Category: Occupations & Work

A Reptile Dysfunction: Unlikely Sources of Salmonella

By Rebecca Kreston | March 24, 2014 9:35 am

Salmonella may well be one of the most disreputable microbes in Western society. It’s infamous for its food-poisoning capabilities and has a well known history of wrecking the bonhomous vibe following a good summer barbecue, not to mention its singular ability to cast a sickly shadow over the breathtaking bounty of an all-you-can-eat buffet.

An illustration of a petri dish with red Salmonella bacteria rods.

A gram stain of a species of Salmonella. Image: CDC.

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Paved With Good Intentions: Mao Tse-Tung’s “Four Pests” Disaster

By Rebecca Kreston | February 26, 2014 9:33 am

The public health game is a tough one to play. How do you achieve educating and transforming the public’s behavior for the common good without coming off as a bully or dour spoil-sport? The stakes are impossible: The indifferent audience, the management of the reproachful “tsk-tsk, you should know better” tone, and there’s only so many ways to proselytize a message of “getting one’s act together.” And where’s the cash for such endeavors?

Four Pests campaign poster from 1960

“Eradicate pests and diseases and build happiness for ten thousand generations.” A poster from September 1960 by the Red Cross and the Health Propaganda Office of the Health Department of Fujian Province. Note the industrial skyline, the healthy crop of vegetables in the center of the poster and the four pests at the bottom. Source: US National LIbrary of Medicine. Click for source.

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Caution to the Wind: Dirty Horns are the Clarion Call for Microbes

By Rebecca Kreston | November 14, 2013 6:20 pm

The professional musician who follows her dream of performing on the stage is greeted by an array of unusual occupational hazards. These are not limited to those late night hours spent in bars exposed to cigarette smoke and aggressive groupies but the risks of carpal tunnel, hoarseness, hearing loss, and the longterm effects of strange sleeping schedules as well. For those that provide their marching bands, funk joints, and jazz ensembles with that crucial brass sound, however, they may be at additional risk from a tiny threat hiding within their very own instrument.

What could be hiding in this tenor saxophone? Image: Holbox.

What could be hiding in this tenor saxophone? Image: Holbox.

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Plague It Again, Sam: Plague in the Twenty-First Century

By Rebecca Kreston | October 29, 2013 8:30 am

The plague is an old microbial foe that has haunted our cities and our ports for millennia, killing millions of people in waves of pandemics since antiquity. But Yersinia pestis no longer has the same presence, or stranglehold, in our society and seems negligible when we consider the current state of microbial affairs – increasing levels of antibiotic resistance and novel and emerging viral pathogens, just to name a couple of today’s most pressing issues. Even its moniker, “the plague,” has been appropriated for more contemporary microorganisms that appear to come from nowhere and quickly, fatally sweep through a population – SARS and HIV are prime examples of two new “plagues.”

An image of a brown female Xenopsylla cheopis flea, responsible for transmission of Yersinia pestis, otherwise known as plague

A female Xenopsylla cheopis flea, known as the “oriental rat flea,” one of the major vectors for transmission of the bacterium Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. Image: CDC/ World Health Organization.

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Valley Fever, The Archaeologist’s Scourge

By Rebecca Kreston | September 9, 2013 8:00 am

This past June a federal judge ordered the relocation of thousands of prisoners from two prisons in the San Joaquin Valley in California to protect imprisoned men against a small fungus, Coccidioides immitis, that could infiltrate the gated and locked Pleasant Valley and Avenal state prisons and continue to cause isolated cases of a debilitating illness, valley fever. 

A photomicrograph showing scattered strains of arthroconidia of the fungus Coccidioides immitis.

A photomicrograph of the arthroconidia of Coccidioides immitis showing their characteristic barrel shape. Image: CDC/Dr. Lucille K. Georg.

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Body Horrors Talks Disease & Society on Skeptically Speaking

By Rebecca Kreston | July 8, 2013 10:05 am

This past May I had the pleasure to chat with Desiree Schell of the radio and podcast show Skeptically Speaking about how infectious diseases and parasites can shape society for an episode examining the impact of science and medicine on specific communities. Over at their website, you can download the hour-long episode “Community Specific Science” featuring myself, Danielle Lee and Dr. Joe Henrich and hear more about how science journalism and the social sciences are investigating the ways in which the livelihoods and health of certain groups - delineated by ethnicity, culture or religion  - are affected by scientific research and medicine. Lee speaks for the first third of the episode on the state of science coverage in media that serves minority audiences, while Henrich finishes the show with his research on cultural outliers, those societies not generally considered Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, or Democratic – what Dr. Henrich refers to as WEIRD – and the state of behavioral research.

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Purdah? I Hardly Know Ya!: Social Influences On Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

By Rebecca Kreston | June 20, 2013 5:20 pm

Today in The New York Times coverage of a report published yesterday on a Saudi hospital-borne outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome released by The New England Journal of Medicine, a potential epidemiological phenomenon was briefly addressed: men have made up the majority of infected cases and the low rates of infection among women may be due to an emphasis on the wearing of the face veil, known as the “niqab,” in Arab culture.

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Alchemists Gone Bad: What You Should Know About Biological Warfare

By Rebecca Kreston | June 11, 2013 6:45 pm

Spears. Bows and arrows. Swords. Guns. Bombs. Drones. Microbes. The evolution of weapons and forms of warfare shadows our technological advancements, from the field of metallurgy to that of microbiology.

A 1942 American propaganda poster derived from President Roosevelt’s “Day of Infamy” speech following the Pearl Harbor attacks. The poster, and other forms of PSAs that followed, are exemplary of the domestic sacrifices asked of Americans in the face of war – even with the possibility of nuclear and biological warfare after WWII. Image: Library of Congress. Click for source.

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Today’s Google Doodle Honors the Petri Dish

By Rebecca Kreston | May 31, 2013 1:05 pm

It is the 161th birthday of the German microbiologist Julius Richard Petri, whom we can thank for those low-tech but indispensable tools of the microbiology lab: the petri dish. Google honors Petri‘s birthday today with their lovely Google Doodle riffing on his invaluable discovery.

The Google Doodle for May 31, 2013 in honor of Julius Richard Petri. Image: Google.

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I am one of the winners of a ScienceSeeker award!

By Rebecca Kreston | May 16, 2013 2:57 pm

This week, I was honored with a Best Life-In-Science Award from ScienceSeeker for my article on the earliest known cases of HIV/AIDS, “The Sea Has Neither Sense Nor Pity: the Earliest Known Cases of AIDS in the Pre-AIDS Era.” There were some serious heavyweight contenders in this inaugural contest and I am beyond delighted that this fascinating story was recognized. It’s nice to be acknowledged (and rewarded!) for work that is largely spent in loud cafes while drinking bitter espresso long gone cold and staring helplessly at my computer keyboard. Thank you to the judges -  Fraser Cain, Maggie Koerth-Baker, and Maryn McKenna and to ScienceSeeker for this distinction and award. 
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Body Horrors looks at the history, anthropology and geography of infectious diseases and parasites.

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