Genetically Speaking, You’re More Like Your Dad

By Carl Engelking | March 3, 2015 1:08 pm


You may have inherited your mother’s eyes, but, genetically speaking, you use more DNA passed down from your father. That’s the conclusion of a new study on mice that researchers say likely applies to all mammals.

We humans get one copy of each gene from mom and one from dad (ignoring those pesky sex chromosomes) that hasn’t changed. The same is true for all mammals. But that doesn’t necessarily mean that mom and dad genes are equally active in creating who we are.

Researchers now report that thousands of mouse genes show parent-specific effects, and that on balance, the scales are tipped in favor of dads. Studying whether this imbalance exists in humans could give scientists insights into the causes of inherited conditions like diabetes and heart disease.

Of Mice and Men

Humans, mice and many other animals shared a common ancestor some 80 million years ago; therefore, our set of genes are highly alike. Further, when mice pass their genetic material down to their offspring, the manner in which genes are turned on or off is also similar to humans.

The study looks at gene expression  that is, genes’ level of activity in producing RNA, which is the molecule that then goes on to create proteins and basically make the body function. In this study, scientists worked with a population of mice called the Collaborative Cross, which is the most genetically diverse population of mice in the world. These mice were specifically bred to mimic the genetic diversity found in human populations.

Scientists interbred three strains of these mice to create nine different types of offspring. When these mice reached adulthood, scientists measured the level of gene expression in a variety of bodily tissues. They then quantified how much gene expression was derived from the mother and the father for every single gene in the genome.

Daddy DNA

Overall, they found that most genes showed parent-of-origin effects in their levels of expression, and that paternal genes consistently won out. For up to 60 percent of the mouse’s genes, the copy from dad was more active than the copy from mom. This imbalance resulted in mice babies whose brains were significantly more like dad’s, genetically speaking.

The researchers believe the same is likely true in all mammals. “We now know that mammals express more genetic variance from the father,” says Pardo-Manuel de Villena. “So imagine that a certain kind of mutation is bad. If inherited from the mother, the gene wouldn’t be expressed as much as it would be if it were inherited from the father. So, the same bad mutation would have different consequences in disease if it were inherited from the mother or from the father.”

The findings, which were published this week in Nature Genetics, add a new wrinkle into our understanding of inherited diseases. Knowing an imbalance exists in how your parents’ genes affect you could help scientists treat and predict diseases more accurately.

So, dads, next time you’re showing off those baby pictures, go ahead and boast: the little one does take after you.


Photo credit: Oksana Kuzmina/Shutterstock; DNA strand: watchara/Shutterstock;

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Living World, top posts
  • Omega Centauri

    I always figured it was the other way around, since your Mitochondrial RNA is from your mother. How does a cell “know” for any particular gene, which parent its from?

    • Scott O

      Yes, how does the rest of the machinery in the cell know which parent a gene is from?

      • Orrin Stanforth

        That’s a great question and one of the big questions in the field of epi-genetics. Scientists have known for several years that genes from Mom and Dad are not expressed exactly the same.

        For instance the conditions of Prader-Willi Syndrome and Angelman Syndrome are very different, but they are caused by mutations in the same gene. If the gene came from Mom, it will express itself as Prader-Willi. If it came from Dad it will express as Angelman Syndrome.

      • Hibernia86

        Some genes are methylated (covered up so that they are inactive). Genes from the father might be less likely to be methylated than those from the mother. Any genes from the father can be turned on when the sperm is made.

      • Brian Mino

        It knows because it is automatically programmed too do so.

    • Helena_Handbasket

      That’s kind of where I was on this.

    • hermann

      Exactly. Me too

    • Kurarin

      you are right about the mitochondiral dna from mother. This article is complete bullshit. The female egg contains a hell lot more genetic information than the sperm

      • pat

        The DNA from the I bum and spermatazoate

        • Kurarin

          what? do you even know that your comment makes no sense?

          • Peter

            The sperm and the ova contain half of the nuclear genome each. These combine to make one new nuclear genome.
            The mitochondria come from mother only, but only affect the energy production.
            To say that the egg had more influence than the sperm (or vice versa) is contrary to basic biological understanding.

      • some1

        You may refute the article interpretation, but you cannot refute the scientific findings of the original research.
        And the research does not make a quantitative assessment but rather a qualitative one of genetic material.

        • Kurarin

          This is one article alone, and without a credible source, notice how the “research” they based it on has absolutely no credibility.
          While there’re many, Many more researches refuting this article, including the database of the government of United States.

          Mitochondrial DNA from the mother is really the one that makes up most of everything. The sperm, although containing some amounts of DNA, is insignificant except for determining the gender. Plus, the sperm is much smaller than the egg, disabling it to contain more DNA than the egg.

          You are free to believe this article and continue your ignorance if you want, but you can’t ignore the fact that it is internationally agreed that the mitochondrial DNA is really the main component.

          • Peter

            I thought there were only 37 ‘genes’ in mitochondrial DNA … as opposed to 19,000 or so in the nuclear genome …

          • Kurarin

            37 is still lot more than the ones in the sperm.
            And nuclear genome does NOT directly equal sperm

          • Richard Bullington

            You are so ignorant. Both egg and sperm cells are the result of meiosis and contain a single chain of DNA. When fertilization occurs the two chains zip together and begin controlling the metabolism of the egg.

