation does NOT translate to it not having a rational explanation, simply that the observer cannot grasp it. This case is still open to satisfactory explanations.

  62. Hangtime55

    No , what it was was a Warning to the United Nations in their attempts at the Copanhegan Climate Talks to apply a Carbon Tax to every person on the planet in the name of a Man Made Global Warming HOAX . The warning and the sign of the spiral is what we are experincing now . . . record snow fall thru out the world ( as an extra slap in the face , Washington D.C had to shut down the government for days due to … snow ) There is no Man Made Global Warming problem , what we are experincing now is Normal , Natural Climate Changes . It is NOT becoming Hotter , it’s becoming Cooler and the attempts by the IPCC to purposely alter data at the CRU to allow a Carbon Tax is a Crime Against Humanity and should be dealt with immediately .

  63. Hangtime55….
    I totally agree with you. I actually witnessed the spiral with my own eyes far away driving through the forests of Sweden, and STILL the entire western sky lit up for about half a minute. Also, although this may not sound very scientific to the same scientific community who claim, for example, that the highly toxic mercury in everyone’s teeth is NOT slowly but surely poisoning them, I did actually hear a very subliminal voice in my sleep (as opposed to dreams) which told me that the Norway spiral was indeed a weather changing device. And also bearing in mind that the same scientific community is STILL arguing over whether the TOXIC “soft-kill” so-called “swine flu” vaccines are effective or not against the fabricated “swine flu” (when of course they have NOTHING whatsoever even to do with a fabricated swine flu, but were/are part of an OBVIOUS depopulation agenda), then I’d rather believe in the voice I heard in my sleep any day than ANYTHING science has to offer (and ESPECIALLY if the name Rockefeller has anything in the least to do with it!).

  64. Jonny P Star

    okay mate if its a rocket why is there no effect from gravity on the spiral then??? gravity accelerates at 10 meters per second per second, this event lasted several minutes and look at those perfect circles

  65. cranfield

    absolute rubbish a completely circular gas trail from a rocket spiralling out of control like that is impossible. It practically makes a circle. Explain also the blue beam. what is that>? plasma?

  66. KMO

    Perhaps it is swamp gas. Or the planet Venus.

  67. Louie

    “Saner heads — like mine — saw this immediately for what it was: a rocket booster outgassing while spinning.”

    Really??? Well could you please show me a picture where this has happened before? Someone mentioned earlier about the effect of gravity. How could this spiral hold it’s form for so long? How could a failed rocket which would be flailing about wildly, leave such a perfectly formed spiral?

    So Phil, explain to us how this was 100% a failed Russian missile? You really should try and lose the arrogant tone is your blogs too buddy.

    Check this link out for some serious research http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread539943/pg1

  68. Michael

    It looks like the Norwegians warned the Russians that their technology is obsolete and their rockets can be taken down.
    The Germans rejected installation of the STAR WAR technology the Americans offered to install throughout Europe.
    The reason? Europeans developed their own STAR WAR technology and implemented it successfully.
    It just happened that Obama was invited to take his Nobel Price for peace. Perhaps this was a display what a the home grown star war technology is capable of doing.
    It looks like two interfering fields there, one is the field of the aerosol from the rocket fuel, the second field is the torsion field, which is probably the cause of the rocket demise to start with.
    It seems that many countries nowadays possess this torsion field technology including Brazil, Germany, Japan, USA, Russia, Israel.

  69. Trivium

    If any of you skeptics would like to actually do a bit of research. Here is a very good interview to listen to!


  70. Michael Jones

    New Explanation of the Mysterious Spiral Lights over Norway
    Why has no one thought of this?

    It was a rocket, but it didn’t malfunction…it did exactly what the Russians had designed it to do. They created a missle defense system, where an ionic structure was formed…utilizing both the frozen ice crystals in the Artic sky, and the Electromagnitism of the area…which is concentrated at the pole.

    You can see that the structure is very uniform and you can see clearly a blue Electromagnetic pulse originating from the Russian Sub that launched the Rocket. Aiming an EM Wave generator at the structure in the sky, would ionize the entire area in the sky and so any enemy missles that passed through the ionize cloud would be rendered useless. The EMP would fry any and all electrical mechanisms…including the guidance system and the weapon system.

    The disabled missle would just fall harmlessly to the ground. The Soviets of course don’t want this to be public knowledge, so they cover it with the fouled missle explanation.

    Please email me if you agree that this is a valid posibility.

    Michael B. Jones
    Science Teacher
    Alamo Center


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