A planet boils away under its blow-torch star

By Phil Plait | January 19, 2012 10:04 am

There’s been a lot of exoplanet news lately! Part of that is due to the American Astronomical Society meeting recently — in fact, there was so much I wrote four articles just from that (Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3, and Part 4). This next story wasn’t released at the meeting, yet may honestly be the most mind-blowing of them all.

Astronomers have found what appears to be a planet literally boiling away from the blast-furnace heat of its star.

Holy cosmic oxyacetylene torch!

[Image: Reign of Fire by the extremely talented space artist Inga Nielsen. She has prints of them for sale, too!]

There’s a bit of a back story here. The star, KIC 12557548, is about 1500 light years away, and is one of many thousands being observed by the orbiting Kepler Observatory (KIC stands for Kepler Input Catalog, a list of stars under Kepler’s watchful eye). The observatory stares at one spot in the sky, looking for stars whose brightness dips periodically. There can be many causes of such behavior, one of which is the presence of planets orbiting the star and blocking the light from it as they pass in front of it. This is called a transit, and has proven to be wildly successful; hundreds of planets have been discovered this way.

What the authors of this new study are saying is that they see a periodic dip in the brightness of KIC 12557548 every 15.685 hours. Yes, hours. The star is a bit smaller and cooler than the Sun (a K star with about 0.7 times the mass of the Sun, if you want specifics), but even so, the planet must orbit the star a mere 1.5 million kilometers (900,000 miles) from its surface — that’s less than four times the distance of the Moon from the Earth!

That’s close. You’d expect the planet to be cooking… and you’d be right. It’s probably somewhere around 2000°C (3600°F).

Usually, with most planets, the amount of light blocked as the planet passes in front of the star is the same every time. That makes sense, because the planet itself isn’t changing. But not for KIC 12557548. What they saw was that every transit was different. Sometimes more than 1% of the light is blocked, sometimes they detect no dimming at all at the appointed time. That’s really weird.

They looked at and eliminated a few different scenarios, but the fact that the planet is that close to the star really leaves just one idea: a rocky world, probably half the diameter of Earth, being vaporized by the heat of its parent star*.

Yegads.


It sounds crazy, but it fits a lot of their data. The planet has to be small, or else its gravity would be enough to hold onto the hot material. The outflowing material is thick and dusty, so it can block the light from the star. Changes in the amount of light blocked are due to changes in the dust cloud, which themselves may be due to inhomogeneities in the planet itself; different layers and features being vaporized. Sometimes there’s no dust at all, and the planet is too small to be detected blocking the star, so no dip in light is seen.

Given all this, it’s possible to estimate how much mass is lost by the planet, and the answer is a staggering 100,000 tons per second. That sounds like a lot — and it is! — but planets are pretty big, even "super-Mercuries" like this one. It would take hundreds of millions of years to totally evaporate the planet at that rate, so it’ll most likely be around for a while for us to study.

How amazing would it be to be there (protected thoroughly, of course)? Imagine: from the planet, the star eats up half the sky, hundreds of times bigger than the Sun looks from Earth. Blazing down, fierce, uncompromising, the heat is intense and all-encompassing. The surface of the planet is glowing, liquid lava. There’s an atmosphere, but it’s composed of vaporized rock and it’s as hot as the devil’s breath. Flowing upward under the weak gravity, the dusty gas itself glows from heat as it rises up into space. The wind and pressure from the light of the star itself pushes on the gas, forming a long, graceful curve like the tail of a comet, stretching for millions of kilometers behind and away from the planet.

It’s a disaster on a planetary scale, an entire world boiling away in front of your eyes! And it will only end when the planet itself is gone, evaporated, vaporized.

Pfffffft!

The more I read about exoplanets, the more I wonder what surprises are in store for us. We’ve only just started looking for them! We need bigger telescope, better equipment, and simply more eyes on the sky. What other crazy amazing thing is out there just waiting for us to see it?

Tip o’ the Galactus helmet to Dan Vergano at USA Today. Image credits: Inga Nielsen, Gate to Nowhere; NASA, European Space Agency, Alfred Vidal-Madjar (Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS).


