Finding E.T. Here On Earth

By Nathaniel Scharping | October 3, 2017 1:49 pm
Saturn's moon Enceladus. (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute)

Saturn’s moon Enceladus. (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute)

When aliens arrive in the movies, they typically come from distant galaxies. Extraterrestrial life, however, could exist right here in our own solar system, nestled in briny oceans under the surface of icy worlds close to home.

Multiple moons orbiting Jupiter and Saturn have proven to hold, or once held, liquid oceans. Of these, Saturn’s moon Enceladus has emerged as the most promising candidate for life in recent years, thanks to the discovery of hydrothermal plumes gushing from beneath its frozen surface. The vents these plumes emanate from could foster an an ideal environment for the emergence of organic life, pumping in crucial compounds and energy. To find out if that might be the case, Laurie Barge travels to other worlds in her lab—here on Earth, of course.

Otherworldly Stalagmites

Barge is an astrobiologist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and she and her team have spent the last few years growing tiny mineral plumes in beakers to model conditions on different moons and planets. Just a few inches tall, the crooked spires serve as miniature simulations of much larger features—some over a hundred feet tall—found deep in the ocean. Fed by hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor and sustained by the heat they emit, whole ecosystems flourish beyond the sun’s reach in these aquatic high-rises. It’s thought that life may have actually originated around these plumes on Earth, and the same process could be playing out in the depths of Enceladus.

Iron hydroxide hydrothermal chimney precipitated in laboratory simulation of an early Earth vent where life may have originated (Credit: Erika Flores)

An iron hydroxide plume in a beaker simulating early Earth conditions. (Credit: Erika Flores)

Hydrothermal plumes provide a crucial source of chemical energy in vast, dark oceans. Before the evolution of photosynthesis, the sun’s energy was beyond reach, and life needed alternative forms of sustenance. Near the vents, this comes in the form of ions leaching from beneath the ground and reacting in the hot environment with seawater. Each underwater plume represents a chain of reactions that yield nutrient chemicals, some of which can sustain simple lifeforms.

Hence, the mini mineral mountains in Barge’s lab. You can think of each one as a kind of alternate reality, testing out what would have happened had the oceans been more acidic, less oxygenated, hotter, colder, or any of a number of variables. Barge starts with a liquid similar in composition to the seas on Earth billions of years ago—lacking oxygen, rich in iron and carbonate—and experiments with different mixtures. She’s looking for reactions that may have led to early organisms, the crucial moment when chemical reactions became something more. By testing a range of situations, she hopes to narrow down the set of conditions that could have led to life.

“The best we can do is look back at what early Earth would have been like and then try to understand what life today tells us about the first life (the common ancestor) and then use those top-down, bottom-up approaches to figure out what kind of processes could have led to the origin,” Barge says.

An iron sulfide chimney in "ocean world" seawater. (Credit: Laurie Barge and Ryan Cameron)

An iron sulfide chimney in “ocean world” seawater. (Credit: Laurie Barge and Ryan Cameron)

Educated Guesses

Scientists are already interested in Enceladus, but there’s a catch: We don’t fully know what the oceans on Enceladus look like, and we also don’t have complete data on what’s going on beneath the surface. The Cassini mission provided some clues when it dove through some of the plumes hanging high in the atmosphere of Enceladus and detected water vapor, carbon dioxide and organic compounds. Subsequent observations confirmed that a large ocean exists beneath the ice. This is where Barge’s planet-in-a-beaker experiments could be helpful, as they allow researchers to work through many different scenarios to find those that best fit observations. The findings will inform future missions, and the experiments can be updated accordingly once more data comes in.

Enceladus wouldn’t necessarily need to be geothermally active for these vents to exist. Some hydrothermal plumes on Earth form as a result of chemical interactions between sediments and seawater. They can reach temperatures above 100 degrees Fahrenheit, and give rise to chemical reactions that could also have sparked life. Whether such vents are found on Enceladus — and what kind actually do exist there — will have to await future missions. Finding out what the seafloor on Enceladus looks like would be a big help, Barge says, as it would hint at what kinds of reactions are taking place.

Translating what she finds in the lab to the real world could take even longer still, though.

