Combating Climate Change: Advice from a Fellow of the Royal Society, England’s National Academy of Science, Which Launched on This Day in 1660

By Julia Travers | November 28, 2018 2:33 am
A collage of two images; on the left, the title page from the first Royal Society publication, andon the right, the cover for its recent greenhouse gas removal report.

A collage of two images; on the left, the title page from the first Royal Society publication, andon the right, the cover for its recent greenhouse gas removal report.

England’s Royal Society, the national academy founded on November 28, 1660, is still churning out loads of scientific excellence. In this blog, a current fellow shares how we can all help combat climate change.

On November 28, 1660, English scientist Christopher Wren spoke at Gresham College in Central London, launching what is now the Royal Society, the U.K.’s independent national science academy. It’s a fellowship of scientists that’s included the likes of Einstein and Hawkings ,and, more recently, astrophysicist Jocelyn Bell Burnell, computer scientist and software engineer Sophie Wilson, and geochemist Gideon Henderson. Henderson spoke with SciStarter about his ideas on slowing down global warming, a conversation we spotlight in this story.

What Does The Royal Society Do?

The Royal Society has a stated mission to “recognize, promote, and support excellence in science and to encourage the development and use of science for the benefit of humanity.” Its motto is Nullius in verba, or “take nobody’s word for it,” in Latin, which speaks to the members’ passion for the scientific method, or as they say, a determination to, “withstand the domination of authority and to verify all statements by an appeal to facts determined by experiment.”

The Society has been expanding for hundreds of years, and its fellows and staff now work in many scientific sectors like science education and history; promoting diversity; giving grants and policy advice; translating ideas from research to industry; creating international partnerships; running a science and law program; engaging the public; awarding prizes and medals; hosting meetings, conferences, and lectures; and putting forth multiple publications.

The Royal Society’s cardinal publication, Philosophical Transactions, was first released in 1665 and is the oldest continuously-published science journal in the world. It published Isaac Newton’s Principia Mathematica and Benjamin Franklin’s kite experiment demonstrating the electrical nature of lightning. Zoom forward 353 years to 2018, and you’ll find the Royal Society publishing recommendations on one of the most pressing issues of our era: climate change.

The Royal Society on Climate Change

In partnership with the Royal Academy of Engineering, the Royal Society recently released a report on Greenhouse Gas Removal.The paper is based on the premise that cuts to emissions alone will not be enough to keep temperatures at no more than 1.5°C above pre-industrial times,in accord with the 2015 Paris Agreement. The Royal Society finds that to reach these goals, active greenhouse gas removal (GGR) will also have to occur.

The report covers methods of greenhouse gas removal, factors affecting their use, and their potential ability to help us meet climate goals. The possible strategies are more diverse than you might think; they include forestation and habitat restoration, which can increase carbon absorption and storage and decrease carbon release; ocean fertilization,which involves applying nutrients to the ocean to increase photosynthesis and remove atmospheric CO2; enhanced terrestrial weathering, or spreading ground-up silicate rocks over land surfaces, which removes CO2 from the atmosphere;direct air capture and carbon storage, wherein engineered processes capture CO2; and the creation of low-carbon concrete that can store more CO2, along with several other methods. Check out the report summary to explore all the possibilities.

Professor Henderson, who is the chair of the GGR working group, told us that it’s clear that humanity cannot rely on one or two methods alone for the removal of greenhouse gases.

“[We] absolutely need to use a suite of several methods. So, I would urge the world to consider all available techniques, and how they might best to used together to deliver large-scale GGR,” he said.

Interestingly, the Royal Society’s findings were released shortly before an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) special report on very similar topics. Similarly, the IPCC publication called for “rapid, far-reaching and unprecedented changes in all aspects of society,” including massive reductions in emissions and an increase in GGR strategies. Henderson said the IPCC report confirms the key findings of the Royal Society report.

The Royal Society GGR paper makes several recommendations, including that the international community incentivize the removal of atmospheric greenhouse gases through carbon pricing or other similar methods. It recommends the establishment of “international science-based standards for monitoring, reporting and verification for GGR approaches, both of carbon sequestration and of environmental impacts.”

Hear more from Henderson on GGR in the UK in the clip below.

What Can We Do to Support Greenhouse Gas Removal?