            The mother does provide all the “working parts” of the egg. Sperm have no mitochondria in the “principal piece” which carries the meiotic DNA. There are densely packed mitochondria in the “mid piece” which provides ATP for the wildly wriggling flagellum. Those mid piece mitochondria get fructose from the seminal fluid, convert it to glucose and then generate ATP.

            So yes, the tiny genome of the mother’s mitochondria are a little more DNA, but it is DNA which has NO EXPRESSION other than within the mitochondria themselves. It either produces working mitochondria or the egg starves.

            That is a world away from “mitochondrial DNA is really the main component”. Actually, “worlds”.

          • @nsmartinworld

            I won’t defend the article, but “internationally agreed” is not what science is about.

            “Science is the Belief in the Ignorance of Experts” — Richard Feynman.

          • Wampler Longacre

            Speaking as a geneticist and microbiologist, YOU, sir, do not know what the freaking hell you are talking about.

          • aviral19

            We have illiterate feminists here as well.
            Do you have any clue about genetics, molecular biology or the biology of reproduction?
            Without a credible source? Its published in Nature Genetics, one of the most reputed journals.
            P.S. I am a Biology major.

      • Richard Bullington

        Mitochondrial DNA has only 37 genes. That’s not “a hell of a lot more”.

      • Miaka_Mei

        Hahahaha you cannot apply simple mathematics on biology molecule! And you obviously have no idea what molecular biology is, do you?

        Talk to an expert, don’t make yourself sound like an expert!

    • Noneofyourbusiness

      Yes, but mitochondrial DNA is the DNA of your mitochondria, not of you yourself. Mitochondria, the “powerhouses” of the cell, were originally separate lifeforms that evolved a symbiosis with eukaryotes (prokaryotes don’t have them). Nuclear DNA, which comes from both parents, is your own DNA.

      • Omega Centauri

        I don’t think the distinction of, this is me, and this isn’t me, makes any sense. Both components are essential parts of what makes ourselves viable biological beings.That infection to symbiot transformation happened so far back in deep time (most likely a couple of billion years ago), so the arrangement is now a pretty fundamental part of all complex life on earth, without which any of our current complex organisms on our planet would be nonviable. Of course we also have an ecosystem of bacteria, fungi, and viruses that outnumber our “human” cells, and we probably would die without that micro-biome as well. We might as well embrace the entire eco-system that out legacy as us.

        • Noneofyourbusiness

          The point is that the article is talking about how nuclear DNA is expressed, not mitochondrial DNA.

    • AlIna Aydarova

      mitochondrial dna is dna of bacteria, has nothing to do with your dna.

  • Roberto Leibman

    I would hypothesize, that at least for humans, fathers are more likely to stick around if the kids look like him, so it would make sense that there’s a meta-genetic preference for dad’s genes.

    • Hibernia86

      Very interesting theory. I couldn’t see why the mother’s genes wouldn’t fight more to express themselves, but maybe the mother’s genes do get an advantage by letting the father’s genes chose the looks of the baby. Though it seems like it would be hard to tell in any case who the father was without genetic tests to be sure.

    • duelles

      Maybe this is why new alpha males kill off early offspring, and step fathers/ boyfriends can be brutal too. Casting no aspersions, as humans can be so compassionate as well.

    • @nsmartinworld

      But that preference is rendered recessive by a power social welfare system that renders males superfluous.

      • Jen

        One hopes.

        • @nsmartinworld

          As usual, a feminist pops in to demonstrate that her ideology belongs with other hate creeds, like racism and antisemitism.

          • Jen

            Oh really?
            The number one cause in personal injury among women aged 15-44 is intimate partner violence perpetrated by a man 98% of the time. Tell me, where are the men who are being killed and abused en masse by women? Nonexistent?

            Yeah. Don’t bother to reply. The facts aren’t on your side. Only your little feelings and false correlations.

          • @nsmartinworld

            A large study published in the May 2007 American Journal of Public Health noted the following:

            “Almost 24% of all relationships had some violence, and half (49.7%) of those were reciprocally violent. In nonreciprocally violent relationships, women were the perpetrators in more than 70% of the cases.”

            That is, women are more likely to commit acts of domestic violence. Men are less likely to report domestic violence, and injuries from that violence.

            As for sexual assault, the annual National Crime Victimization Survey didn’t even bother to ask men about experiences until 2013. When asked, almost the same percentage of men said they had been forced to engage in non-consensual sex as women. About half of the sex was forced on males by females, often when the males were children.

            I don’t write this for you, because haters cannot be influence, but for others who might want to understand what genuine research shows.

            Your posts demonstrate my point about feminism as an ideology of hate.

          • Jen

            So where are the stats on the men killed by women? It’s a long paragraph and I see nothing in there that refutes anything I’ve said. Show me the men who have been killed and injured by women. Women are more likely to be murdered by an intimate partner than anybody else. So where’s the similar statistic for men? Nonexistent.

            You can think feminism is bunk all you want, dude. Most men think that of ideas and objects that serve no purpose to them. Just remember that you’re the one screaming at a brown woman on the internet about racism because she refuses to take your “men are obsolete boohoo” comment from 3 years ago seriously.

          • @nsmartinworld

            Women are more likely to initiate violence, men are more likely to end it. Men are more powerful.

            Ask Steve McNair or Phil Hartman if partner homicide is “nonexistent.”

            Mothers are more likely to kill their children than fathers are. Feminists are apologists and cheerleaders for female violence.

          • Jen

            So two men? That’s your evidence? Are you aware that every single day, the equivalent of five jumbo jets full of women are murdered globally?

