3 Things You Didn’t Know About the Mites That Live On Your Face

By Michelle Trautwein | August 27, 2014 1:00 pm
Demodex brevis. Image by Alan R Walker

Demodex brevis. Image by Alan R. Walker

This post originally appeared at The Abstract.

You are not alone. Your body is a collection of microbes, fungi, viruses… and even other animals. In fact, you aren’t even the only animal using your face. Right now, in the general vicinity of your nose, there are at least two species of microscopic mites living in your pores. You would expect scientists to know quite a lot about these animals (given that we share our faces with them), but we don’t.

Here is what we do know: Demodex mites are microscopic arachnids (relatives of spiders and ticks) that live in and on the skin of mammals – including humans. They have been found on every mammal species where we’ve looked for them, except the platypus and their odd egg-laying relatives.

Often mammals appear to host more than one species, with some poor field mouse housing four mite species on its face alone. Generally, these mites live out a benign coexistence with their hosts. But if that fine balance is disrupted, they are known to cause mange amongst our furry friends, and skin ailments like rosacea and blepharitis in humans. Most of us are simply content – if unaware – carriers of these spindly, eight-legged pore-dwellers.

Scientists from NC State, the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, and the California Academy of Sciences have just published a study that uncovers some previously unknown truths regarding these little-known mites – all the while providing a glimpse into even bigger mysteries that have yet to be solved.

1. Everyone has mites.

D. brevis. Image by Dan Fergus and Megan Thoemmes

D. brevis. Image by Dan Fergus and Megan Thoemmes

One of our most exciting discoveries is that these mites are living on everyone. Yes everyone (even you). This hasn’t always been obvious because it can be hard to find a microscopic mite living on one’s face. Traditional sampling methods (including scraping or pulling a piece of tape off your face) only return mites on 10-25 percent of adults. The fact that mites are found at a much higher rate on cadavers (likely because the dead are easier to sample more extensively and intrusively) was a hint that they might be much more ubiquitous.

As it turns out, you don’t have to actually see a mite to detect its presence. Dan Fergus, a mite molecular biologist at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, discovered that mite DNA could be sequenced from face scrapings regardless of whether a mite could be found under the microscope. And mite DNA was sequenced from every adult we sampled. Meaning that if you let us scrape your face, we’d find mite DNA on you as well. And where mite DNA is found, you’ll find mites.

2. Humans host two mite species that aren’t even closely related to each other.

One of the most intriguing (and unsolved) face mite mysteries is how humans acquired these beasties. Perhaps these mites are a model system of co-evolution. It’s possible that as every species of mammal evolved, so did their mites – each one particularly adapted to its changed environs. In such a case, we would expect that we acquired our mites from our ape ancestors, and that the two species of human mites would be more closely related to each other than to any other mite species.

D. folliculorum. Image by USDA Confocal and Electron Microscopy Unit

D. folliculorum. Image by USDA Confocal and Electron Microscopy Unit

However, we’ve learned that the two mite species on our faces, Demodex folliculorum (the long skinny one) and Demodex brevis (the short, chubby one), are actually not very close relatives to each other at all. Our analyses actually show that brevis is more closely related to dog mites than to folliculorum, the other human mite. This is interesting because it shows us that humans have acquired each of these mite species in different ways, and that there are two separate histories of how each of these mite species came to be on our face.

Though we don’t have enough evidence to say that we got one of our mites from man’s best friend, it does seem possible that one of the domestic animal species that we’ve long shared our lives with (be it dogs, goats or otherwise) may have gifted us their mites.

3. Mites can tell us about the historical divergence of human populations

How we acquired our mites is just one part of the story. We are also curious about how our mite species have evolved since they became our constant companions.

Demodex have likely been living with us for a long, long time; as early humans walked out of Africa and found their way around the globe, they probably carried their mites with them. So we want to know if Demodex DNA can provide a reflection of our own evolutionary history by allowing us to retrace those ancient paths of human migration.

So far, our analyses look promising. When looking at the DNA from one of our mite species, D. brevis, we found that mites from China are genetically distinct from mites from the Americas. East Asians and European populations diverged over 40,000 years ago and so far it looks like their mites did as well.

On the other hand, D. folliculorum from China is indistinguishable from that of the Americas. Of the two Demodex species associated with humans, D. brevis lives deeper in your pores than folliculorum and is probably shared between people less readily, whereas D. folliculorum appears to enjoy global domination.

But as exciting as these results are, China and the U.S. are just a small piece of the picture. We can’t wait to see what happens when we sample D. brevis from people all over the world! The ancient journey of Homo sapiens as retold by mites.