Henderson told us that on an individual level, climate-aware and -concerned people around the world can support these larger goals by minimizing the amount of GGR necessary. In his words: “[We] need to work as hard as we can to reduce emissions. That will be cheaper and easier than GGR, and lower emissions mean we’ll need to use GGR only for the most tricky emissions to live without. So, it’s worth continuing to think about minimizing unnecessary energy use.”

For example, Henderson recommends that you “reset that thermostat a degree or two, lower meat in your diet, and avoid unnecessary and carbon-intensive travel.”

Contacting elected officials about your views,spreading awareness on social media, saving water and using energy-efficient appliances are also great ways to address global warming, according to the Natural Resources Defense Council.

And, of course, you can participate in citizen science projects related specifically to climate change, like AQTreks, which records and maps air pollution levels throughout the U.S.; AirVisual, which measures air pollution globally; A Tree’s Life, which monitors community maple trees to explore how climate and urbanization affect tree growth and health; or IceWatchUSA, which involves observing precipitation, ice cover, and wildlife activity to “help scientists analyze climate change and other environmental factors, as well as how people can adapt to those changes.” ISeeChange, is another option. It’s a global environmental reporting project in partnership with NASA. It has a mobile app that empowers community members to document local conditions, like flooding and urban heat levels.

More than 350 years after the Royal Society launched, fellows like Henderson are keeping the fires of scientific passion alive, and citizen scientists around the world can do the same. Every effort to care for the planet counts, and it’s okay to start local. In fact, it’s a great idea.


Want more citizen science? Check out SciStarter’s Project Finder! With 1100+ citizen science projects spanning every field of research, task and age group, there’s something for everyone!

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  • http://www.mazepath.com/uncleal/EquivPrinFail.pdf Uncle Al

    Conservation expensively sacrifices here and now – at gunpoint – so some designated deserving entity in the tenebrous far future does not get to consume it either. The Carbon Tax on Everything is a $trillion/year New World Order fraud.

    business(.)financialpost(.)com/opinion/peter-foster-another-report-reluctantly-admits-that-green-energy-is-a-disastrous-flop
    www(.)climatedepot(.)com/2018/02/12/record-snowfall-amounts-pile-up-around-the-globe/

    • OWilson

      Don’t forget to ““reset that thermostat a degree or two, lower meat in your diet, and avoid unnecessary and carbon-intensive travel.”

      We need to conserve energy for the governments, world organizations, the mansions, private jets, and yachts for our betters who are trying to save us! :)

      It’s all Wrenn, Einstein and Hawking approved!

  • gimpi1

    It’s depressing that the only people commenting on this article appear to be, well, science-denying, conspiracy-theory embracing loons. Where are the people who understand scientific consensus and climatology?

    • Mike Richardson

      There are a few of us around, but we don’t have as much time on our hands or an inclination to argue against facts, logic, reason, and common sense. If you want to see some of those folks get schooled, though, you can check out a couple of the more recent articles on the Imageo blog. You won’t see the two commenting below over there, either.

      • OWilson

        Imageo has become a joke! :)

        The last refuge of true believer trolls who can spout their beliefs and can find a little remaining comfort in the company their fellow trolls, who, incidently do find time hurl insults like “closet fascist”, “mental incompetent” and worse to perceived “deniers”, without fear of censure by their Global Warming Alarmist Dear Leader over there! :)

        Also with lots of time to follow skeptics around the web exhorting each other to groupthink down vote anybody who dare disagree with them! :)

        (hint: on Google there are many DISQUS little hacks and add ons to show these downvoters)

        So transparent, so desperate, and so pathetic! Why are they so fearful of skeptics?

        Lol

        • Mike Richardson

          What’s become a joke are climate change deniers chiming in out of spite, and you quite predictably lashing out at the mention of the other blog. 😉

          The blog host over there was actually quite patiently with you before deciding he’d had enough of your repetitive diatribes. Who knows — maybe other moderators might follow his lead. :)

          • OWilson

            Downvotes by true believer trolls, cannot prevent the free flow of alternate views, opinions, and ideas, and questions from being seen and read! :)

            Only outright banning can do that, and the home blog, for true believers, which you brought up here as a paragon of “schooling”, practices that in spades! lol)

            I believe Imageo has set some sort of a record on Discover for banning posters, and threats of banning, which is equally censorial. :)

            It is the only time I have been banned from a site, in all my years on the old BBs, AOL, Usenet, and the web. (I’m even welcome under another handle on NYT and Wasington Post!)