            Again, the facts aren’t on your side. My data comes from the CDC and UNICEF. Your data comes from r/redpill. Weird how men need to subjugate women in order to not remain obsolete. Weird how women who simply say that living their lives without a man in it is hatred and violence to you, on par with rape, murder, and assault.

          • @nsmartinworld

            You claimed female DV homicide is “nonexistent.” It only takes one case to disprove that, so I provided two. That females are more likely to suffer severe injury from DV does not tell us which partner initiated the violence. The preponderance of the evidence is that women initiate more DV than men do. That’s unwise since a man has a right to defend himself, and men can usually hit harder. Do not pick fights; especially those that you will lose. I chose not to reply with violence against my extremely violent ex-spouse. I was able to fend off her punches and kicks with my hands, and she mostly hit walls and furniture, though she did connect with my face hard once. I still didn’t strike her back. I could have ended her habitual violence with one blow, but I’m a non-violent person who exercises self-control. I’ve been struck 4 times in my adult life, three of those times by women. The fourth time was precipitated by a female.

            Domestic Violence Research Group: Domestic Violence Facts and Statistics At A Glance:

            “Among large population samples, 57.9% of IPV [intimate partner violence] reported was bi-directional, 42% unidirectional; 13.8% of the unidirectional violence was male to female (MFPV), 28.3% was female to male (FMPV)”

            “Across studies, 40% of women and 32% of men reported expressive abuse; 41% of women and 43% of men reported coercive abuse”

            “Among school and college samples, percentage of bidirectional violence was 51.9%; 16.2% was MFPV and 31.9% was FMPV”

            “Among respondents reporting IPV in legal or female-oriented clinical/treatment seeking samples not associated with the military, 72.3% was bi-directional; 13.3% was MFPV, 14.4% was FMPV”

            Since misandry is central to your ideology, facts don’t matter to you. They matter to men and women who oppose all violence. The last part of what you wrote is loopy.

          • Jen

            No, I said that the numbers are not as great as the numbers of men who murder, rape, and assault women.

            You said that women being able to live without men means that men are “obsolete.” Why would a man be obsolete if a woman does not depend on him and can live independently of him?

          • @nsmartinworld

            You could bother to be informed before developing opinions. Men and women are both perpetrators of violence. In important ways women initiate more violence than men— for instance by killing more of their own children and by initiating more domestic violence — according to DV experts (some of the most prominent of whom are women who identify as feminists).

            As for rape, you choose to minimize the rape of men, by both women and men, just as you choose to minimize overall violence against men. Over 90 percent of workplace deaths are male, in part because women elect to not do the nasty, dangerous jobs that men are willing to do that keep the society going. Women have not been conscripted for military duty and died by the hundreds of thousands. Males are still required to sign up for a potential draft and females are not.

            Lastly, and I do mean lastly, you can learn something by googling this:

            “Is the US the only country where more men are raped than women?”

          • Jen

            What I said:
            Women are more likely to be murdered by an intimate partner than anybody else. So where’s the similar statistic for men? Nonexistent.
            Tell me, where are the men who are being killed and abused en masse by women? Nonexistent.

            Now you’re claiming (falsely) that women are just as violent as men. Tell me, then, why would men need women to be dependent on men in order to not be obsolete? Are you capable of rational thought or will you continue your testerical accusations?

          • Pete Hantzios

            Women can’t survive on their own. Just so you know. You are not interested at all to pass the best DNA to the next generation, because if you did, you would had considered the fact that you might get a boy. Would you hate your son? Probably, because the only thing you can pass to the next generation is hate.
            YOU are obsolete in relevance to human life on earth.
            Hate hinders life, it does not promote it.

          • Brian Mino

            They do in fact women have murdered 60 MILLION UNBORN BABIES just since 1973 ALONE! And many times against the FATHERS WISHES TOO!

  • GivesIt Thought

    Future Mothers Beware: If you aren’t totally in love with and trust your lover, if he seems sick or you don’t know him very well, care enough about your future children NOT to have his babies. Here’s proof, whatever is wrong with the DNA donor will end up crippling your children’s lives. And you’ll be raising that child along with all his/her father’s problems, whether the father is there or not.

    • Chris

      By “lover” I assume you mean lawfully wedded husband. The person with whom you have already promised to love through sickness and health and for better or worse? And if you decide to just choose a lover so that you can raise children without the equal support of a balanced family can provide, then your children will be disadvantaged from the start based on their environment regardless of the genetic contribution of your lover du jour.

      • Helena_Handbasket

        Oh blow it out your rear, Auntie Grizelda. First of all, I know people unmarried that have been together for decades and raised great kids, and married couples who divorce within a few years, or stay together and raise fucked up kids because they feel “trapped” and take it out on the whole family.

        Don’t get me wrong, not trashing marriage in general. I have no problem with it.. but I DO have a major problem with your post. “Lawfully wedded” has nothing to do with the stability and validity of a couple….. and the fact is that neither YOU nor anybody else can say anything that will make most people resist their biological urges just because they haven’t found someone they want to enter a binding contract with that rules all the major factors in their lives.. so the LEAST we can do is maybe help them choose who they are going to sleep with, a bit more carefully.

        Also, just because someone had sex outside of marriage does NOT mean that they are going to be sleeping around with a bunch of random people nonstop, so your lover du jour BS is nothing but nonsense issued in an attempt to take a steaming hot crap on others so you can feel like your superior to someone without actually having to do anything to earn the feeling.

