Category: Mind & Brain

The Limits of Fight-or-Flight Training

By Ben Thomas | January 5, 2016 11:30 am
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(Credit: Adam Ziaja/Shutterstock)

The soldiers at Checkpoint 56 ordered the woman to stop.

She was Palestinian, the soldiers were Israeli, and this checkpoint divided the Israeli and Palestinian-controlled sections of Hebron on the West Bank. The checkpoint’s metal detector had gone off when the woman walked through. The soldiers ordered her to raise her veil. She refused.

Then she pulled a knife. Read More

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Mind & Brain, Top Posts

3 Implications of Memory-Boosting Devices

By Ben Thomas | December 22, 2015 3:18 pm
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Scientists are only beginning to advance memory-enhancing technology research, but even in this early stage, there are questions that deserve consideration. (Illustration credit: Brian A Jackson/Shutterstock)

In fall, DARPA announced a major success in its Restoring Active Memory (RAM) program. Researchers implanted targeted electrical arrays in the brains of a few dozen volunteers — specifically in brain areas involved in memory.

The researchers found a way to read out neural “key codes” associated with specific memories, and then fed those codes back into the volunteers’ brains as they tried to recall lists of items or directions to places. While the results are still preliminary, DARPA claims that the RAM technique has already achieved “promising results” in improving memory retrieval.

Intriguing as this implant is, it’s only the latest in an ongoing series of neurological techniques and gizmos designed to boost and sharpen memory. The effects and implications of these systems raise questions that are worth consideration. Read More

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Mind & Brain, Technology, Top Posts

How Terrorist Attacks Influence Mental Health

By Daniel Antonius, The State University of New York | December 4, 2015 11:26 am
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A growing body of research examines the psychological aftermath of terrorist attacks, such as the coordinated attacks in Paris on Nov. 13. (Credit: Stacey Newman / Shutterstock.com)

On November 13 2015, a series of coordinated attacks in Paris left 130 people dead. A week later, armed gunmen stormed a hotel in Mali, seizing hostages while also firing indiscriminately at guests, killing 27 people. And this week a mass shooting in San Bernardino, California, left 14 dead. While the motive is not known, the FBI has assigned counterterrorism agents to the case, sparking public speculation that the shooting may have been an act of terrorism.

You could spend hours every day watching, reading and listening to news related to these events. This level of exposure can significantly influence your worldviews and how you live your life. Read More

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Mind & Brain, Top Posts
MORE ABOUT: psychology

The Psychological Benefits of Thanksgiving Rituals

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(Credit: Brian Chase/Shutterstock)

When Americans gather together around a table groaning with favorite dishes on the fourth Thursday of November, what are we doing beyond filling our bellies with turkey and pie? We convened four experts in the psychology of family traditions and shared meals for a roundtable discussion about what ritual means in the context of Thanksgiving. Read More

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Mind & Brain, Top Posts
MORE ABOUT: psychology

The Brain Has a Blind Spot for ‘Unknown Unknowns’

By Rob Brotherton | November 17, 2015 9:00 am

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A conspiracy theory is an invitation to an exciting alternative reality where nothing is quite as it seems. There is fun to be had defying conventional wisdom, sifting through signs, uncovering lost knowledge and secret plots. But we don’t generally believe stuff just for the fun of it. For us to really believe something it has to seem plausible.

How can we be so sure that our journey off the intellectual beaten path and down twisting trails of conspiracy theory has led us to the truth, while the scientific mainstream is deluded or deceptive? Sometimes all it takes is our own overly optimistic brain telling us we understand the world in far greater depth than we actually do.

Read More

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Mind & Brain, Top Posts
MORE ABOUT: psychology

Human-Like Neural Networks Make Computers Better Conversationalists

By Ben Thomas | November 11, 2015 2:00 pm
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HAL 9000, depicted as a glowing red “eye,” was the frighteningly charismatic computer protagonist in Stanley Kubrick’s 1968 movie “2001 Space Odyssey.” (Credit: Screengrab from YouTube

If you’ve ever tried to hold a conversation with a chatbot like CleverBot, you know how quickly the conversation turns to nonsense, no matter how hard you try to keep it together.

But now, a research team led by Bruno Golosio, assistant professor of applied physics at Università di Sassari in Italy, has taken a significant step toward improving human-to-computer conversation. Golosio and colleagues built an artificial neural network, called ANNABELL, that aims to emulate the large-scale structure of human working memory in the brain — and its ability to hold a conversation is eerily human-like. Read More

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Mind & Brain, Technology, Top Posts

The Man Who Tried to Weigh the Soul

By Ben Thomas | November 3, 2015 3:00 pm

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In 1907, a Massachusetts doctor named Duncan MacDougall performed an unusual series of experiments. Intrigued by the idea that the human soul had mass, and could therefore be weighed, Dr. MacDougall put together a bed fitted with a sensitive set of beam scales, and convinced a series of terminally ill patients to lie on it during the final moments of their lives.

MacDougall was nothing if not detail-oriented: He recorded not only each patient’s exact time of death, but also his or her total time on the bed, as well as any changes in weight that occurred around the moment of expiration. He even factored losses of bodily fluids like sweat and urine, and gases like oxygen and nitrogen, into his calculations. His conclusion was that the human soul weighed three-fourths of an ounce, or 21 grams. Read More

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Mind & Brain, Top Posts

Meet the Parasites That Control Human Brains

By Ben Thomas | October 29, 2015 9:00 am
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(Illustration credit: Triff/Shutterstock)

It’s time to enjoy some monster stories, and the scariest monsters of all are those that actually exist.

Join us as we share tales of some of the creepiest parasites around — those that control the brains of their human hosts, sometimes leaving insanity and death in their wake. These are the tales of neurological parasites. Read More

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Living World, Mind & Brain, Top Posts

Getting ‘High’ On Your Own Supply

By Ben Thomas | October 19, 2015 3:58 pm

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Earlier this month, researchers discovered that at least part of the euphoria that comes after a strenuous workout — runner’s high — is due to endocannabinoids, the body’s self-produced counterparts to some of marijuana’s mood-enhancing chemicals.

The finding overturned decades of conventional wisdom claiming that natural highs come from endorphins, the chemicals that became famous in the 1980s for their euphoric effects. While endorphins seem to help numb our muscles during a workout, their molecules are too large to cross the blood-brain barrier and trigger a “high” like endocannabinoids can. Read More

What’s the Color of Your Favorite Song?

By Stephen Palmer and Karen B. Schloss | August 21, 2015 3:05 pm

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Imagine yourself as a graphic designer for New Age musician Enya, tasked with creating her next album cover. Which two or three colors from the grid below do you think would “go best” with her music?

Would they be the same ones you’d pick for an album cover or music video for the heavy metal band Metallica? Probably not.

color gridFor years, my collaborators and I have been studying music-to-color associations. From our results, it’s clear that emotion plays a crucial role in how we interpret and respond to any number of external stimuli, including colors and songs.

Read More

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Mind & Brain, Top Posts
MORE ABOUT: emotions, senses
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