            Even then your erstwhile Mod was mealy mouthed about his reason, “posting the same old stuff”, namely the monthly NOAA satellite temperatures.

            He gave me “a time out for a couple of weeks”.

            Turned out to be a lie, of course! :)

            But, as I predicted a couple of years ago, with the overwhelming preponderence of observational evidence, that Catastrophic Global Warming is not just around the corner, your Mod himself is now finally discussing the “groupthink” problem, and embracing “adaptation” and “mitigation”, much to the chagrin of his true believer fans, he is leaving behind!

            Nobody ever said Tom wasn’t smart! :)

          • Mike Richardson

            It’s so cute when you get triggered. Have a nice day, Ol’Wilson. :)

          • socalpa

            Speaking of “triggered”; Your reply to my post at the top is a great example !
            .
            Mike Richardson socalpa • a day ago
            “{Well, on top of the gratuitous vulgarity, your embrace of a pathological liar and narcissistic con man, and rooting for more pollution reveals a great deal about your character (or more accurately, your lack thereof). Do you also cheer on the growth of the Pacific garbage patch, wax poetic on the beauty of oil spills, toast the announcement of another species gone extinct, and burn tires for Earth Day? If you engage in the last activity, I’ve heard it works much better if the tire is around your neck — makes a real statement, you know. ;)”
            .
            Deleted ,but not forgotten .. and here is my response ;
            .
            Well Mike ,calm yourself ,your impotent bile spewing diatribe shows you may be about to
            burst !.
            .
            So you wish skeptics “necklaced” with gasoline and tires ?
            .
            What other gratuitous acts of violence do you recommend to stifle dissent ? Jailing ? Stocks ?
            .
            No cogent arguments raised in answer of my points .. duly noted ..
            .

          • Mike Richardson

            I was just offering a suggestion, if you are so compelled to act out of spite. And you have no valid points to argue, other than you appear to wish for the worst for humanity as a whole.

          • socalpa

            Well ,your “suggestion” was a violation of the terms of service, and was clearly a spiteful and angry response .. and rightfully deleted .
            .
            Despots and wannabe dictators always claim they know what is best for humanity .
            .
            You mistake your opinions for facts ..

          • Mike Richardson

            You poor dear… did you have to go to your safe space? And here you snowflakes complain whenever you feel you’re being censored. Oh well, it’s the moderator’s prerogative, as Ol’Wilson has found out, so I’ll abide by it.

            By the way, most of the dictators and wannabe dictators — such as your orange hero and his high-fiving man crushes — are firmly in the deniers camp with you. And folks like that do more than offer tongue in cheek suggestions to those who oppose their destruction of the environment and actual censorship.

            You really aren’t in much of a position to lecture regarding facts and opinions, by the way, since your own position is refuted by decades of research. Feel free to spout ignorance where it’s allowed, but don’t expect others to accept it.

          • socalpa

            Feel free to continue spouting your ignorant and impotent bile ! We understand your rage at those who do not share your belief in a coming man made Thermocalypse.. Decades of data show this is nonsense .Exposing this triggered your “tongue in cheek” threat response .

            Your obvious distress that an infidel was elected President on Nov 8 2016 .is noted .. you are clearly stuck in Stages l & ll of the Kubler Ross scale .. Denial and Anger . .
            .
            So ,when you calm yourself ,we can compare the “facts” of past decades with the Hype you believe without question …..

          • Mike Richardson

            Heck, I’m cool as a cucumber. Denial and outrage is clearly your forte here, both in terms of your political judgment and your treatment of scientific fact. But like Ol’Wilson you have demonstrated considerable ability at projection. You can can continue to amuse me, thanks. 😁

          • socalpa

            So ,suggesting the necklacing of another commenter is your idea of “cool as a cucumber” ?
            .
            Ho ! Ho ! Ho ! Hee ! Hee ! Hee !
            .
            I suggest readers might view that differently !

          • Mike Richardson

            Yep. I only offered it as an option you could pursue yourself, and not something that should be done to you. If you feel you are so suggestible that you might take such a proposal seriously, then you have even more problems than your impression of a demented Kris Kringle implies. But that’s entirely possible, from your reactions here. 😏

          • socalpa

            “Yep. I only offered it as an option you could pursue yourself,”.
            .
            Oh ? Do you also walk onto a plane and “suggest” other passengers that irritate you should use a bomb on themselves ?
            .
            Why do you suppose it was deleted ?

