How Many Galaxies Are There in the Universe? The Redder We Look, the More We See

By Guest Blogger | October 10, 2012 1:22 pm

Ethan Siegel is a theoretical astrophysicist living in Portland, Oregon, who specializes in cosmology. He has been writing about the Universe for everyone since 2008, and can’t wait for the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope. A different version of this post appeared on his blog, Starts With a Bang. 

“It is by going down into the abyss that we recover the treasures of life. Where you stumble, there lies your treasure.” –Joseph Campbell

One of the bravest things that was ever done with the Hubble Space Telescope was to find a patch of sky with absolutely nothing in it—no bright stars, no nebulae, and no known galaxies—and observe it. Not just for a few minutes, or an hour, or even for a day. But orbit-after-orbit, for a huge amount of time, staring off into the nothingness of empty space, recording image after image of pure darkness.

What would we find, out beyond the limits of what we could see? Something? Nothing? After a total of more than 11 days of observing this tiny area of the sky, this is what we found:

The Hubble Ultra Deep Field—the deepest view ever of the Universe, was the result. With all those orbits spent observing what appears to be a blank patch of sky, what we were really doing was probing the far-distant Universe, seeing beyond what any human eye—even one aided by a telescope—could ever hope to see. It took literally hundreds of thousands of seconds of observations across four separate color filters to produce these results.

What you’re seeing—in practically every point or smear of light—is an individual galaxy. The result gave us the information that a very large number of galaxies exist in a minuscule region of the sky: around 10,000 in the tiny volume surveyed by the Hubble Ultra Deep Field image, below.


Image credit: NASA, ESA, S. Beckwith (STScI) and the HUDF Team

By extrapolating these results over the entire sky (which is some 10 million times larger), we were able to figure out—at minimumthat there were at least 100 billion galaxies in the entire Universe. I even made a video about it.

But that’s not the end of the story; not by a long shot. You see, there might be at least 100 billion galaxies, based on what we’ve observed, but there might be more. Galaxies that are too dim to observe with “only” 11 days of Hubble data. Galaxies that are redshifted too far for even Hubble’s farthest infrared filter to pick up. Galaxies that might appear, if only we had the patience to look for longer.

So that’s exactly what we did, looking for a total of 23 days over the last decade—more than twice as long as the Ultra-Deep Field—in an even smaller region of space. (There are over 1,000 observing proposals submitted to Hubble every cycle, so getting that much time, even spread over a decade, is remarkable.) Ladies and Gentlemen, may I present to you the Hubble Extreme Deep Field!


Image credit: NASA, ESA, G. Illingworth, D. Magee, and P. Oesch (University of California, Santa Cruz),
R. Bouwens (Leiden University), and the HUDF09 Team

This picture may look familiar to you, even though you’ve probably never seen it before. The Extreme Deep Field (or XDF) is actually a part of the Ultra Deep Field, which you can see for yourself if you rescale both images and rotate them at 4.7 degrees relative to one another, as I did here.

The XDF has far more galaxies in it than the HUDF does in a comparable region of space. Take a look for yourself at a small portion of these images, compared side-by-side with one another, and you can clearly see how many more galaxies there are in the XDF with your own eyes.


Image credit: cropped, identical portions of the HUDF and XDF images

Sure, the Ultra-Deep one (at left) is very impressive, especially considering that—by all appearances—this is just a blank patch of featureless sky. But there are maybe 75% more galaxies-per-patch-of-sky in the XDF! Applying the XDF results to the entire sky, we find that there are more like 176 billion galaxies in the entire Universe, a huge increase from our previous estimate from the HUDF.

How do we estimate that there are so many? For starters, the area of the XDF is just a tiny, tiny fraction of the full Moon.


Illustration credit: NASA, ESA, and Z. Levay (STScI);
Image by: T. Rector, I. Dell’Antonio/NOAO/AURA/NSF, Digitized Sky Survey (DSS),
STScI/AURA, Palomar/Caltech, and UKSTU/AAO

If you assume that the XDF is a typical region of outer space, you can calculate how many XDFs it would take to fill the entire night sky; it’s about 32 million. Multiply by the number of galaxies you find in the XDF—which is around 5,500—and that’s how we arrive at 176 billion galaxies, at least, in the Universe.