* I’ll note that another planet, HD 209458b, is so hot that its atmosphere is puffed up and is being lost to space, like a gigantic comet. But that’s the atmosphere; for this planet we’re talking the actual surface being boiled away. Craziness.

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Astronomy, Cool stuff, Top Post

Comments (52)

  1. chief

    Be interesting if the material cast off by this evaporation becomes fuel to form another body further out.

    And this answers a question from a previous post on outgassing. cool.

  2. I wonder if there was a “Vulcan” planet in our solar system somewhere near its formation that was vaporized like this one too…

  3. Josh

    Lots of questions spring to my mind on this case.
    -As this planet loses mass, wouldn’t the gravitational pull of the star be lessened? Would the planet ease to a higher orbit, lessening the boiling rate? Or is that offset by the loss of mass => lower inertia?
    -Why would the planet form in this orbit in the first place? Wouldn’t any accretion this close to the star be immediately subject to equally intense heating? Or is the star perhaps in a particularly hot or expanding phase of its life?
    -Presumably, the escaped vapor is blown out of the orbital path by solar winds, so the planet isn’t regathering most of this weight. Like the first commenters, I wonder if it is conceivable that this mass will regather at an orbit farther from the original planet?

  4. Mark

    So we don’t know the mass of the planet and we know the mass of the star is less than the mass of the Sun, so what follows may be a gross mischaracterization, but food for thought:

    According to Wiki (it’s back up! yay!), the Roche limit for a fluid Earth-sized planet around a Sun-like star is about 1 million kilometers. If this planet is literally boiling away, then I would say it’s most definitely fluid (a planet of liquid rock.. that alone is incredible). This planet is orbiting at 1.5 million kilometers. Depending on the factors, this planet may be just outside the Roche limit of the star; tidal forces may tear this planet-sized blob of molten rock apart if it gets any closer to the star.

    Also, the Roche limit seems to go up as the size of the body goes down (maintaining the same density), so as this planet loses mass, it gets closer and closer to breaking up. And if the planet was formed further away (probably) and migrated into the star, that too would bring it closer to destruction.

  5. I guess the planet would be tidally locked to the star, and that the vast majority of the material vaporised on the starward side would redeposit on the dark side.
    Maybe they could get a spectrum and determine what the “tail” is made of.

  6. uudale

    From the NASA site about HD 209458b…

    “Some astronomers studying this distant planetary system now believe they have detected water vapor among the gases being liberated”

    Steam pressure cooker! Yikes!

    Obviously this planet won’t be around too much longer (on a cosmic time scale, of course). So, what exactly is the scenario here (re: comment #3)? Planet spiraling in toward the sun, or sun expanding? Or how did it form in the first place?

  7. chief

    re 5.Andrew

    Even if tidally locked, It would be a safe bet that you couldn’t seek shelter on the dark side, it would be molten as well.

    4. Mark, remember all planets of certain sizes start out as molten objects. Although there is no real way to know how long earth was molten after the initial formation (and became molten again after the “mars” imapactor that formed the moon from the initial crustal material of the young earth.

    Imagine the view as in the movie (sunshine) in the skies of this planet. spf 10k

  8. If the planet is rotating, maybe the rate of rotation can be determined if there’s a cyclical variation in the size of the plume.

  9. Mejilan

    Hmmm. Normally, artist interpretations of hypothesized astronomical scenarios make me cringe. But this one is quite beautiful…

  10. Dutch Railroader

    @3 & @6

    The planet will maintain the exact same orbit as it loses mass. The acceleration due to gravity is independent of the mass of planet when it has a trivial fraction of the mass of its sun. For very small bodies, asteroids, boulders, etc.., non-gravitational forces will be begin to alter the orbit (asymmetric mass loss, heat radiation, interaction with the stellar wind, etc.).

  11. Jess Tauber

    I think we can all agree that with this particular planet, we can change the designation for KIC to KFC! :)

  12. Paul

    I thought I read someone recently detected a planet in close orbit around a subdwarf. The temperature on the sibstellar point of this planet was estimated to be as high as 9000 C(!). The planet was thought to be the core of a gas giant that had spiraled down into the red giant before it shed its envelope to become the subdwarf.