          • Mike Richardson

            To appease a delicate snowflake, perhaps? 😏

          • socalpa

            So ,then if I am such a “snowflake” ,why would I copy from my feed and repost it ?
            .
            Another episode of As the Eel… Twists coming right up !

          • Mike Richardson

            Obviously you copied and pasted, and continue to fixate on that remark, because it feeds into your exaggerated sense of victimhood. Which is exactly what a snowflake devoid of a tropical factual counterargument would be expected to do. It’s certainly given you an excuse (albeit a very weak one) to avoid elaborating on why you feel society should not respond to the challenges of climate change, which you might rightly suppose would subject you to further embarrassment. You really aren’t that complex.

          • socalpa

            What blather ! My intent was to display your anger, hostility and desire for censorship of skeptics, to the point of a wish for lethal harm ..A sign of fanaticism .. irrational behaviour .
            ..
            Obviously ,the “embarrassment” is all yours for being “triggered” ..
            .
            I posted my reasoning on the “challenges of climate change” at the top .and in a reply to gimp1 .
            .
            Your only responses were an attack on the President , and personal attacks on skeptical posters .Just empty and impotent bile .

          • Mike Richardson

            Yeah, you’re really not going out of your way to disprove my contention that you love playing victim here.

            And man, I think you might have just displaced one of our regular deniers in terms of hypocrisy — example:

            “… your anger, hostility and desire for censorship…”

            “Well ,your “suggestion” was a violation of the terms of service, and was clearly a spiteful and angry response .. and rightfully deleted .”

            LOL… Yeah, you don’t believe in censorship yourself, right? 😏

            And pointing out that Trump is immoral, a pathological liar, and narcissist is not an attack but an observation of the obvious. Kinda like stating that the sky on a sunny day is blue or water is wet. So once you made it clear that you admire someone like that, none of the rest of your behavior came as a surprise.

            I do apologize for assuming that you had enough sense to not take seriously a rhetorical remark about self immolation and think that it presents a prospect for “lethal harm.” Please DO NOT actually light yourself (and the tire) on fire. You climate change deniers are leaving enough of a mess for everyone else, and that would just be one more. Also, if someone tells you to play in traffic, please resist the urge to turn yourself into a human hood ornament.

            As for your “reasoning” on the challenges of climate change, you’ve provided only hyperbolic right-wing wing talking points and lies, disproven many times over. And I do realize you can’t actually feel embarrassment, as you climate change deniers have shown time and again that you have no sense of shame. But even you have to see that you’re failing at this, which explains why you keep playing the victim card. 😉

          • socalpa

            More blather and whining ?

          • Mike Richardson

            No thank you. You’ve given me enough for now. 😁

          • socalpa

            I’m sure ,readers can see that/s !
            .
            Ho ! Ho ! Ho !

          • Mike Richardson

            It appears they have. 😁

          • OWilson

            When Mikey runs out of ad hominems, like an angry child, he tends to get a little frustrated, then the vile comes out of his passive/aggresive, Jeckyl/Hyde personality!

            Aside from his trolling pals, nobody with half a brain has ever taken him seriously!

            Which frustrates him even more!

            I can post a comment on the merits of Mom and apple pie, anywhere on the web, and he is sure to be there, with an almost immediate downvote!

            (shows up on my little DISQUS hack)

            Knee jerk, groupthink (thanks Tom) obsessive reaction.

            He has problems!

          • Mike Richardson

            Wow, someone’s projecting again. 😄

          • OWilson

            Lol!

            Bye for now,…..Newmannn! :)

          • Mike Richardson

            Later, Oldmann. 😉

      • CB

        “we don’t have as much time on our hands”

        People who don’t know what they’re talking about tend to have more time on their hands, as a general rule… I would suggest ignoring such people is a critical skill in the internet age…

        climate.nasa.gov/system/charts/15_co2_left_040518.gif

    • socalpa

      Well ,there are also some who recognize fraud when they see it .Governments attempting to claim they can produce better weather or climate conditions by 2100 if only we pay Trillions in Carbon Taxes now and change our way of life to what they approve,and will eventually seek to impose .
      .
      And “consensus” does not imply valid in science . For example ,”Fixed Continents” was the 99.99% consensus of the experts for most of the 20th century,and .completely false .
      .
      So,gimpi1 , don’t be so supercilious, you just might be very naive . .