But there’s more to the story than that.

We’re taking a region of space that has very few nearby galaxies, or galaxies whose light takes less than a few billion years to reach us. We’ve selected a deliberately low-density portion of the nearby Universe. The XDF has found many more galaxies whose light has traveled between 5 and 9 billion years to reach us, which are relatively dim galaxies that the HUDF simply couldn’t pick up. But where it really shines is in the early Universe, at finding galaxies whose light has been on its was for more than 9 billion years, finding the majority of new galaxies there.

But even the XDF is not optimized for finding these galaxies; we’d need an infrared space telescope for that, which is what James Webb is going to be. When that comes around, I wouldn’t be surprised to find that there are maybe even close to a trillion galaxies in the observable Universe; we just don’t have the tools to find them all yet. In the meantime, our best tool—the Hubble Space Telescope—is showing us that the deeper we look, the more we’ll continue to be rewarded with new, faint, and distant galaxies, as well as richer details in the already discovered ones.

It makes me so impatient for a more powerful telescope with the ability to see far into the infrared, because I can’t help but wonder what’s still invisible to even the XDF. Twice as many galaxies? Four times? Fainter ones, redder ones, more distant ones, or all of them? There’s at least 176 billion of them in our Universe, but I can’t help wonder, “how many more?”

The new Hubble Extreme Deep Field is the deepest view into the Universe. Ever. What else is there to say? Enjoy the view, discover what’s we’ve just found, and marvel at what else lives there, just beyond our sight. It’s just the tiniest fraction of the whole Universe, like we’ve never seen it before.

 

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Space & Physics, Top Posts
  • Mr. Anthony

    A trillion galaxies in the observable universe, and if you had $16 for each one, you could pay off the US National Debt.

  • Caleb Jones

    Is it possible that we could, in fact, be seeing a “hall of mirrors” effect where light has made round trips around a gravitationally closed universe? (no, seriously, I’d like someone smarter than me on this topic to explain).

    If that is the case, then one of those galaxies we see out there could, in fact, be our own. How you’d determine whether one was or not, I haven’t a clue.

  • http://www.mazepath.com/uncleal/ Uncle Al

    Stipulated: Our light cone contains 10X as much matter as originally assumed. Hectares of dark matter and dark energy papers are then terribly wrong interpreting cosmic background radiation fluctuations and acceleration of cosmic expansion versus baryonic matter content.

    We’d also like to know if the angular momenta of observed galaxies sum to zero. It would be telling if the universe had several sigma of net spin.

  • Ted

    Caleb: As a non expert I think the current consensus is no because the computer simulations of the dark matter that makes up most of the universe match what we see in the visible universe. But if anyone else disagrees or can clarify further please do.

  • Chris Martin

    I’ve studied your side by side pictures carefully and even brightened up the HUDF to match the XDF but for the life of me, I can’t see any difference. In fact, I think you can see more stuff in the HUDF when brightness corrected!

  • Rob Wood

    Although your strategy would work well in theory Mr. Anthony, but we both very well know that it would be the asteroids that would pay the heaviest taxes once the stars steal everything of value from their local communities.

  • Blathering Blathiscope

    This is so cool.

    If this is as much as we can see, how much more is there that we can’t see, that has expanded past our point to see it?

    Every time we think we have an idea of how large the universe is that estimate is thrown down on the floor and beaten with hammers.

    Now we can see a universe that is filled with galaxies that was close to the beginning of the universe. A time when the universe had hardly begun it’s expansion. Imagine being on a planet with a night sky full of galaxies. Would that have been true? Would they have been visible, if a planet was capable of supporting life, if life was possible then without the heavier elements?

    Would the night sky have been a warm glow of young galaxies and stars in a much smaller universe, one expanding at a fraction of the speed of light?

    The mind of a monkey wants to know.

  • http://outerhoard.wordpress.com Adrian Morgan

    I made an animated GIF last month comparing the Extreme Deep Field with the 2009 version of the Ultra Deep Field (i.e. the version with the infrared data). Intermediate greyscale frames help draw attention to differences in detail, from which differences in colour would otherwise distract.

    http://outerhoard.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/hubble_2009_2012_compare.gif

    Your side-by-side comparison shows much more detail, and is also more suitable for embedding in a blog post. But I hope you think my animated comparison has its merits as well.