    Ah yes:

    http://kepler.nasa.gov/news/keplerinthenews/index.cfm?fuseaction=ShowNews&NewsID=178

  13. Avi Chapman

    It occurs to me that this planet might not be round. If it’s that close to its star, it’s probably tidally locked. So it should evaporate fastest on the part closest to its sun. This should, over time, flatten the sun-facing side until the planet looks like a hemisphere. Of course, what I don’t know, is what would happen to the planet when its centre of mass shifts like that. Would it eventually roll over?

  14. Dave

    Space porn, by definition, it’s so hot! :D

  15. sangos

    The mind blasting humongous power and energy all around us is just confounding…and we thought racing cars were a crazy waste…Wow we live in a space reality of infinite energy harnessing which be our next technological focus, rather than trying to contact a ‘friendly’ alien race that may not share their advanced know how with us!

  16. Not that this isn’t awesome news and a great find but I thought we’d already observed a number of planets undergoing this process starting with Osiris? (HD 209458 b)

    One study from 2007′ (See “How to Destroy a Giant Planet’ via space-dot-com linked to my name here) suggests all HotJoves closer than 0.15 AU (24 million km) will eventually be destroyed by this catastrophic evaporation. Eg. Belleopheron, 51 Pegasi b, Tau Bootis b, HD 209458 b, etc.

    Pretty sure I recall seeing a report or two about exoplanets being consumed by their stars here too.

    Love that superluminous artwork! :-)

  17. Georg

    When
    a planet vaporizes, the gas will not cool down on the dayside, and there will be no “dust”.
    The gas will be blown away from the star, at some distance the gas will
    cool and start to condense to liquid or solid particles. (without knowing the chemical
    composition nobody can say which).
    But whatever: if the condensate is liquid droplets, one will name that thing fog or
    maybe smog, in case of solid particles the name is smoke, but not dust!
    Georg

  18. Brian

    Can you say Crematoria? – from “The Chronicles of Riddick “

  19. Chet Twarog

    Fortunately, no has mentioned a science fiction movie that had such a similar planet: The Chronicles of Riddick (2004). Find it here: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0296572/

  20. Messier Tidy Upper

    @ ^ Chet Twarog : Murphy’s law strikes again! ;-)

    Such char broiled, close in literally infernal worlds – especially the smaller ones’ always remind me more of Mustafar from Star Wars but Crematoria works too. Dune though is remarkably far too cool & pleasant a (fictional) planet to be a suitable analogy here. :-)

    @ 12. Jess Tauber : “I think we can all agree that with this particular planet, we can change the designation for KIC to KFC!”

    LOL. Y’know I think they really should do that! :-)

    @14. Avi Chapman – January 19th, 2012 at 2:02 pm :

    It occurs to me that this planet might not be round. If it’s that close to its star, it’s probably tidally locked. So it should evaporate fastest on the part closest to its sun. This should, over time, flatten the sun-facing side until the planet looks like a hemisphere. Of course, what I don’t know, is what would happen to the planet when its centre of mass shifts like that. Would it eventually roll over?

    Interesting idea there.

    I think there’s evidence that the hottest spot at least on some Hot Jupiters is just a bit off set. Could be the heat and force of evaporation moves the planet and forces it to turn more – and it may not necessarily be tidally locked if it rotatiiong ultra-quickly which could also distort the planet’s shape eg. the case of the ice dwarf Haumea.

  21. Messier Tidy Upper

    Pretty sure I recall seeing a report or two about exoplanets being consumed by their stars here too.

    Aha! This might be the one :

    http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/badastronomy/2010/05/20/star-om-nom-nom-planet-aieee/

    Also see :

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haumea_(dwarf_planet)

    if folks want to refresh their memories Haumea-wise.
    I was thinking of! :-)

  22. Messier Tidy Upper

    I think there’s evidence that the hottest spot at least on some Hot Jupiters is just a bit off set.

    Here we go. This article :

    http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Planet_Affects_A_Stars_Spin_999.html

    includes a “map” of the “hot Jupiter” planet HD 189733b revealing a “hot spot” that is offset from the substellar point (high noon) by about 30 degrees possibly caused by jet stream winds of up to 6,000 mph.