    • OWilson

      The folks who well understood “scientific consensus”, Galileo, Newton, and Einstein, are up in heaven, playing cards and smiling at your naivete! :)

      • socalpa

        Don’t forget the happiest of them all ,the one who showed 99.99% of the “experts” entirely wrong .
        .
        Alfred Wegener .

        • OWilson

          There’s no room for Wegeners, Galileos, Copernicus, Newtons, and more recently, Pielkes, Lindzens, Currys, Spencers, in the world of AGW.

          It’s simply a religion! Mann, Al Gore, Hanson, Lady Ga Ga and Leo di Caprio, are their priests!

          (They also happen to be rich, with a personal carbon footprint the size of the EU, lol)

          • Damn Nitpicker

            Lawson 2009: ”Climate change has become a new religion. To talk against it is regarded as blasphemy, …”

            ”It is a great story, and a phenomenal best seller. It contains a grain of truth – and a mountain of nonsense. And that nonsense could be very damaging indeed. We appear to have entered a new age of unreason, which threatens to be as economically harmful as it is profoundly disquieting. It is from this, above all, that we really do need to save the planet.”
            Lawson, Nigel 2009. An appeal to reason: A cool look at global warming. Penguin

            Raj Pachauri said, “…it is my religion and my dharma”
            https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/ar5/150224_pachauri_letter.pdf

          • OWilson

            His hobby was sexually harrassing his staff, for which he resigned in disgrace!

            This was the Chair of the IPCC, who, they tell us, produced the “greatest scientific collaboration in the history of science, involving thousands of the “best” scientists, from over 120 countries”, namely the IPCC 1990 FAR Report!

        • Kapricorn4

          Continental drift :-)

          • socalpa

            Hi Kap4 ..
            .
            Thanks for the fire support !

          • EmilyEnso

            Cold Sun Warning! 350-Year Ice Age Starting in Months
            Tru news
            See if you can google it up.

  • socalpa

    “Combat Climate Change”? Truly ridiculous sloganeeriing ! Why not “Combating” Eclipses ? “Combating” eruptions ? “Combating” tsunamis

    Well ,it is clear Discover has joined Sci Am in becoming a political platform for those demanding ever greater taxes and government control of industry and agriculture . In the instant case ,by promoting the idea that government can produce better weather/climate in 2100…
    .
    But only if we pay the Trillions they want now,and make changes they want in our freedoms and lifestyle ..
    .
    This is a massive fraud being perpetrated by financially and politically interested parties . . seeking to maintain and increase power with the active assistance of academics who wish to maintain the funding and influence gained over the past decades.
    .
    Trillions today, for better weather in 2100 ? What an obvious fraud .
    .
    Sorry ,don’t buy it . Warmer and higher CO2 has benefited life and mankind for 12,000 years ,without exception ..
    .
    TGFT .. Thank God For Trump !

    • Mike Richardson

      God has very little to do with Trump, I’m afraid. But I do thank him for Mueller. Despite being in denial about global warming (and basic morality), Trump’s definitely feeling some heat from him! Good times. 😁

      • socalpa

        Perhaps you believe Mueller can resurrect Paris and the Clean Power Plan ? Better start praying !
        .
        Sorry , “both be as dead as fukin’ fried chicken” *
        .
        * Jules Winnfield Pulp Fiction .

      • OWilson

        We all wish Mueller god speed!

        To leave the greatest, most powerful nation on Earth in the dark about a traitor in the nation’s White House, for two whole years, over two national elections, with his finger on the Nuke Button, and sending Judges to the Supreme Court for a lifetime, is not helpful, if not a measure of incompetence!

        I look forward to him being dragged out in handcuffs, or exonerated!

        But sooner rather than later!

        Your stalking, kneejerk, obsessive downvote appeared even before I had finished typing, Mikey! Lol

        And here I thought I was in general agreement with you on this point!

        Lol

        • Mike Richardson

          I’m afraid lies definitely warrant a downvote, and what else would I consider the statement, “I look forward to Trump being dragged out in handcuffs,” from an admitted ” unabashed Trump supporter “? Also, you lie when you say I downvoted a comment before you finished typing, as you cannot receive notification of a response and vote on it until it has been posted. That you frequently edit your posts after the fact is your own hangup, not mine. 😉

          • OWilson

            I support “innocent until proven guilty”, Mikey.

