New Lenses Could Give You Super Color Vision

By Nathaniel Scharping | March 23, 2017 1:44 pm
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(Credit: Delpixel/Shutterstock)

Thanks to the architecture in our eyes, we see but a small subset of the hues that make up the visible spectrum.

We only have three kinds of cones, or color-sensitive cells, to make sense of what could be millions or even hundreds of millions of colors. We still do a pretty good job of it — normal human eyes can pick out about a million different colors, far more than we have ever come up with names for. Still, we could conceivably do better.

More cones would detect more combinations of colors and ever more subtle distinctions between shades. Some people, called tetrachromats, actually possess an extra cone and can see colors invisible to the rest of us. Now, for those of us not blessed with such a mutation, researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have devised a pair of lenses that splits the color spectrum to turn us into artificial tetrachromats. 

Splitting One Cone Into Two

Mikhail Kats, a professor in the department of electrical and computer engineering, and his graduate student, Brad Gundlach, focused on a specific type of cone in our eye that is responsible for seeing blues, or the high frequency end of the visible spectrum.

It works like this: We actually have six cones, not three, because each eye contains its own set. Normally, each eye’s cones pick up on the same wavelengths of colors. By selectively blocking out different parts of the spectrum in each eye with their lenses, the cones that normally worked together now send separate packets of information to our brains.

Kats says this effectively simulates an additional cone by giving each of our blue photoreceptors a different half of the spectrum. Each eye then sends a different signal to the brain when confronted with the color blue, and when it combines that information, new colors emerge. The technique could theoretically give us as many as six kinds of cones using various combinations of lenses. They published their work on the preprint server the arXiv.

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A demonstration of the lenses with two different shades of purple. The two lenses on top split the blue spectrum, while the bottom lens is unfiltered. Combining the top two lenses gives us an extra photoreceptor cone. (Credit: G. Vershbow/B. Gundlach/M. Kats)

Color Spectrum Opens Up

In tests with butterfly wings and mosaics of different blues, the researchers saw shades of blue that were previously lumped together into what’s called a metamer. Because our eyes can’t possibly pick out every single wavelength, we combine similar bands of the spectrum into packets. This essentially defines an upper limit for color resolution, because there are only so many ways to combine these color packets. It’s estimated that each cone can distinguish about 100 different shades of a color. With three cones, all of the possible combinations create about a million colors — add another cone and we can potentially see one hundred million colors.

The researchers hope to expand their experiment to the other two types of cones that respond to red and green light in order to explore the many hues we’re missing in the rest of the spectrum. Their lenses could potentially be used to detect camouflage, or to detect counterfeits, as well as at the grocery store to separate ripe fruit and vegetables from those that are too ripe.

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Space & Physics, Technology
MORE ABOUT: gadgets, physics
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  • http://www.mazepath.com/uncleal/qz4.htm Uncle Al

    Exquisitely clever and functional without being invasive can still be crushed by ethicists, philosophers, priests, and activists. We will not tolerate any human enhancement that cannot taxed, regulated, or perverted for the situationally defined common good.

    • StanChaz

      Hmmm. YOU sound like an activist-priest, philosophizing about the anti-tax and anti-regulation aspects of YOUR perceived brand of the common good.

    • Mike Lane

      “Lighten up, Francis”

  • gigus

    Neat, I wonder if Infitec or Dolby’s 3D glasses could be used for this since they use notch filters.

  • jacqueline miles

    Is this physics?

    • Braxston Beex Rousell

      Physiology of the the Human Body. Physics’ in parlance to light spectrum relevance!

    • Sophia Kornreich

      yes it it Jacqueline miles

  • Terry Santavicca

    I wonder if thus has any implications for color blind people who presumably only have two cones.

    • J. Kevin Dix

      Good question. I have seen ads and videos over the past year or two regarding special lenses which purport to enhance colours for colour-blind people, but I have no independent evidence of the actual effectiveness and I don’t recall what if anything was revealed about the technology used.

  • Overburdened_Planet

    Well this certainly would be a boon for interior decorators!

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