        • Iriane Todd

          Amen Helena I couldn’t have said it better myself. My parents have been married for over 30 years. And I like to believe they raised gorgeous and epicly amazing women

        • Chris

          All I was trying to say was that people should make commitments to each other for life and trust each other for longer than the time that it takes to have sex. Father’s are more than “DNA donors.” And before you make a decision to have a child you should have a stable plan based on more than “biological urges” to care for wellbeing of your children. Deadbeat dads should be ashamed of themselves, marries or not, and should feel the same responsibility for the children as their mother does. And both mother and father should show all the qualities that you would want your future children to have to each other. It takes two to make a child and should logically take two to raise it (under the ideal circumstances). Not everything works out the way you want it, but don’t plan to disadvantage your future children from the start.

          -Old school Auntie Grizelda

          • Chris

            BTW I’m 30

          • Shawn Hinkle

            Good points chris.

        • SUnsan

          2 words for you. Blow Hard.

        • @nsmartinworld

          Unmarried people who live together are much more likely to have a relationship that fails. That’s a neutral fact.

          • Will Schroeder

            What is the source of your data? Is there a specific social scientific study you are referencing or are you speaking anecdotally?

          • @nsmartinworld

            The site doesn’t allow links to be included without approval (which may never come). You can google “The Science of Cohabitation: A Step Toward Marriage, Not a Rebellion”

        • Brian Mino

          If you say so?

      • Suzette Thompson

        BS! Yes It is not bad to already be married before having children but marriage is a contract made up BY MAN. GOD ORDAINS PURE LOVE not a piece of dayum paper

        • Purrito Purrpants

          Actually, neurotransmitters “ordain” pure love. No need to insert a superfluous deity in the mix.

          • SUnsan

            You feel better?

          • Will Schroeder

            The Flying Spaghetti Monster is the one that controls neurotransmission so…

        • Anthony Mann

          God ordained marriage and if he orders us to give a letter of divorce when separating for sure he would require a document to begin a marriage I believe in that more importantly than marriage god is concerned about the individuals more so than how their marriage is doing.


        As I see it your father didn’t teach you to never assume ANYTHING as mine did me? Past, present and future children have and will be raised in terms other than a lawfully wedded couple.

      • Friendly Guy

        Thank you for providing some logic.

    • Hibernia86

      Maybe the fathers should also be concerned about having children with mothers who might be sick, if your reasoning is to be believed.

      • BigMickie

        What if the parents are two dads, who don’t live in Kentucky? What then?

    • Suzette Thompson

      I wish I was educated abt this….. too late for me

      • @nsmartinworld

        You wish you had practiced eugenics?

        • Depths Of My Soul!

          For medical reasons of course


        Never too late

    • SUnsan

      “DNA donor”? how about “egg donor”?? There are just as many uninvolved “Moms” as there are Dads. Once you pop them out they are easily left with Granny or the babysitter…

    • Jason Williams

      It goes both ways. I became sick at age 28 out of nowhere and it’s my moms side that’s extremely sickly. My fathers side has very, very strong health. Probably why my mom chose him. But since I’m a male with bad health, I’m a poor candidate for women. My girlfriend of 7 years left because of this illness. So, it comes from both parties and you also inherit the toxicity levels of the mother through the womb. Sometimes things aren’t genetic they can be toxicity issues inherited at birth.

    • Jackie Morrill

      I FEAR my 3 children are very much like their DAD …. and it makes me so Sad… You can Not imagine . Their father is a crazy person I pray that they can be better people then he is ! Pray for as all !

    • magen geneasan

      Then, commit adultery. Any way bad advise
      “W” always

      • magen geneasan

        Lady are sick

    • Jason Williams

      The fathers genes express themselves based on your lifestyle and how well you take care of your body. Now, the mothers health IMO is way more important and I’ll tell you why… you inherit the mothers bacterial flora at birth when you’re born. You also inherit her mitochondria. Mitochondria is the cell’s source of energy and if the mitochondrial DNA are poor then the body won’t have enough energy to keep the body running correctly. So all in all genes are variable; they could express themselves or they might not. Mitochondria and bacteria flora is a sure thing.

  • NavyBlue1962

    Humans, mice and many other animals shared a common ancestor some 80 million years ago: Well actually it was 81 million and 2 thousand years and 11 months and 6 weeks and 4 hours and 29 seconds ago. What a crock.

    • Frank

      No,it is not a crock. You and the common rat have the same ancestor which,by the way ,was able to outlive and out-smart the dinosaurs.

      • NavyBlue1962

        Your ancestor probably was a rat and you have the brain cells to prove it.

        • Dave

          Yes, All of us do. It’s written in our DNA.

          • NavyBlue1962

            I disagree. I believe,from a scientific viewpoint, that you and your intellectual friend,Frank’s DNA were most certainly written by a cockroach.

          • Dave

            We share about 50% of our DNA with a cockroach. Our common ancestor with the cockroach was between 1 and 1.6 billion years ago.

          • NavyBlue1962

            My contention is that each lineage is different. Whereas God created my ancestor, I believe you when you say your ancestor was a cockroach. So we really don’t have an argument.

          • Dave

            I nor anyone has ever said that a cockroach or a mouse is a human ancestor. Only that we share a common ancestor. Please try to keep up with the discussion. You are correct in that we have no argument. I choose to believe in science and you to beleive magic. I wonder why you choose to troll a science discussion when you clearly believe in magic? It is because trolls love magic?

