Mamma Mia! Fossil Is First Hint Of Live Birth In Ancient Reptile

By Gemma Tarlach | February 14, 2017 10:00 am
The pregnant Dinocephalosaurus biting a fish. Credit: Dinghua Yang & Jun Liu

What do I love most about this artist rendering of a pregnant Dinocephalosaurus? Is it capturing the marine reptile’s epic neck-to-body proportion? Is it the tasteful allusion to the offspring in her belly? No, it’s the freshly chomped fish in her mouth, and the bloody cloud around it. Nom nom nom. Don’t mess with Mom when she’s hungry. Credit: Dinghua Yang & Jun Liu.

Here’s some egg-citing news: for the first time in the fossil record, researchers have discovered a specific type of marine reptile that was carrying an advanced embryo at time of death. Why is that interesting? Because the specimen is an archosauromorph, an early member of the same gang of vertebrates that includes dinosaurs as well as pterosaurs, birds and crocodiles, all of which we thought, based on previous evidence, were exclusively egg-layers. Today that changes. Read More

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Preserved Dinosaur Protein Is 195 Million Years Old

By Gemma Tarlach | January 31, 2017 10:00 am
A slice of the 195 million year old rib of the dinosaur Lufengosaurus reveals vascular canals, many of which contain hematite, probably derived from the dinosaur's blood when it was alive. Credit: Robert Reisz.

A slice of the 195-million-year-old fossilized rib of Lufengosaurus reveals vascular canals, many of which contain hematite, probably derived from the dinosaur’s blood when it was alive. Credit: Robert Reisz.

We know the chances of finding dinosaur DNA are virtually nil. Despite recent advances, the oldest genetic material of any animal that researchers have successfully extracted and sequenced is about 700,000 years old (Note: still impressive. Most impressive). DNA degrades and gets contaminated by bacteria and other gunk; it’s unlikely researchers will push back that ancient DNA landmark much further.

But what if I told you they’ve found something potentially even better than DNA to give us insights into the Age of Dinosaurs?

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MORE ABOUT: dinosaurs, fossils, protein

Our Oldest Ancestor: It’s In The Bag

By Gemma Tarlach | January 30, 2017 10:00 am
Say hello to your little friend (and great-granddaddy to the nth), Saccorhytus coronarius.

Say hello to my little friend (and our great-granddaddy to the nth), Saccorhytus coronarius. Credit: S Conway Morris/Jian Han.

Who’s your daddy, give or take a few hundred million years? Researchers believe a 540-million-year-old creature unearthed in China is our oldest ancestor, and I can definitely see the family resemblance. Read More

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Thylacines: Getting Inside the Head of an Extinct Predator

By Gemma Tarlach | January 18, 2017 1:00 pm
Benjamin, the last living thylacine (as far as we know), photographed in 1933, three years before his death, at the Hobart Zoo in Tasmania. Credit: Photographer unknown, Wikimedia Commons.

Benjamin, the last living thylacine (as far as we know), photographed in 1933 at Tasmania’s Hobart Zoo, three years before his death. Credit: Photographer unknown, Wikimedia Commons.

While I have mixed feelings about de-extinction, particularly for animals that have been out of the picture for thousands of years (I’m looking at you, woolly mammoth), I’d argue the species with the strongest case for giving it a shot would be Thylacinus cynocephalus, better known as the Tasmanian Tiger or thylacine.

This fascinating marsupial, once found in much of Australia (particularly the island of Tasmania, as its name suggests), went extinct in the 20th century — though reports of alleged sightings continue to accumulate.

Whether any of those sightings are legit, or the thylacine earns a second chance through de-extinction, new research is giving us a novel look into the workings of the thylacine brain and how it might have lived in the wild. Read More

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Mammals: Is It Better To Be Horny or Brainy?

By Gemma Tarlach | January 10, 2017 6:01 pm
A still from a YouTube video captures the classic predator-prey faceoff: the comparatively bigger-brained lion against a horned wildebeest. Credit: Wildlife Safari TV.

A still from a YouTube video captures the classic predator-prey faceoff: the comparatively bigger-brained lion against a horned wildebeest. Credit: Wildlife Safari TV.

The arms race between prey and predator has been around since the first time one microbe evaded another; it’s a never-ending spiral of adaptations to be faster, stronger or better-defended. Now a new study looking at antipredator defenses across 647 species of mammals has found animals seem to have taken a couple different evolutionary paths to avoid being eaten. Each path came with a trade-off, however. Read More

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Deadly (And Delicious!) Nightshades Much Older Than Thought

By Gemma Tarlach | January 5, 2017 1:00 pm
The new fossil groundcherry Physalis infinemundi from Laguna del Hunco in Patagonia, Argentina, 52 million years old. This specimen displays the characteristic papery, lobed husk and details of the venation. Credit: Ignacio Escapa, Museo Paleontológico Egidio Feruglio.

