Life is not easy for a fish. Death can arrive in the twitch of a gill from bears, eagles, bigger fish — or a puny arachnid.
Spiders, it turns out, prey on fish far more than has been previously appreciated, and a new review study documents fish-hunting by spiders on every continent except Antarctica.
These spiders come from five main families sure to strike fear into many a minnow. Without further ado, five badass fishing spiders:
Species of spiders belonging to this family are by far the most adept at catching a swimming meal, and more than 80 percent of spider-on-fish incidences in the survey involved this family. These foraging spiders do away with a web altogether and prefer to swim, dive and even walk on the water’s surface to prey on small fish and insects.
The most notable killers in this family belong to the genus Dolomedes, known as fishing spiders or raft spiders. According to one report, a single Dolomedes spider, which wisely established itself next to a fish tank within the Steinhart Aquarium in San Francisco, killed and devoured numerous fish in just a few days.
Dolomedes spiders were also spotted at an Oklahoma fish-rearing pond engaging in “wasteful killing,” or dispatching fish even when their appetites were satiated. Now that’s cold-blooded.
Here, the six-spotted fishing spider (Dolomedes triton) seen in action:
Two species of spiders in this family (belonging to the genus Ancylometes) are nocturnal, big-bodied divers. They can submerge themselves for 20 minutes to an hour, relying on air bubbles trapped on hairs surrounding their book lungs.
While diving, they’ll catch fish, inject them with a lethal venom and consume them on the surface. The largest spider in this genus has a leg span of 7 inches, so frogs, tadpoles and lizards are also fair game.
This family includes the pond wolf spider, which swims in the rice fields and swamps of Asia. It also has a bit of a Napoleonic streak: It’s one of the smallest spiders, just 1 centimeter in length, observed catching a fish in the wild. The diminutive spider has demonstrated its skill numerous times in the lab as well.
This family is a bit of a black sheep among fishing spiders — they aren’t as highly skilled as members of the other families; they don’t chase their prey across the water, and they are incapable of diving. Instead, they’ll plant their hind legs on a stone or a plant and rest their front legs in the water.
But they make do with their lazy approach, feeding on a diverse array of creatures including insects, shrimps, fish and frogs.
The most unlikely incidence of fish hunting occurs in this family. These spiders are primarily terrestrial, and less than 1 centimeter in length. However, researchers in France observed a spider from this family catching a tiny trout about 2.8 times its size.
Researchers say this is the only account of fish-eating from this family, so it may have simply been a peculiar chance event.
BONUS SPIDER: The Diving Bell
Though not a part of the “Big Five” families, the diving bell spider is perhaps the most famous of fishing spiders — and is the only known species of spider to live entirely under water.
This spider constructs “diving bells,” or dome-shaped underwater webs, between aquatic plants. When diving bell spiders get hungry, they hunt tiny fish by injecting them with a potent venom that instantly kills.
Here’s the diving bell spider in action:
Researchers say there are in total at least eight families of spiders known to consume fish. And much remains to be learned: we still don’t know how important fish predation is for the spiders’ survival, or the role their taste for fish plays in aquatic food chains.
However, this is for certain: It’s no fun being a small fish in a big pond.