          • NavyBlue1962

            And I wonder why someone with the same number of brain cells as a dead slug,such as yourself, would think he’s qualified to carry on a scientific discussion about anything. A true troll is someone who believes everything started from absolutely nothing. Talk about magic. I believe your power ranger doll is calling you.

          • bwana

            “someone who believes everything started from absolutely nothing” is about the same as someone who believes god is the “nothing”.

          • bwana

            And which ancestor are you claiming was created by god? You might be correct if you go back enough billions of years, since no one has found where the original “germ” of life originated…

          • Helena_Handbasket

            Actually, no, God is not your ancestor and to claim such is actually a biblical heresy. You could be burned for that claim back when Christianity was the only accepted the religion, and dominated the political structure of Europe.

            BTW… the bible is also extremely clear that saying, or even believing you’re Christian does not make you one. You are only one of the “Saved” if you have Christs love in your heart.. and going around issuing ad hominem attacks on the internet shows the exact opposite. I can quote very specific passages if you like… or is actually reading the bible too “Intellectual” for you?

            Despite being Hindu I’ve actually read your Holy Book.. 3 times it was cover to cover. As a supposed Christian, perhaps you should give it a try. Your posts prove that at best, you’ve cherry picked it, and probably barely read enough to do that.

          • NavyBlue1962

            You’re a handbasket case alright. Nutty as a fruitcake. Hey, how about that comedy team,Shiva and Vishnu? Are those guys a riot or what? And that Shakti. Is he still doing his comedy routine down at the Black Hole Of Calcutta Comedy Club?

          • Brenda Grigg

            It appears you’re trying to prove something, but remember, if you’re going to comment on a science-based article, theology isn’t a qualifier for disapproving anything. Theology has a long history of retarding scientific research. It has thrown out ideas such as the earth revolving around the sun, and that the universe is infinite and composed of infinite galaxies. There is a long-standing precedent that religion doesn’t like anything scientific to contradict its teachings, even though many religious teachings were founded in misunderstandings, fear, and superstitions. Religions used to (and some still do) believe seizures were caused by people being possessed by demons, which is how the medical condition received its name: grand mal (big evil) and petite mal (small evil) seizures (the body taken or seized)… You may believe in what you will, but you certainly aren’t utilizing the brain that you were blessed with. Deductive reasoning would show that any insult you try to inflict on a fellow human for having a non-human brain via ancestry would put you in the same category, especially to the audience you’re talking who adheres to that belief. It doesn’t benefit you to attack people who believe in evolution. Why try to elude in your grievances that you’re better than them because you don’t believe in the scientific method? You’re just as much human as everyone else in this discussion…

          • NavyBlue1962

            Oh I get it-Grigg is a troll who gets to say whatever she wants no matter how dumb it is.

          • Brenda Grigg

            You saying I’m dumb doesn’t make you smart. I’m confident in my knowledge and high aptitude, because unlike you, I valued my education and paid attention to everything I was taught. It is the primary reason why I enjoy science and history, yes even history of religion. People who didn’t apply themselves academically, usually for reasons of not understanding how a broad knowledge base was applicable to their lives, seem to prefer to live in the dark ages. People like this often expose themselves just as you have, and tend to be the lowest common denominator…

          • NavyBlue1962

            I say you’re a troll who’s not very bright (I loved your essay on farting). I answered your low-brain cell reply to me in a long reply with no profanity and with much more intelligence than you’ll ever know in your lifetime but this site wouldn’t let it stay.Go watch the Rachel Madcow show and continue getting educated. You’re a joke.

          • Helena_Handbasket

            Okay… anyone who uses the term intellectual as a blanket insult is already proving that anything they have to say should probably be taken with a grain of salt. LOL

    • nik

      Now, now, children, behave yourselves.

  • Jennifer McDonald

    I always knew I was a daddy’s girl.

  • NavyBlue1962

    Why do liberal atheists get to respond to me but when I respond back in kind,it’s not allowed. Is this part of the new Obamanet?

    • Brenda Grigg

      Derp de derp

    • ZXC

      My honest opinion: Don’t attack the person but instead poke holes in their argument or logic.

      While backing up your point with valid and reliable scientific evidence.

      That is how you get your message across and prove your point.

      Hope you would listen to my advice. Have a good day :)

    • Brooke Wiley

      WHAT are you talking about?? Stop stereotyping people and sounding like a lunatic. Ask the “lord” for help.

  • NavyBlue1962


  • NavyBlue1962

    to brenda grigg: fffghjjkkl

  • Nick Young

    The answer is simple and has already been observed in humans…
    It is called sex-linked alleles and it relies on your X or Y chromosomes. What this article is actually reported is that more genotypes rely on sex linkage for a given phenotype than previously thought.
    What does that mean in plain english?
    It means that when a gene decides to express itself by causing a noticeable trait, such as brown eyes, it is more likely linked to your X or Y chromosomes than previously assumed. Your X and/or Y chromosomes do not contain information about being a man or woman, what they contain is a series of on and off switches for the rest of your genes which determine what makes you what you are. These chromosomes are exclusively provided by the mother and father and are not mixed in their expression, so we are learning that they are progressively responsible for determining traits, and it seems that when there may be a genetic tie in expression the Y trait may have an advantage over the X trait for a yet undiscovered reason.