If reading this made your face a little itchy, rest easy. In an evolutionary perspective, humans and Demodex are old, old friends. You are in good company. And so are your mites.

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Living World, Top Posts
MORE ABOUT: unusual organisms
  • http://stonesnbones.blogspot.com/ Dr. GS Hurd

    Excellent short item for general readers.

    • zlop

      Secret knowledge is behind pay-walls.
      Would not be surprised, if these
      parasites are being bio-weapon-ized.

      • The Bantz™


        • zlop

          Even beyond Pay-Walls, above top secret, is Chem-Trail knowledge. What are they spraying? Is this how the Georgia Guide Stoning will be implemented?

          • The Bantz™

            “Chem-Trails” aren’t real. This is either low-quality bait, or you’re very good at acting retarded

          • The Bantz™

            Why are you upvoting me?! What the hell is going on!?!

  • Andy Warstar

    I love mites. Where are they again?

  • Zo Lat Kam

    Bad Pun of the Day:

    I wonder what we Mite learn about our historical divergence??


    • Frank Bascombe

      Youre right. So why?

  • Saeed Ramezan Pour

    im feeling so that on my skin because they move and make itchy specially whenever you wash your skin lately

    • Poop Smith

      they’re microscopic, you can’t feel them.

      • Frank Bascombe

        Sure you can… You can surely feel things you cant see. Facial skin is, as one might expect, damn sensitive.

        • Poop Smith

          4 year old comment, but no, you can’t feel microscopic bacteria and mites on your skin. You will not feel a bacteria or virus small enough to enter a cut and give you a disease.

  • LEK56

    i can hear them talking/// How can i make them stop? Can they be killed? Removed? Please, someone help me.

    • Lucas Haynes

      Cut your face off.

    • http://jotaperealini.blogspot.com Juan Pablo

      ha, ha!!!! My wife has just asked exactly that 5 minutes ago when she learned about them!!!

      • LEK56

        Tell her this weird fact: There are about 20 BILLION microbes in your mouth. That should creep her out.

        • Steven Tyndall

          I dont think he’s be happy with his wife having 20 billion creatures in her mouth.

    • Diego Bronstein

      Have some wine and get them drunk. They’ll fall asleep and you can run for your life.

      The key here is a surprise attack, never bring close a napkin. The slightest mistake and your whole skin will be compromised. Make sure you apply risk management to the whole process.

      And don’t forget to measure your success and never ever forget to provide a TPS report.

      • Jim Shorts

        Yeah, didn’t you get the Memo?

  • Louis Brassard

    An industry of face mite killing products will be generated by this kind of study.

    • Richard J Schneider

      Not to mention nonstop coverage on NPR..

    • Debbie J Davis

      Absolutely right! There are already anti bacterial washing detergents being advertised in the UK. I remember ‘biological’ detergents, non-bios, and now a whole array of ‘stain digesters’ is the cleaning fashion. Advertise nearly as old as dirt.

      • bango53

        Neem oil will stop the fertility cycle in these things.

        • Facebook User

          Would the alcohol prep swabs kill the little buggers?

          • bango53

            no. neem oil is good for skin care , it does not kill the mites it stops their fertility cycle in about a week .there all over the place your bed ,your brush etc.

    • Robert Johns

      Before you go on a mite-genocide consider that they may benefit us in some way, the bacteria in our gut help protect us from colonization by harmful bacteria – such as c difficile for example, benign inhabitants such as these mites may actually help defend us from things that would do far more damage.

      • Alpaca Man

        Actually this je the case for bacteria, with whom we share a mutualistic relationship. Just by the fact that we call them “parasites” means that they only profit from us while we gain nothing from them. They just aren’t that harmful.

    • Frank Bascombe

      The new zealand tea tree farmers are quite happy about the findings.

  • FeatheredFiend

    It’s kind of cool to learn that there are microscopic herds of beasts on my face.

  • patriv4

    Interesting, I hope my Mites like partying with my husbands…

  • JonFrum

    And that’s just your face. Think about scrotum mites.

    • Frank Bascombe

      Not a whole lot of sebum being excreted down there so youre probably safe. From yhis arachnid anyway.

  • Lorie Franceschi

    This just your face, think of all the other areas that have mites, Anywhere on your body. There also lots in your stomach and other areas that your food goes through in its passage through our bodies. and then there are ear mites, eye mites, and I can think of other places that I won’t mention heree, but you know what I am talking about.

  • Facebook User

    Yuck, that just made me feel itchy even though they are too small to feel, think that I will go have a shower.
    So if I am the host to these little things does this mean I am their parent, if so should be thinking up names for each of them and I wonder what purpose they serve?