            I know it’s a strange concept for some!

            Lol

          • Mike Richardson

            Funny how your support of that concept only seems to apply when the accused is a conservative, huh? 😉

          • Mike Richardson

            I see you also edited your post after my initial response. Didn’t you say that was unacceptable behavior? LOL! Just another example of how you believe in one set of rules for yourself, and another set for everyone else. Such as your decrying “rumour, innuendo, and speculation” when you frequently engage in it yourself. That’s called hypocrisy, Wilson, and apparently you’re still running a close competition with socalpa to be the best practitioner of the art. 😉

          • OWilson

            Uh?

            Explain the “edit” for our readers, please? :)

            Corrected grammar and typos don’t count as lies!

          • Mike Richardson

            It’s a bit early in the day for you to be showing this much confusion, but sure, I’ll explain the situation for anyone remotely interested. For starters, I didn’t say your preceding post counted as lies due to the late edit, but instead that it constituted another example of hypocrisy. Your initial post was only the first two sentences, and I replied that post with a short one of my own, noting that “innocent until proven guilty” only seems to apply for you when the accused is conservative. You then added additional paragraphs to your post after my response, a type of late edit you have declared yourself to be a “no no.” Like I said, one set of rules for yourself, and a different set for everyone else, as usual. 😉

          • OWilson

            If you weren’t in such an unholy, and irrational hurry to obsessively downvote me in real time, you would understand that my comments usually take a minute or two to post, then a minute or two to check to see if my point is clear.

            (Your obligatory downvote appeared before I was even finished with my thought!)

            Here’s a suggestion: To save you some stalking time, and give the readers a break, allow 5 minutes for me to review my comments before going off in a phony rant!

            Otherwise feel free continue your cheap whining about everything I post!

            You’re welcome! :)

            Bye …..Newmannn! :)

          • Mike Richardson

            I replied to you in writing, so your own whining about downvotes is irrelevant. You’re still a hypocrite, Oldmannn! Bye! :)

          • OWilson

            And you are still setting records on Discover for ad hominems. :)

            A hypocrite is someone who exhorts his fellow posters to “best ignore” my posts, then proceeds to stalk and respond to my every post on the internet.

            Talk about “triggered”! lol

          • 9.8m/ss

            I edit my comments after posting, too, Sometimes to fix typing errors, sometimes to add links or a late arriving thought. Sometimes to finish a comment with a word that might hit the dirty word detector. It lets me type faster. But not to alter the meaning, that would be unscientific.

  • iThinker2

    I am getting tired of this. We need more information. Show me the data. I suggest that we plot all the cyclical affects that we know of a see what correlations there are as these cycles will overlay to create higher and lower intensity periods. Plot these cycles on one graph:
    – Earth spinning like a wobbly top
    – Moon orbiting Earth
    – Earth orbiting the Sun
    – the Sun’s intensity
    – Earth’s path through space interacting with other objects in space
    – Earth’s location relative to the galaxy’s center of gravity
    – Motion of other planets in our Solar System
    – magnetic pole shifts
    – Graph of Temperature over as much time as we have sediment and ice records for.

    Do not use manually collected surface temps which we now know have been manually adjusted. Only actual unaltered raw data should be our source. Contaminated data contaminates the results and conclusions. Altering the raw data destroys its usefulness. ‘Scientists’ who are caught doing this should receive life sentences, since it affects the lives of all of us. Sorry for the sermon there. But, they better not let me catch them doing it.

    To model the Climate, I need to overlay these graphs to account for the interactions as they relate to the temperature graph.

    • OWilson

      The closest thing we have to consistent measurement of atmospheric temperatures is the monthly NOAA satellite data, which shows a scientifically statistically insignificant 0.28 degrees over the entire 40 year record.

      (Do the math and project to 2100:)

      AGWers prefer the NASA long term temperature series that goes back to 1880 or so, and is derived from ancient tidal guages, ice core samples, tree ring analysis, balloon instruments, and, of course they combine it with sea temperatures taken from reletively recent buoy instruments, and old steamship intake valve records from as far back as the 19th Century.

      When plotted, this always shows their “catastrophic warming” that goes up all the way up, almost off the chart :)

      Scares the hell out of them! :)

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