  • Sarah Hunt-Stuckey

    This article is grossly misleading! While I don’t know much about the genetics of common lab mice, I know that we actually have more DNA from our mothers due to mitochondrial transcription. About 54% of our DNA to be exact. Now I can agree that in some cases that a child may exhibit more phenotypes of the father, but that doesn’t mean this child has more “daddy DNA.”

    This entire article isn’t taken seriously by anyone who actually knows anything about genetics.

  • kevin bowen

    This is bullshit my dad is 5 foot 10 my mother is 6 foot 1 I am 6 foot 6. The only thing I inherited from my father is certain facial features and adhd. I also have a panic disorder which runs prodominate in my mother’s side. Diabetes and obesity runs on my dad I am neither. It is evident and my doctors have even said they think I inherited more of my mother then father

    • @nsmartinworld

      Why do we need science when we have your anecdotes?

    • Brian Mino

      You sound like a messed up dude kevin.

    • Helius Infinitus

      You might consider getting a paternity test… just to be sure. All kidding aside though, you receive very close to 1/2 of your genomic DNA from both parents. As you developed you may have had some genes deactivated. What the article was saying was that the EXPRESSION of these genes (proteins) had a statistically significant bias towards expressing genes inherited from the male. That means within that group a few might have a LOT more female inherited gene expression as you hint might be true in your case, but on average most mice do not.
      Interestingly enough there are some things like Huntington’s Disease that are more likely to expand into a disease state causing a LOT more expression. I’m not saying these were mice with similar conditions in the test, but it is just food for thought. There are many things that could influence the results of the experiment that would need to be controlled for especially considering their method of collecting results.

  • JEng

    what about nurture over nature like all those Olivia Bensons raised by husbands of the victims? Maybe that is why the St Joseph’s pastry is a giant cream puff,

  • Herne Webber

    I wonder if this runs counter to another study that shows that children, at least when they are younger, more closely resemble their mothers? Of course, since 40% of the genes activated based on the parent’s gender are from mom, the appearance genes could easily be within those. The gist of that study was that appearance genes from mom gained prominence, such that a mom could have kids with not necessarily the man to whom she was married (or living with, etc.). If the kids look more like mom, it’s easier to hide infidelity.

  • Duende Brooks

    This is BS. You are what your mother is, you get 95% of your Dna from your mother the other 5% from the father and that just determines the sex. People need to stop spreading these Greek methodology around and calling it science.

    • Brian Mino

      HA HA HA! You are an IDIOT!

      • Duende Brooks

        Just the Facts.

        The Mother /Maternal, is the fabric material, MATTER /Ma’atThe Father /Paternal, is the pattern formula, FORM /Ptah.

        Stay out of your emotions

        • Brian Mino

          Is that why the YAHWEH says in his HOLY WORD that the SEED SPERMA SPERMATSOA of wickedness will never again rise to build cities? If i plant an onion seed in red clay out west or top soil in Pennsylvania or average run of the mill soil from my backyard or potting/starter soil it’s going to grow an ONION not a tomato or potato or carrot or celery it’s going to grow an ONION! Sorry if you and your father are disconnected but that is the truth of the matter. Your black Hebrew Isrealite will tell you the same thing. Lenny Kravitz is a jew why? Because his father is. Bob Marley is English why? Because his father is.

          • Duende Brooks

            Here you go with that bible nonsense. Men dont carry seeds it was a thought-a guess thats why its call sperm but they got it wrong. Women have the seeds. Plus Genesis get it ? Gene+ isis the gene of isis. The Ancient Egyptian goddess. These people took older cultures and put it in a book and you believe it . That’s a European patriarchal construct . Now go find who your real ancestors are and leave that blood lineage of that book to North African and East Asia. and stop believing in the fairy tale they put in there from older cultures -pre -Hebrew.. Y’all clowns want to be part of that book so bad.

    • Brian Mino

      As for DNA you get 50/50 Scientific fact! And you receive an ABO copy from your father and your mother thus 50% of the info that is in it. If you look at a pic of all 4 of your grandparents you will notice that you resemble one in particular and one not at all and a little of the other two. Usually two you resemble and two you do not.It’s all the way DNA recombines itself. two sisters or brothers are genetically only half related because they each inherit different DNA recombinations. Thats why some people have to get an organ or blood transfussion/plant from a stranger and not their brother say if dad has A+ blood but carries O+ blood ressively and momis O+ blood so one brother has O+ and the other has A+ blood sorry you do not have a match. But a stranger with O+ blood can donate too the one in need. Get it now? 5% of Dads DNA please. EDUCATED RAPPER vs the RAPP MACHINE!!!

      • Duende Brooks

        That’s your problem, you want to be a rapper. So stick to rapping because this topic is something you don’t know about. You said a whole bunch of nothing.

        • Brian Mino

          LOL! You Dipping and Dapping and don’t know what’s HAPPENING!Everyone on the face of this earth has two ABO Blood Copies one from your father and one from your mother so say if you have AB blood right well why do you think that is? Because one parent inherited too you an A ABO copy and the other a B ABO copy. This is not Rocket science nor is it BLOOD ALCHEMY but rather basic High School biology textbook level. At least it used too be any way. As for what we are talking about SEMEN SPERMA SPERMATAZOA ZERA SEED MEN HAVE THE SEEDS! Asfor science RAPPER? Next to you i am the ” DUKE OF EARL” !!!

      • Duende Brooks

        Only the Women have seeds (Eggs).