“Just because you can do something in a lab doesn’t means it’s going to be easy to detect with a planetary mission,” she says.

  • OWilson

    “The most promising candidate for life” is always the next body to be explored. Keeps the funding coming, uninterrupted by naysayers!

    Nothing wrong with exploration but the cynical manipulation of research budgets downplays the true miracle of life, which as far as we know does not exist elsewhere!

  • TLongmire

    The most alien creature on earth is the cuttlefish. Animal consciousness is not acknowledged in today’s consensus but that animal is consciously becoming its environment/confusing an observer. Intelligence manifests itself in many ways no matter how it’s negated.

    • Uncle Al

      Tardigrades, camel spiders, Promachoteuthis sulcus, sea pig, hairy frogfish…Maxine Waters.

      • TLongmire

        If we really wanted to terraform Mars then we would feed tardigrades mounds of every soil microorganism we could gather and bombard Mars relentlessly. Out of the trillions a few would find a way.

        • TLongmire

          Ron white will be reincarnated as a hairy frog fish.

          • Uncle Al

            Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction: shake a bag of parts, get out watches. Who/what designed Deinococcus radiodurans? Under what circumstances did it evolve? What “causes” spontaneous patterning in Wolfram’s cellular automatons and Conway’s Game of Life?

            Faith always demands cutting throats. 1000 years of Church and State Dark Ages did not reinvent Roman sewers or understand Moorish wootz re Damascus steel whose swords cut through Christian armor without themselves being notched.

            Samurai steel required sacred mushroom “Fly Agaric” in the smelter (~200 ppm vanadium added). Santa Claus is also that mushroom, being flying reindeer fuel [5-(aminomethyl)-isoxazol-3-ol].

          • TLongmire

            We are definitely living in a matrix perpetuated by stress and confusion.

          • Uncle Al

            …Remove parens, one line; your statement is falsified.

          • TLongmire

            So you sent a link with someone mediating on the cover. I dare you not to think and then see what happens.

          • TLongmire

            https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih(.)gov/pmc/articles(/)PMC3909994/understanding Disregard understanding and see for yourself.

          • TLongmire
          • TLongmire
    • OWilson

      Imagine we were the only species extant.

      Imagine trying to visualize alien life.

      Could we possibly come up with cuttlefish, elephants, dinosaurs, bees, butterflies,snakes, snails, peacocks, crabs, spiders, crocodiles, snakes, camels, ostriches and ants?

      Alien life is actually all around us!

      • TLongmire

        If you consider only concepts and not just our circumstances then the fact that we have to devour to survive is a primative model. Hopefully most other life forms haven’t evolved from similar circumstances.

  • Uncle Al

    Enceladus’ South Pole ice is less than three miles thick. Mariana Trench Challenger Deep is 6.8 miles deep and colonized. Hyperbarophiles will be explosively decompressed through surface vents. Their biochemistry will be anomalous re pascalization. Desulforudis audaxviato in South Africa’s Mponeng gold mine.

    One is fully assured that NASA will descend by traveling sideways. 78 million tonne Class-B carbonaceous chondrite asteroid 101955 Bennu has eight chances to 1200 megaton smack the Earth 2175 to 2196 AD. NASA sent out $800 million OSIRIS-REx to rendezvous but not even plant a few caltrop hollow corner cube radar reflectors. It’s gonna close up look. BFD

  • Cjones1

    Thar’ be tales of winged humans and animals, werewolves, mermaids, minotaurs, centaurs, and various hybrids of humans and/or beasts. Myths or real, if there is a genetic trace, that would uncover a past unknown. A past culture that once equaled or surpassed humankind’s current scientific and technological level.
    Blue eyes only appeared roughly 11,000 years ago, but Buddha had blue eyes, as do the ancient representations of ancients and gods throughout the World who gifted humankind with wondrous things.
    They are, for the most part, alien and forgotten now like Ozymandias.

  • janvones

    Simple. She lost the last election after having had to be rushed into a hyperbaric chamber simulating the conditions of Venus after ever speech she gave. The walleyed condition and failure to recognize balloons was also a good hint. Thank God the Martian won.


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