    Note also that this lithium rich yellow dwarf (G0 V) star :

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HD_82943

    has probably already consumed not one but two Hot Joves! The APoD site also has good artwork of that here :

    http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap010518.html

    Unless I’m gravely mistaken, there are quite a few other cases – known or suspected – of stars especially the giant and sub-giant varieties devouring their exoplanetary companions. In fact ithink thatwas one theory explaining what happened with V838 Monocerotis’es daramtic outburst captured by Hubble May-to-Dec. 2002.

  23. amphiox

    Although there is no real way to know how long earth was molten after the initial formation

    Keep in mind that the earth is still, mostly, molten.

    If the earth was an apple, the solid crust would be the apple peel, the molten mantle and liquid outer core would make up most of the rest of the apple….

    Our planet is basically a cosmic ball of creme brule.

  24. Messier Tidy Upper

    @ ^ amphiox : But just alittle less edible and tasty! ;-)

    Good point there – we do tend to ignore all the Earth except the surface layer we live on though don’t we? When you think about it, earth is really made of magma not teh substance it is named after which covers only a third of that thin crust we live on with the rest covered in liquid or solid water.

    In fact I think that was one theory explaining what happened with V838 Monocerotis’es dramatic outburst captured by Hubble May-to-Dec. 2002.

    Indeed Wikipedia notes :

    Another possibility is that V838 Monocerotis may have swallowed its giant planets. If one of the planets entered into the atmosphere of the star, the stellar atmosphere would have begun slowing down the planet. As the planet penetrated deeper into the atmosphere, friction would become stronger and kinetic energy would be released into the star more rapidly. The star’s envelope would then warm up enough to trigger deuterium fusion, which would lead to rapid expansion. The later peaks may then have occurred when two other planets entered into the expanded envelope. The authors of this model calculate that every year about 0.4 planetary capture events occur in Sun-like stars in the Milky Way galaxy, whereas for massive stars like V838 Monocerotis the rate is approximately 0.5–2.5 events per year.

    Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V838_Monocerotis

    (Ahhh, so nice to be able to give those links again & well done Wikipedia for its protest victory – but please don’t ever do that again! )

    Although that’s only one of several theories for V838 Monocerotis ‘s 2002 pseudo-nova eruption.

    The planet-star interaction described here :

    http://www.space.com/10591-alien-planet-hot-jupiter-speeds-parent-star.html

    where a Hot Jupiter is actually pushing around an ornage dwarf star and is paying the deadly price is also worth noting in this context.

  25. amphiox

    It occurs to me that this planet might not be round. If it’s that close to its star, it’s probably tidally locked. So it should evaporate fastest on the part closest to its sun. This should, over time, flatten the sun-facing side until the planet looks like a hemisphere.

    And of course, that if true would mean, per the IAU planet definition, that it wouldn’t be a planet anymore…..

  26. Messier Tidy Upper

    @ ^ amphiox : Don’t get me started on the multitudinous flaws and dreadful illogic of that wretched IAU definition! :-(

    But yes – another very good point there – although absurdly, ludicrously and in total violation of the Copernican principle the IAU decree bars exoplanets from technically counting as “proper” planets anyhow. Which is just so …

    … infuriatingly stupid. :-(

    Hopefully, it won’t be long before the huge error the IAU made gets corrected by them to a better definition including both the exoplanet and ice dwarf categories. As it is, I just treat their definition with the contempt it deserves and ignore it and recommend others do the same as pretty much effectively happens at least when it comes to extrasolar planets.

    ***

    Finally whilst thinking of exoplanets suffering this major evapouration all the way down to destruction process there’s this comment :

    http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/badastronomy/2011/11/30/a-boiling-superearth-joins-the-exoplanet-roster/#comment-448116

    on the recent Kepler-21b discovery and my imagined possible history and evolution of that burning SuperMercury /ex-exo-Neptune – and, yes, that’s not a typo! ;-)

    The idea that many Hot SuperMercury’s may be the charred coals and core remmants from gas giants that were literally boiled down and blown away to thier present state is, pretty widespread from what I can gather & applies to a lot of such worlds incl. COROT exo-7 b :

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/COROT-Exo-7b

    & Mu Arae c

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mu_Arae_c

    anong others. I vaguely recall reading somewhere that there’s even been a possible category / class /type name for such Hot Ex-Gas giant planets proposed – Cthonics or suchlike?