        • Andrew E

          Only a pregnant woman has a seed/seeds. Women don’t have a seed until they are fertilized. Unfertilized eggs are not “seeds” as we use the word, because a seed is the combo of both together, ready to become.

      • Duende Brooks
      • Duende Brooks

        Europeansm created that ideology that they have seeds, worshiping phallus , this is to steal the divine birth right of the child from its
        mothers lineage and his hate for the Matrilineal societies that predates
        pseudo-patrilineal societies. You are what your mother is. She contributed more genetic make up. All
        men contribute is 5 picograms of nDNA matching the Woman’s nDNA, that’s
        it. Meanwhile the Egg contributes an additional mtDNA which controls the
        matrix and GIVES IS LIFE. All the plasma, organs, skeleton, ect all is
        created by Lord Mama. The Y chromosome is 95% non-recombinant which
        means it can only pass on 5% of its genetic material, these locations
        are pseudo-autosomal regions 1 and pseudo-autosomal regions 2. Meanwhile the X is recombinant 100%, and the 5% of that Y mixes with a X. Seeds have embryos, men do not have embryos. This is what happens when we parrot Greek ideologies: bible

        • Brian Mino

          You are confusing europeans with the canaanite degenerate TRASH! Canaanites worshipped the PHALLUS not europeans. The EDOMITE/CANAANITE/jews like to claim ABRAHAM as their Patriarch but yet will tell you the mother decides who is a jew. So if that be the case then why don’t they trace their line through SARAH THEN??? They are a bunch of momma boys bitches! Of course the canaanites are matriarchial not european or African or eurasian Russian oir ISLAMIC! Islamic if your father was a MUSLIM than they say the child is as well. Sorry you have issues with your dad bro.

          • Duende Brooks

            Europeans worship the phallus by bringing the ideology over here by saying you are what your father is. I rest my case on marriage:women takes on the last name of men. We are matrilineal and have always been. Again Men
            don’t carry seeds, they named it sperm because they thought it was
            seed. .Women have seeds not men . They are the fertilizer You are what
            your mother is scientifically and culturally and the court back it up
            when the slaves who proved that their maternal parents were Indian.
            Mother=Maternal=Matter. Father=Paternal=Pattern
            Paternal = pattern as in design and Father. determines sex 5% of your dna comes from your father

            used to spread petroleum jelly on toast. They thought that what it was
            used for. Just like they thought men had speeds. In the medical field a
            lot of cures and treatment was made by accidents and people died trying
            things.Like I already mentioned they thought men had seeds.Maternal
            = materials as in fabric matrix and Mother=Genetic make up 95% of your
            DNA comes from your mother . Only people who parade the patriarchal
            book”bible” claim that men have seeds. Just because they never updated from Sperm doesn’t mean that what is really is, men don’t seeds so most of your DNA comes mother. from your

          • Duende Brooks
          • Duende Brooks

            I haven’t brought out any papers yet but its nugatory because you are not topic and don’t have a clue about the subject.

          • VOR

            You’ve been brainwashed by your college into believing nonsense feminist pseudo-science and nonsense feminist minsterpertations of symbols and history. Educate yourself by listening to, and learning from, credible people. Not everyone is credible. Your gender studies professor is not a credible person. She/he is likely either brainwashed like yourself, or a complete fraud who gets paid to brainwash impressionable college kids into believing their zealotry and cult doctrine.

            These people are NOT democrats or “liberals”, they are not “progressives”, and they are not true SJWs, they are a bunch of foolish, selfish, immature cretans who have zero honour and ZERO integrity. Universities and colleges are just not what they used to be. Thank GOD we have the internet to self educate, we just have to learn how to do so effectively.

            Wake up my friend

          • Brian Mino

            You proved my point Duened. Brooks Maternal = Matter Paternal = Pattern after mother’s Material is used to PATTERN you after your FATHER! Ha ha ha ha!

      • alan

        When I look through ethnicity result on Ancestry and 23andme where a person is half Japanese half European I do not recall ever seeing 50/50. I usually see as far apart as 60/40. Just my two cents.

        • Brian Mino

          60/40 your dad or your mom? And if 60 your mother and 40 your father that is a far cry from the 95/5 like this guy is talking about.

  • Judith Robinson

    Genetic genes can jump for generation or for generations. If the purpose of D.N.A is to see what you look like and gene genetic can jump generation on the both sides sides of the family. Identify your parents. It’s says not all brother and sister has the same D.N.A. only if you are identical twins ☺same applies to a Royal family ancestor tree growing for centuries

    • Judith Robinson

      King Henry III census grew for 8 centuries if you are not Royal blood you can certainly pass gene genetics into your children. That doesn’t apply to jumping for one generation but possibly a few generations

  • Sonny

    Nowadays assisted reproductive technologies are rather popular and have been developing rapidly from year to year. In particular infertile couples very often have to use donor eggs or sperm in order to conceive a baby in vitro. And in such situations people want their future baby to look like his parents. It is difficult indeed to see a baby, to know that he is your own one but not to see in him own genes. It can be a problem especially in the clinics where the base of donors is rather small. Of course it is great if you have a big choice and can choose the donor who is very similar to you and your appearance. I know that for example Ukraine is very popular for egg donations programs. First of all there are a lot of beautiful women there, and they look like Europeans. In addition biotexcom clinic for human reproduction for example has the biggest base of eggs donors. Therefore patients can choose the best variant just for the. Anyway I think it must pass some time to realize that your own child has alien genes and a part of foreign person. It is good that egg donation is anonymous in Ukraine – patients and donors cannot communicate, contact and see each other.