  • kiljoy616

    Imagine if we did not have to be going out and waging war and use just one year of this useless police actions we are in how many cool things we have created already. Maybe the problem is real science and wonder seems to never reach so many parts of the world.

  • http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/ Ethan Siegel

    Caleb,

    That theory (of a finite Universe with flat topology) is well-known and has long been considered by cosmologists. We have concluded that this is not the case — by looking at all different directions on the sky and searching for correlations — and have determined if the Universe does close back on itself, it does so on a scale that is *at least* 150 x the size of the Observable Universe.

    In other words, every galaxy we see is unique. :-)

  • Anupam C

    The mind boggles at the immensity of the universe. Just imagine, we hardly know our own planet, let alone the universe, while the scientific circles are talking about the existence of infinite number of parallel universes.

    I wish i had a time machine so that i can go forward in time and see what other discoveries lie in store for humanity.

  • Ed

    Do we know the density of galaxies is the same throughout the universe? Could the universe be a galaxy of galaxies, and this field is atypical one way or the other?

  • Chris

    Does this change the mass budget of the universe at all?

  • Marty

    WOW! I am really impressed.

    So many galaxies, so many stars within each galaxy. It leaves you with a thrill of wonder and awe.

  • Bob

    It is at least possible that our Universe is so large that the furthest reaches of it have already become permanently invisible to us — because those areas are now receding from us at a speed faster than light, so the light of those galaxies will simply never reach us. Hold on you say, nothing can exceed the speed of light …. but the expansion of space CAN exceed the speed of light. It already did so once — during the Inflationary Epoch of the first trillionth of a second.

  • Bob

    Discovering that there are many more galaxies than previously seen does NOT nullify the mystery of dark matter. Why? Because observing the rotation of a single galaxy like Andromeda shows us that the outer parts are rotating at the SAME speed as the inner parts. That can only happen if there is MANY times as much mass there as we can see in the luminous stars — as it turns out, about TWENTY TIMES as much matter as the luminous stars, and far more than can be accounted for by non-luminous dust, rocks, asteroids and planets. And THAT is how the need to invoke DARK MATTER came about in the first place.

  • Bob

    @ Ed. Other large scale surveys of the Universe have shown that on a very large scale structure it is remarkably self-similar and homogeneous. Not that it doesn’t have clusters and ‘walls’ of galaxies separated by truly enormous voids. If you look at a sponge up close you see lots of variation, yet overall the texture of the sponge is homogeneous. The same analogy holds for the very large scale of the Universe, particularly at the distances seen in the eXtremely Deep Field photo.

  • Bob

    Addendum to Post #15: If this point is not true at present, it will inevitably BECOME true at some future point in the history of our Universe as it’s expansion continues to accelerate.

  • http://MoGo.com TJ Welch

    No matter how large the universe is, it is finite… and that is a matter of faith and not science.

  • karrie

    Dr Bob, is this going to be on the final? :)

  • ProfQuill

    I agree with Chris (post #5), although the XDF has a higher black level and is shifted a bit towards blue, I can’t say “you can clearly see how many more galaxies there are in the XDF with your own eyes”. What am I missing?

  • http://NA John S. Hardy, M.D.

    Though we can never really “know”, it has long been my conjecture that the galaxies imaged at the extremes of red shift may include images of our own galaxy as it was in formation, prior to multiple collisions and reformating, I know this concept is mind-boggling, but why might it not be possible? The universe has evolved and our own galaxy along with it. Why might there not be images arriving to our “here and now” from “there and then”, like looking into a mirror (darkly).
    John S. Hardy, Jr. M.D.

  • righton

    Will we ever be able to see a reverse picture? One from the opposite or return direction? Such as when you drive down a street then turn around and come back you see a different view.

  • Bob Bryant

    I firmly believe there never was a beginning, and there never will be an end. The Universe goes on and on and on. Putting a number on how many galaxies there are is impossible, because they continue into infinity and beyond. The problem we humans have is: we try to compartmentalize everything. There has to be a beginning, middle, and end. That might be true here on earth, as we know it, but space is an infinite thing, that no one understands. We make theories, which in the end, won’t hold water.

  • Clawpuss

    Wow! The numbers are simply staggering. Very thought provoking, thanks for posting.