  27. Not meaning to hog this thread but one last thing that I hope is worth adding here :

    #14. Avi Chapman – January 19th, 2012 at 2:02 pm :

    It occurs to me that this planet might not be round. If it’s that close to its star, it’s probably tidally locked. So it should evaporate fastest on the part closest to its sun. This should, over time, flatten the sun-facing side until the planet looks like a hemisphere. Of course, what I don’t know, is what would happen to the planet when its centre of mass shifts like that. Would it eventually roll over?

    Yes that seems quite likely based on what apparently happened to Saturnean moon Enceladus which rolled over to redistribute its mass and put its hottest, lowest density area at its south pole. Click on my name here for the link or cut’n'paste :

    NASA-Funded Study Says Saturn’s Moon Enceladus Rolled Over

    into your search box for details. :-)

    Seems Miranda – the moon of Ouranos not the fictional “pacified” Reaver homeworld of Serenity – may have rolled over too.

  28. Messier Tidy Upper

    I vaguely recall reading somewhere that there’s even been a possible category / class /type name for such Hot Ex-Gas giant planets proposed – Cthonics or suchlike?

    Dipping into the fount of all wisdom (Wikipedia) again – Chthonian planet :

    .. a hypothetical class of celestial objects resulting from the stripping away of a gas giant’s hydrogen and helium atmosphere and outer layers, which is called hydrodynamic escape. Such atmospheric stripping is a likely result of proximity to a star. The remaining rocky or metallic core would resemble a terrestrial planet in many respects. Chthonia (from Greek: χθων) means “of the Earth”. The term was coined by Hébrard et al., since the term chthonian generally refers to Greek deities from the infernal underground.

    Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chthonian_planet

    This certainly seems better than using the “SuperEarth” term for worlds that are incredibly unearthly in so many respects. (Besides approximate mass & diameter natch.) I also like Luciferan, the more descriptive superVenus /superMercury and my favourite term for such planets Mustafarian / Mustafar type. :-)

  29. @14 Avi Chapman: It occurs to me that this planet might not be round. If it’s that close to its star, it’s probably tidally locked. So it should evaporate fastest on the part closest to its sun. This should, over time, flatten the sun-facing side until the planet looks like a hemisphere. Of course, what I don’t know, is what would happen to the planet when its centre of mass shifts like that. Would it eventually roll over?

    Precisely what I was wondering :)

  30. @28 MTU : Fascinating. I wonder if it’d happen slowly, or if it’d reach a tipping point and just go all at once in a relatively short period of time?

    Also, I wonder if all the vapor boiling off the planet might condense into a dust belt further out? Might planetoids eventually form from the debris? Unlikely, as it sounds like a smallish planet, but it’s sure fun to think about.

  31. andy

    Regarding V838 Monocerotis, the Wikipedia article is somewhat out of date or at least misrepresents the current view. The planet engulfment hypothesis doesn’t really hold up. Among other things you need an arbitrary “stopping distance” within the star, and the required orbital parameters for the initial planetary system would be wildly unstable.

    Currently by far the most likely explanation is that a stellar merger is the most likely mechanism. Indeed for another example of a “red nova” eruption, V1309 Scorpii, we actually have photometry from before the eruption that indicates the progenitor was a contact binary star.

  32. Alec

    this is so interesting i love to hear about the solar system. i am 14 years old and this so good foe my education i love NASA.

  33. Daniel Snyder

    100,000 tons a second…correct me if I’m wrong, but that’s throwing a USS Enterprise frickin’ AIRCRAFT CARRIER into outer space EVERY SECOND.

    That’s mind-blowing. Thanks, Phil!

  34. James

    Bonus fun:
    Given that the planet couldn’t have formed that close to the star, it must have migrated in from a higher orbit – but that implies that it gravitationally interacted with a larger planet that we just haven’t spotted yet. I wonder how much of the smoke trail that planet’s inhaling?

    Someone else can have the fun of figuring out whether or not a planet can stay tidally locked with its primary when its angular momentum is literally going up in smoke.

  35. Gary Ansorge

    34. James

    It’s been proposed that a gas giant at a reasonable distance from its star tends to stabilize the smaller planets in the system, thru resonance interactions, which is one reason OUR solar system is so well organized, so perhaps there isn’t a large enough gas giant in this system for that to happen.

