Roman Pipes Delivered Water — And Toxic Antimony

By Nathaniel Scharping | August 17, 2017 2:11 pm
Antimony. (Credit: Bostock/Shutterstock)

Antimony. (Credit: Bostock/Shutterstock)

The elaborate system of pipes that carried water to Roman households was an engineering marvel—for its time. Unfortunately, their sophisticated water utility may have been poisoning everyone.

An analysis of a pipe fragment from Pompeii revealed the presence of high levels of antimony, an element that can cause vomiting, diarrhea and even organ damage at high enough concentrations. It was probably included to harden the soft lead pipes, which were a luxury for Roman citizens at the time, delivering water directly to households. For some citizens, that likely came at a cost.

Something In the Water

Scientists from the University of Southern Denmark used a mass spectrometer to determine the composition of a small piece of pipe recovered from the buried city of Pompeii. The pipe was composed largely of lead, but contained enough antimony to potentially sicken those drinking from it. The actual outcomes are not known, however, as antimony is expelled from the body in urine, meaning that it won’t show up in bones examined by archaeologists. The study appeared last month in the journal Toxicology Letters.

Antimony is used today in car batteries, flame retardants and semiconducters. In ancient Egypt, it was an ingredient in their distinctive kohl eyeshadow, and Pliny the Elder describes its inclusion in several medical treatments. As in car batteries today, however, antimony was most likely included in Roman lead pipes to add strength and stiffness.

Actual Effects Unclear

Today, antimony poisoning is of little worry, and the only major case occurred in the 1920s, when some 70 people were sickened by lemonade that had been left sitting in buckets whose enamel included the element. Fifty-six people were hospitalized with severe stomach pains, although everyone eventually recovered. The increased acidity of the lemonade likely helped leach the antimony from the enamel.

It’s not known how effective pure water would have been at leaching antimony from the pipes, although the concentration was high enough to raise concern. There may have been another mitigating factor as well: calcium deposits in the pipes. Roman water usually contained lime, which would have built up in pipes over time and calcified. This is why the lead in the pipes may not have posed a significant threat to the Romans, and the same could go for antimony as well.

This isn’t the only case where the Romans’ ingenuity with infrastructure came back to bite them. A 2016 study found that citizens of Rome fared no better than their uncivilized ancestors when it came to parasites, despite a complex system of latrines and waste management. Their practice of carting human waste off to serve as fertilizer for crops simply added a detour for intestinal parasites, which made their way right back into the food chain when the crops were harvested. A fish worm in particular did well, thriving in a type of uncooked fish sauce considered a delicacy among Romans of the day.

  • Bud Johnson

    My questions is how do they know that the levels of antimony is the same as during the time of Pompeii? Because I do not know much about antimony, I am curious if the levels had a chance to increase over the many years that it has sat in those lead pipes. I am sure during that era, they had no idea that lead or antimony could be harmful when they could see visual positives that these provided for their community.

    • Uncle Al

      Antimonial lead (3 – 7% commercial) slightly swells during solidification, making for a tight and hardened casting. It’s a bad actor thereafter.

      Antimony concentration does not “grow” inside a casting. Eutectic Linotype bullet casting Alloy – 4% tin, 12% antimony, 84% lead – is quite hard and somewhat brittle. Dilute 1:1 with lead for ballistic Hardball Alloy.

  • OWilson

    Just for a little perspective, we have a drinking water crisis somewhere every few months.

    Flint Michigan, Illinois and many other States report high levels of lead and other toxins.

    So the Romans were not doing too badly, given what they had to work with!

  • Uncle Al

    Water pipe leaching and corrosion (steel, lead, bronze, copper; PEX and PIB have their own problems) depend upon pH and ligands. Slightly alkaline water is everybody’s friend, trace phosphate nulls lead. Trendy replacement of trace excess chlorine with chloramine causes copper pitting corrosion. Thin-walled pipe plus generous water pressure sets it off. Pinhole wall leaks appear over 20+ years.

    PEX + sunlight = spectacular failure. Dark patience also gets there. Abruptly starting and especially stopping flow flexes pipe.

  • bwana

    Darn those fish worms!


    Wonder if the modern tendency to add salt to food affects the parasites?

    • Mike Hill

      It’s heat-sterilization, mainly. And the tendency to add salt to food is quite old in any culture with ready access to salt.


        Figured as much. Incidentally my own experiments show that it wasn’t so much the spices that reduced food poisoning as extended cooking.


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