  • Aaron Julca

    Astrophysicists have laid down the groundwork for more elaborate theories about the universe to be developed later. As of right now, there is enough evidence to prove the Big Bang theory, and until we have more evidence about events preceding the Big Bang, we won’t be seriously considering the “what if’s”; not even the tempting idea of infinity (as intuitive as an infinite universe may seem).

    • Dewayne Perry

      Well the thing is the big bang only accounts for the time immediately after the universe started to expand. Is it possible that the universe could have existed before the big bang, just in the condensed form? Also, what of other universes

      • Anthony Roberts

        Yes. Or it’s possible that there was another universe here before the Big Bang and that it was destroyed by a Big Chill or a Big Crunch. And it’s possible that we’re a totally unique universe from that one – or that we’re an exact repeat of that previous universe.

        • jabberwocky

          I agree. We might be in the first cycle or the nine millionth cycle.

  • helloUSA123

    I notice USA debt, only become a issue, when the Republican party can’t steal elections. The Republican party created the debt with endless war against countries that have oil. Funny that their never rise the issue when their created two wars costing billions weekly.

    • Guest

      You idiot. Obama adding more to the debt in one term than EVERY OTHER PRESIDENT COMBINED!

    • http://profiles.google.com/introndepot3j Jim G

      You idiot. Obama added more to the debt in one term than EVERY OTHER PRESIDENT COMBINED!

  • http://sportingnerds.com Sco Jo

    Not the point.

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Rochelle-Stockman/1625185373 Rochelle Stockman

    Please, those of you engaging in politics, this is not the forum for it. I’m reading the discovery of something so much more rich and if I want to discuss politics, I’d do it in my own forum. TYVM. Otherwise, I’m totally digging this and the discussion of like kind.

    For goodness sakes! Infinity!

    Imagine how many Suns exist in each galaxy, too! Amazing!

  • http://www.facebook.com/ForTheGoodOfAll Yadaska Nichols

    im not a scientist or any thing but isn’t it possible that what we are seeing as galaxies are actually other dimensions with a linked quantum singularity at the center feeding and devouring energy at the center of each “galaxy”

    • Angie

      I’m down with that, maybe…

  • http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100005581838585 Jonathan Smith

    IF THERE ARE 100 BILLION GALAXIES AND AN AVERAGE GALAXY HAS 100 BILLION STARS, AND IF EACH STAR HAD 7 OR 8 PLANETS THEN THE CHANCES FOR OTHER LIFE ARE ENORMOUS.

    • Azrael

      there is also the chance that that other life is already dead due to the universe having more than 12 billion years.

  • red red

    I love reading up on space and time if I could have chosen i day to be born I would chosen 300 years into the future cause then mankind would be traveling space.That is if mankind hasn’t destroyed it self.

  • kennedy muchiri

    Surely, if one says or thinks that the way planets orbit around the sun, the way the universe is so orderly, the presence of day and night and so forth, all happened by chance without a Creator, he would be believing in a miracle far greater than all the others in record. Then, one day, salt, lettuce, vinegar, tomatoes e.t.c, kept separately, would one day meet and mix to make a sandwich by chance.

    • David Bradlee Slatton

      It blesses me to run into someone who is not afraid to stand up for what is true.. thank-you.

    • mrmark1977

      So you think the universe is more complex than your creator?

      Or you’re claiming a complex thing (such as a universe) needs a creator, but an even more complex thing (such as your creator) doesn’t need a creator?

      • Muadiib

        The fact is we know the universe had a beginning, which begs the question ‘what caused it?’ If you say it was created by an entity or system, then the next logical step is to ask ‘what created that?’ Then if that was also created this begs the question ‘what created that?’ and so on and so forth ad infinitum.

        Logic dictates that their had to be something that created everything but itself wasn’t created. If you are saying something as complex as the universe or the process that makes universes was created from nothing then you are a mad man.

        Give me an example from nature where a more complex thing of any kind was created by a less complex thing. I look at a car or a beautiful painting and I know instinctively that something more complex than both of those things created them.

        That’s the problem with the pseudo science of the modern era, they are the most illogical bunch ever, they aren’t driven by the pursuit of truth like theistic scientists such as Newton or Einstein were, they are motivated by a far more sinister agenda, to deny the existence of God and to ridicule those that do.