    Thank you Jupiter,,,

    GAry 7

  36. “It occurs to me that this planet might not be round.”

    Please read this:
    http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/badastronomy/2012/01/20/for-moons-size-does-matter/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+BadAstronomyBlog+%28Bad+Astronomy%29

    Remember we’re talking about a very hot, dense, molten object that’s probably about the size of Mercury.

  37. Harry Ray

    No matter how horrific This planet seems, it’s a winter vacation compared to the two chthonian (i.e. formally jovian, but now just rocky reminants) planets orbiting KOI 55! Unfortunately, those two do not transit, so their comet tails cannot be detected.

  38. MattTheTubaGuy

    Why would it flatten on one side?
    If it is hot enough to have a liquid rock surface (along with the inside as well obviously), wouldn’t it just reshape? It would only flatten if it was rigid, and even if it was, if it is big enough to form a spherical shape, wouldn’t gravity just warp itself back into the spherical shape anyway?
    I would imagine it would be slightly pear shaped due to the higher tidal force on the star facing side.
    As the mass is lost, the tidal force stays the same, but the planet’s gravity decreases, so the bulge would gradually increase until the planet is eventually ripped apart.

  39. Jared

    @41 That’s what I thought. On planetary scales, there’s no such thing as a rigid material. Even ‘solid’ rock flows like water. Sure, there might be a slight asymmetry, and things will certainly get more complicated as the planet’s own gravity loses ground to its star’s, but the tectonic activity keeping the thing roughly spherical must be beyond reckoning. The center point of the planet literally moves noticeably with each each passing day. Makes even Io look like a safe place to stash your valuables.

    A few more things come to mind. How old is this star? How long has this been going on? It’s an accelerating process (as the planet loses mass, it becomes less able to hang onto its existing mass), so it could be the planet started off much, much larger, and we’re looking at events towards the end of the process. Might be analogous to a tiny black hole eating a planet; it takes years, but 90% of the work is done in just the last few minutes. I think there was a bad astronomer even wrote a book detailing such an event!

  40. andy

    Yes the KOI-55 system would be a fantastically nasty place! If I’m not mistaken those two are the most strongly-irradiated exoplanets known, by virtue of orbiting very close to a star that is significantly hotter than most other known exoplanet host stars.

  41. Thomas Beck

    What kind of SPF do I need to pack for my visit?

  42. Paul

    “devil’s breath”?????

    Is this a (pseudo)scientific magazine? What’s next? Praying to nonexistent god to rescue the planet?

    Please……

  43. Paul (45): Yes. That’s exactly what’s next.

    [rolleyes]

    Oh- you missed making fun of my use of the word “yegads”, which also clearly has roots in religious thinking. Try to keep up, OK?

  44. prentice

    I think most of this astronomy stuff is bunk and people are falling for it like they fell for the star wars movies. This is mostly science fiction hyped up to pray on peoples curiosity and the astrological society is benefiting greatly from it. Come on people don’t be so gullable.

  45. Awesome post.. I had to read it twice to understand it all though, haha!

  46. gigglyguts

    @Prentice If it is **bunk** why are you here reading all about it?
    Just wondering

  47. Sion

    @#24 Amphiox,
    Someone has fed you some false information. The Earth’s crust is solid, as is the inner core, AND the mantle. It is only the outer core which is liquid. The uppermost parts of the mantle contain some small amounts of melt where the presence of subducted water has lowered the melting temperature, but for the vast majority of it’s volume the mantle is a solid. We know this because seismic shear waves pass through it and you can’t shear a liquid. It is, to be fair, plastic, by which I mean it can deform slowly over very long timescales, but that doesn’t make it a liquid any more than glass or tarmac roads are a liquid.
    This is one cultural meme I intend to stamp out! ;)

  48. whoa…… A super-mercury it is. Hey is anybody thinking of
    THIS MIGHT BE MERCURY’S FATE SOMEDAY! Or is it a Super-Mars. Either might be interesting. Science is awesome and I’m sticking my tongue out at the stupid people.
    SO GO SCIENCE!!!!!!! BOO DENIALISTS!!

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