    • Angela King

      Lol…are they IRS deductible sine we are their primary support for mor than a 6 months of the year?

      • Facebook User

        Now why didn’t I think of that! You could deduct all cosmetics, claim for repairs and maintenance and depreciate the value host to name just a few items, and lets not even get started on health care and educational related costs.
        Thinking about it, hosting a range of parasites in a warm and loving environment could prove to be quite a lucrative venture, hehe
        When you get audited you could offer to give them to the inspector right there and then.
        Ar yuck, now I am feeling itchy again :-)

        • Angela King

          Now that is one awesome and most creative reply lol…Thank :-)

    • Frank Bascombe

      Go outside and play, grown ups are trying to talk.

  • A Amiri

    Chop this in the face of every arrogant human being who thinks too haughty of himself (Politicians, Narcissists, Celebrities, and the list goes on!): you were nothing and you will be nothing someday soon; and your fate is the same as that of microbes and mites, or even worse!

    • bango53

      I am going to change my pillow cover more often.

  • http://www.LinkedIn.com/in/rccampbellsoup5825 Robert C Campbell

    Well you can’t just wash them away. So accept their presents and deal with life.

  • Lorie Franceschi

    we got them on the outside and the inside too. they help us digest the food we eat also. I say we all put them down as dependents on our tax form this year

  • creek house

    Why don’t you just try to figure out why we have them without the evolution blah blah and maybe you will come up with an answer.

  • Jolly Roger

    I like my facial mites so much that I gave them all names. They’re like invisible little pets that I take with me everywhere.

  • Jean Donnel

    From what I understand, these mites and your eye lash mites have become beneficial to us. They clean our pores. They now live on us only for their entire lives. They have basically become a part of us. Much like the bacteria and virus’s that we are born with. Without them, we suffer. Without our face mites and eye lash mites we would also have problems. Each of us is a tiny universe filled with many life forms that exist on us and die with us.

    • Frank Bascombe

      Perhaps you didnt read thouroughly. When enough of a large population of mites builds up, usually caused by a weakend immune system, they start to clog up pores as they die off, not with just their carcasses but also with whatever garbage is inside them because apparently they have no anuses! They also, in too large of numbers start to do damage our hair. follicles.

      • Jean Donnel

        Depends on the mites. As mentioned, without the proper mites, your pores are also clogged, not to mention all sorts of other problems. There are mites living in your hair follicles, they belong there and are beneficial. They eat the oils and stuff our bodies pump out as waste. Yes, in to many numbers they can be bad. Like any overpopulation in an ecosystem – and we are their ecosystem. Interestingly, as they live on us, there are creatures that live on them.

  • Dan Poisson

    This proves we are all good for something …mite food.

  • Diana Lynne

    They’re helpful. The skin sheds cells and the mites help keep your pores clean by eating the dead skin. They are very helpful :)

    • Frank Bascombe

      In managable numbers yes, but as in all things in nature, when the delicate balance is disturbed…from aging, through disease, or drug abuse, the symbiotic or benign, I guess, relationship is no longer a reciprocal one.

  • Diana Lynne

    now we know what the itching is sometimes

  • Russ Prącieduz

    Is there any truth to the meme where “males crawl out of your pores looking for females and have sex on your face?”

    • XILA

      Sort of. They kinda have to, so pore one has a colony of ten face mites, and pore two on the other side of your nostril has twelve. Everyone in pore one is related and all the mites in pore two are related, so yes, one adventures male or female has to cross your face to get freaky in the other pore to prevent inbreeding.

      But, these guys are tiny their could be thousands crossing your face at any given time to find mates. (It’s just assumed that they primarily travel nocturnally)

      & I’m going to poor another bottle isopropyl on me.

  • Donna Goulet

    So, I guess the government spent some of the taxes I paid to research our faces and let us know about these mites that we would never have known about because they really don’t bother us and we can’t feel them anyway….

    • Frank Bascombe

      Yes Donna, and your contribution bought an entire 1/2 of a box of donoughts for a casual morning progress and planning meeting. The 2 coconuts sprinkle went untouched, would you like them as a refund of sorts?
      If better treatment for eye and skin afflictions comes about from understanding of these little creatures (can’t see um so therefore who cares? Is that really the jist of what you wrote? Lord help us! BTW, can’t see HIM either but.. ) it’ll be your pastry money well spent.
      Thats how the smart people in lab coats get things done sweetheart…not everything succeeds by the dangling carrot of profiteering. In fact, things tend to end up harmfully just as often as not.


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About Michelle Trautwein

Michelle Trautwein is adjunct assistant professor of entomology at NC State and Schlinger Chair of Dipterology at the California Academy of Sciences.


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