        • mrmark1977

          “The fact is we know the universe had a beginning, which begs the question ‘what caused it?'”

          No, we believe the universe ‘as we know it’ came from something we call the ‘big bang’. That does not mean it was the start of everything at all. That does not mean we know that ‘nothing’ existed before that event.

          “If you are saying something as complex as the universe or the process
          that makes universes was created from nothing then you are a mad man.”

          Then by that logic, if you’re saying nothing created a sky daddy, that makes you a mad man too.

          “Give me an example from nature where a more complex thing of any kind was created by a less complex thing.”

          Every animal and human brain.

          “I look at a car or a beautiful painting and I know instinctively that
          something more complex than both of those things created them.”

          Well yes. Because that’s because they look ‘created’. Unlike natural things, which I don’t instinctively assume some ‘being’ created.

          As for you ‘pseudo science’ nonsense, pseudo science is astrology, alchemy, and religion. Those are pseudo sciences. Real science is what is real in this universe. If a scientist makes a mistake with an understanding of science, then it isn’t science at all, it’s a misunderstanding, and not real.

          The idea that scientists of today have some ‘sinister agenda’ to deny the existence of ‘god’, is as false as yours and everyone’s ‘god’. But in the mind of a conspiracy nut such as you, it probably seems all too real. But enlighten me – what science has been made up, in order to disprove a god? No credible scientist would ever say they could disprove a god – even though of course, most of them see no reason to believe in one. If there was a god, then clearly, ‘science’ is HOW he made this universe function. Our understanding of it, at least at this time, neither proves or disproves creator, it just shows there was nothing ‘outside’ of science that has had any ‘hand’ in the universe since what we call the big bang.

          • Muadiib

            I don’t want a dialogue with you, I just think you need to open your eyes somewhat, also you know a car is designed because it “looks” created!? Wow, just wow. I don’t know where to start with such a moronic statement, it would take too long to explain everything to you, just do some proper research please.

          • really??

            Muadiib – How moronic is it to say someone is a moron simply because they don’t believe as you do? There is ZERO evidence to back up the idea of God. If you need to believe in a creator to make your life meaningful go ahead,

          • Muadiib

            The creation is solid evidence of a creator, also without the Lord life would be utterly meaningless, you’ll see.

          • really??

            That is ridiculous. Faith is not evidence. You are welcome to your beliefs, But it is wrong to belittle others because they don’t hold the same beliefs. I believe religion was created by man to explain his existence in a time without science. And formal structured religion was created by man to control the general population.

            At the time it did some good;

            no sex til marriage (control spread of std’s)

            don’t eat animals w/cloven hoofs ( Animals with cloven hoofs carry parasites (Trichinosis) that are only destroyed if the meat is cooked to a high enough temp – so people sometimes died when they ate that meat)

            But religion is also one of the worst things that has ever happened to mankind. How many people have been killed as a direct result of religious belief? Holy wars,witch hunts etc….”THE CHURCHES” have repeatedly changed their views and doctrine when science proved them to be wrong, or the populace refused to go along with some of their bigoted views.

        • rdberg1957

          I think this is a misunderstanding of the motivation of most scientists. Most of them are too busy to have a sinister agenda.

          • Muadiib

            Every human has an agenda, whether good or bad or varying degrees of in between. They may not have the time or freedom to fully enact them but it will affect their work, the goals they set and the conclusions they come too.

    • CodeJingle

      Bless your heart

    • mrmark1977

      “Surely, if one says or thinks that there is a who God existed forever, and he wasn’t created by a creator of him, he would be
      believing in a miracle far greater than all the others in record.”

      Although of course, all the ‘miracles’ on record, are simply eye-witness accounts of people who were lying, tricked, or didn’t actually write those accounts.

      And by the way, the planets orbiting round the sun aren’t really that ‘orderly’ at all, not if some magical all powerful god designed and made it happen. You realise the moon is moving slowly away from us too yes? Well – it wasn’t his most beautiful creation was it? But maybe that’s the fault of all the asteroid impacts it had…all those orderly asteroids, right?