    • LeslieH

      In fact egg donation is a very successful treatment of infertility for those couples in which the woman has a premature menopause, poor quality of own eggs or no eggs production at all, genetic or gynecological diseases. Nevertheless, despite the high rates of success of IVF with donor eggs, it is difficult sometimes for couples to cope with the idea that the child will have a foreign genetic material. Selection of egg donor is a simple and at the same time rather complex process for infertile couples. When it comes to choosing the right donor families have different criteria and wishes towards the woman who would be the donor of the genetic material for their future child. Often the couple wants their egg donor has an attractive appearance, beautiful physique, high IQ scores, and, of course, good health. Program of donation of eggs are allowed in some European countries. Despite this, many infertile couples of Europe go to Ukraine for donor eggs.

      • Erin

        Ukraine has become a popular place where not only infertile patients from all over Europe travel but also country where the European clinics buy donor eggs. Ukrainian women have always been considered to be one of the most beautiful in the world. And therefore many infertile want their child to have the genes of one of these beautiful women. The study of the distribution of molecular markers among the Ukrainian population is important, both for the study of the origin and migrations of the Eastern Slavs, and for the study of European populations as a whole. I read interesting information and got to know that according to results of NRY-polymorphism studies of mtDNA and autosomal markers of Ukrainians it was observed – the data obtained during the study of genetic closeness in NRY markers are highly consistent with data on the geographical and linguistic proximity with the other peoples of Europe. It can explain the fact why so many people go just to this country to use donor eggs in the case of infertility.

        • LeslieH

          I used donor eggs in one of Kiev fertility centers in Ukraine and you know that in Ukrainian clinics for human reproduction most Europeans find the best egg donors and great bases of donors which meet all visual requirements of the patients. Thus, reproductive medicine center biotexcom has one of the biggest bases of egg donors. Choosing a medical program with the use of donor eggs, you can choose donor who is the most suitable for you. Specialists of this center carry out a rigorous selection of candidates – medical examinations, work of psychologist with the future donors and the study of their personal information. Of 10 who wish to become a donor only two or three girls are selected and get into the program. The donors of this center are healthy, attractive, and well-educated women. Always remember that it is important to choose a donor, not only relying on the visual impression, but also taking into account the medical records of women.

      • Marissa

        Pretenders to the donation should undergo a medical examination, and not only for physical health, but also mental adequacy, because it will have influence on the future children. Because you know that not always after several meetings it is possible to understand what kind of person is in front of you and what to expect from her. During the egg donation there is a high risk of transmission of psychiatric disorders to child, even though it is just a deviation, not a disease. Therefore, the best solution would be to appeal to the good fertility clinic, which performs most of the work, clinic workers will conduct appropriately all the necessary inspections and will help to choose the best candidate for the donation. And also I want to say that with proper selection of the donor, even though the use of donor cells, your baby for sure will be a copy of your wonderful couple, and he, of course, will take from your best traits and habits.

    • Gabby

      In Ukraine, the egg donors are usually chosen young and healthy women. Before she becomes such a donor, each candidate goes thorough medical examinations to identify various infections, diseases or viruses. Also it must be noted that an important condition in order to become a donor is the presence of at least one healthy child. The cost of the egg donation and sum the donor of the biological material receives depends on a number of indicators. It is no secret that the donated eggs have certain genetics. It is for this reason many infertile couples are turning to the clinics for human reproduction rather than to orphanages. After all, children in orphanages often have health problems and are born to parents with bad which can lead to the child’s negative genetics – alcoholism, drug abuse and so on. In the case of donor eggs, here comes a rigorous, detailed verification of the genetic material and the careful selection of the candidates for the program of donation.

  • cacique437

    On the good side it is mom who transmits the gene for baldness..

    • cacique437

      more often, that is

  • adriana

    my father has a hole in his heart, he only found out about this 2 yrs
    My dad is very healthy and seldom gets sick… he had a mild heart
    attack last week which hit him hard. I am the 2nd eldest of the
    daughters. My question is this: Is it possible that i could have a heart
    defect like my dad? Should I go for a CT Scan and find out?

  • Lex Lexy

    you’re lucky if you’re balanced.

  • Susan Pinto-Gartner

    This article is incorrect. LOL

  • Phyllis Johnson

    According to physicist Bruce Lipton, and new scientific research, genes play NO role in determining if one is predisposed to a disease. Rather, it’s our perception of our environment that causes disease. Stress is the #1 factor.

  • Claudia Schwalb

    When Ancestry read my daughters dna, it did warp in favor of her father’s mother’s parents. The percentages got messed up in regular math. 80% each of her parents registered in her dna as 60%!!!

  • notinittowinit

    This is 100% accurate. I just had my entire family dna done at ancestry. My male son had 56% of my dna versus 43% of my wife, and my daughter had 58% of my dna. Others who have done ancestry may want to chime in.

  • StevieB

    Kind of shocked at the tone and number of social wars being launched in the comment section of a scientific periodical. Sad.

    • HappyZooGoer

      I agree.

  • Frank Beverly

    I am researching this because I have 5 half sisters. 4 half sisters that share ny mother. One half sister that shares my biological father. I grew up with the 4 maternal half sisters, and only recently met the paternal half sister. We are all in our 50’s and I am blown away by the similarities of myself and the paternal half sister. We seem so much more alike than any of my maternal half sisters.


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