Lutetia may have witnessed the birth of the Earth

By Phil Plait | November 15, 2011 7:00 am

When we look at the solar system now, we see it after it’s had billions of years of evolution under its belt. Things have changed a lot since it first formed out a swirling disk of material, 4.5 billion years ago. We can make some pretty good guesses about the way things looked back then, though. We can see other systems forming around other stars, for example, to get an idea of what things look like when they’re young.

But we can also look at our own solar system, look at the planets, the comets, the asteroids, and, like astronomical archaeologists, get a glimpse into our own cosmic past.

We know that asteroids formed along with the rest of the system back then. We also know that there are many kinds of asteroids: rocky, metallic, chondritic, some even have ice on or near their surface. Some formed far out in the solar system, and some formed near in. The thing is, we think the vast majority of the asteroids that formed close to the Sun were absorbed by — and by that, I mean smacked into and became part of — the inner planets, including Earth. Only a handful of those asteroids still remain intact after all this time. But now we think we’ve found one: the main belt, 130 km-long asteroid Lutetia.

Using a fleet of telescopes, astronomers carefully measured the spectrum of Lutetia — including spectra taken by the European Rosetta space probe, which visited Lutetia in July 2010 and returned incredible close-up images (see the gallery below). The spectra were then compared to spectra of meteorites found on Earth — meteorites come from asteroids after a collision blasts material from them, so they represent a collection of different kinds of asteroids that we can test in the lab here on Earth.

They found that the spectrum of Lutetia matches a very specific type of meteorite found on Earth, called enstatite chondrites. These rare rocks have a very unusual composition that indicates they were formed very near the Sun, where the heat from our star strongly affected their formation. They have a clearly different composition than meteorites which formed in asteroids farther out in the solar system, and are an excellent indication that Lutetia formed in the inner solar system, in the same region where the Earth did.

So Lutetia is a local! There aren’t many like it in the asteroid main belt between Mars and Jupiter, and in fact it’s a bit of a mystery how it got there; perhaps a near encounter with Earth or Venus flung it out that way, and then the influence of Jupiter made its orbit circular. And there it sits, a relatively pristine example of what the solar system was like when it was young. Currently, the Dawn space mission is orbiting the large asteroid Vesta, and will make its way to Ceres, the largest asteroid, after that. I have to wonder if NASA is eyeing Lutetia as another possible target. It’s an amazing chance to visit an object that may yield a lot of insight into our own planet when it was but a youth.

After all, you can take the asteroid out of the inner solar system, but you can’t take the inner solar system out of the asteroid.

Image credit: ESA 2010 MPS for OSIRIS Team. MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/RSSD/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA



Related posts:

- Rosetta sends back gorgeous asteroid closeups
- Asteroid comparison chart, Part II
- Invaders from Vesta!

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Astronomy, Pretty pictures

Comments (7)

  1. Great news & write up. Thanks BA. :-)

    These rare rocks have a very unusual composition that indicates they were formed very near the Sun,

    How near is very near?

  2. Jes
  3. Chris

    Phil are you anthropomorphising asteroids again? While Lutetia may have been present during the formation of the Earth, witnessing something implies consciousness (or at lest a brain) which asteroids don’t have.

    Other than that, very cool.

  4. Cool! Sorta like having an older sibling that you never heard about :-P

    Somewhat off-topic, but I’ve been wondering: why do so many asteroids appear so… smooth? I mean, obviously they’re cratered, but even some of the craters look worn, the way some wind-scoured rocks do on Earth. And presumably, many of these rocks are originally the fractured pieces of larger rocks. So why no sharp, pointy edges? Do micrometeorites, on a scale of billions of years, wear down surfaces the way that windblown sand does (on a much shorter scale) on Earth?

    EDIT: I’m dumb. I didn’t read the whole post :(

  5. Grand Lunar

    I wonder if a manned mission to Lutetia is possible. Load up with a lot of samples and see what we get.

    That, or some probe missions to it. Maybe the first rover on an asteroid?

  6. @ ^ 5. Grand Lunar : “I wonder if a manned mission to Lutetia is possible. Load up with a lot of samples and see what we get.”

    Yep. I’m pretty sure it would be given Lutetia’s already been visited once and NASA is already planning a manned asteroid mission. (Or was at any rate?)

    See :

    http://www.universetoday.com/14101/nasa-considers-manned-asteroid-mission/

    &

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BhaqEVd29io&feature=player_embedded

    for more.

    EDIT : On the other hand, this news item :

    http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2010/09/01/nasa-narrows-targets-manned-asteroid-mission/

    notes :

    An asteroid mission requires a large-enough destination that astronauts could reach within a few months of launch from Earth, says Lindley Johnson, head of NASA’s Near-Earth Object program in Washington.

    Which may rule Lutetia out for now as being too distant.

    There’s a good item on the space (dot) com site discussing the “Plymouth Rock” human spaceflight to an asteroid plan linked to my name now too.

  7. flip

    How do they work out the composition of asteroids near the sun vs far away and compare to meteorites? Is it simply a matter of looking at the spectrum of all and comparing them, then realising that certain asteroids match/are similar to meteorites?

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