      • rdberg1957

        This is a good point. The more we know about planetary systems, the more we know about how orderly they are not. Some have had planets which crashed into one another. The orbits are not as stable as was once thought. Chaos is a big part of the formation of the universe. We don’t know how rare life is in the universe, but we have a good idea that the era of living things is probably a small portion of the life of the planet. It took a few billion years for the earth to cool enough to be habitable. It will again become uninhabitable when the sun expands in the near future (a billion years, give or take a few).

  • Chris Moses

    Amazing what god did for us…
    So much more to learn, if we don’t exterminate ourselves in the process with the dumbasses that run this planet!

  • Kortney Dunkle

    C Anupam….can you imagine….our universe is infinite and then,
    there are infinite parallel universes ?? And….in all of eternity,
    you could not explore even the Milky Way !

    • Pol

      Not even your own body.

  • Dewayne Perry

    Because the light from our earlier galaxy would have already reached this point along time wouldn’t it. I believe it could be light from other older galaxies but not our own.

  • kank

    Whats the life of a galaxy? if it is say, 5 billion yrs, assuming it is 3 billions of light-years away, then whatever we see -was there 3 billion-yrs before or later. we can’t be sure whether it is dead or alive. we will continue to see this dead galaxy even after it is dead, because light wud still be reaching us. so any estimate is ridiculous

  • Sadhana Jaiswal

    wow.. 100 billon galaxies… from these galaxies point of view we dont even exist i suppose….

  • John Smith

    If there are 100 Trillion Cells in the Human body and if there were 100 Trillion Galaxies in the Universe, Maybe the Universe is a living Being of some sort?
    And if there were Parallel Universes, Maybe there could be more …

    • Nina

      Wow. That is soo interesting. Ur right its like we are one cell inside a body .. Im gonna be thinking about this concept all night.

    • really??

      Would’t that make us a virus?

  • Zebulon Macahan

    yes infinite space, paralel universes, 176 billion galaxies, that we know of,,,
    o man, and yet, our tiny planet with its small inhabitants what IF we infact are the only intelligent species? mindblowing thought, why cant save our planet from pollution, melting ices and so on?
    lets love and be good!

  • Jack Lee

    17…oh wait we might need 18 by January.

  • BarryG

    It’s fractal turtles all the way down! I trust all the author’s numbers are far too limited, but the way cooler thing to do now is to be able to observe the atmosphere of possibly habitile planets for signs of far from equilibrium conditions — life.

  • theREALchrispaul

    i read all these comments andsome of them say ” i wish i could go to the future or have a time machine to take me to the future” but i have some news for you you dont have to go anywhere if you were born in the late 1990s you have a great chance of seeing this with the medical advances in human health we will be able to stop or halt aging at least till we find a way to reverse it….sure it will take alot of time and money but my guess is by 2055-2065 there will be a company offering a halt in aging……..”now the question is can you afford this” i fell like treaments for this will cost around 250,000 dollars a pill or shot………trust me they wont make a one time pill or shot thats not good business

  • Darth Vader

    This made me crap my pants

  • Robert

    Issac Newton Quote: To myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore,
    and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a
    prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all
    undiscovered before me.”

    I am sorry that your poor imagination only allows you to see with your eyes and your telescope. There is infinitely more out there.

  • Lehmann108

    What does the Bible have to say about this? Sorry, couldn’t resist!

  • jabberwocky

    Can we send Obama to another galaxy?

  • jabberwocky

    I think there is a big bang followed eventually by a big crunch. Then the process starts all over again for all of time.

  • Reilly Edwards

    Mr. Seigel, thank you very much for this article. I am very grateful whenever I start to sense the size of the universe, and this explanation of the XDF just did it again for me. Dizzy, giddy, mind blown. I wish more people on earth could grasp this…we might have more cooperation and fewer problems.

  • Suchitra Madhava Tennakoon

    According to Buddhist teachings it is 100,000,000,000 or 1*10^11

    Known as Kela Lakshayak (කෙළ ලක්ෂයක්) or One Hundred Thousand Million.

  • http://batman-news.com Nate D.

    the alien life forms are looking for US through the warps.

  • Sadiq D

    Indeed the owner, the controller and the creator of the Universe deservered to be given maximum full repect

  • edenson

    You do have a time machine, and you are going forward in time. What to wish for, perhaps, is improvements so that our present time machines will last longer and stay in better shape.

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