The new fossil Physalis infinemundi from Laguna del Hunco in Patagonia, Argentina, is 52.2 million years old and preserves a feature familiar to anyone who grows tomatillos or groundcherries: a papery, lobed husk with visible veins. Credit: Ignacio Escapa, Museo Paleontológico Egidio Feruglio.

Preserved for more than 50 million years, a pair of fossilized tomatillos from Argentina are rewriting the story of nightshades, those sometimes deadly, sometimes delicious, sometimes hallucinogenic plants common the world over.

Nightshades include tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, peppers, belladonna, petunias and tobacco, a few of which are commonly used as plant models in scientific research, and several of which probably landed on your dinner plate recently (though hopefully not the poisonous belladonna).

Aside from the fossils’ gorgeous state of preservation, the new Physalis infinemundi specimens are significant because they push back the evolution of nightshades — way back. Read More

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Human brain and teeth evolution not linked — Surprise!

By Gemma Tarlach | January 2, 2017 2:00 pm
Researchers long the human brain (blue) got bigger as our teeth (eccru) got smaller, but a new study tells a different story. Credit: George Washington University.

Researchers long thought the human brain (blue) got bigger as our teeth (eccru) got smaller, but a new study tells a different story. Image courtesy of: Aida Gómez-Robles.

Sure, the human brain is a big deal, literally. But if you put the average human in a primate family reunion photo op that included our nearest living relatives, such as chimpanzees, bonobos and gorillas, and told all of them to smile wide for the camera, one thing would be very apparent: when it comes to teeth, man, we puny humans are total lightweights.

For a long time, it’s been assumed that as our brains got bigger and more bodacious, our teeth shrank proportionately. Who needs a giant set of chompers when you’re such a smartypants that you can make tools to slice and dice your food and then cook it over a fire? But a new study says hang on, now — looks like our big brains and tiny teeth aren’t linked after all. Read More

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Did Dinosaur Eggs Lead To Their Doom?

By Gemma Tarlach | January 2, 2017 2:00 pm
Embryonic and newborn Protoceratops andrewsi (like the hatchling above) may hold the secrets to the dinosaurs' doom written in their teeth. Credit: AMNH/M. Ellison.

Embryonic Protoceratops andrewsi (like the hatchling above) may have a key to the dinosaurs’ doom written in their teeth. Credit: AMNH/M. Ellison.

For the first time, researchers have been able to peer into fossilized dinosaur eggs at such a crazyfine resolution that they’ve spotted growth lines on the embryo-dino teeth. The marks, called von Ebner lines, tell a surprising story that may help to explain why non-avian dinosaurs were wiped out some 66 million years ago.

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Check Out This Feathered Dinosaur Tail Preserved in Amber!

By Gemma Tarlach | December 8, 2016 11:00 am
INfo here credit here

A stunning piece of amber, mined in Myanmar, preserves the partial tail of a feathered dinosaur, ants and a beetle from the middle of the Cretaceous Period, about 99 million years ago. Credit: Royal Saskatchewan Museum (RSM/R.C. McKellar).

Pretty. So pretty. Pretty to look at and pretty significant: for the first time, researchers have got their hands on the tail of a non-avian feathered dinosaur preserved inside a piece of amber for almost 100 million years. Unlike dinosaur fossils found in sedimentary rock layers, this little beauty isn’t squished flat, which allows paleontologists to study the tail as it was in life. Another bonus: the amber appears to have preserved components usually lost to the ages, including what may be residual iron from red blood cells.

But before you shriek “Jurassic Park!” hang on…That’s not even the coolest thing about this find.

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Tetrapod Triumph! Solving Mystery Of First Land Vertebrates

By Gemma Tarlach | December 5, 2016 10:00 am
bizarro1

Credit: Dan Piraro.

Let’s talk about Romer’s Gap, not to be confused with the Gap of Rohan (though I would love to talk about that, too, as I am always up for a bit of Tolkien). Romer’s Gap is an intriguing question mark in the fossil record that today loses a little of its mystery.

On the far side of the gap, about 360 million years ago, we’ve got aquatic tetrapods — vertebrates with four limbs — which were at that point still pretty fishy (note: not actual scientific term). On the near side of the gap, beginning around 335 million years ago, tetrapods are already a diverse bunch of animals living quite happily on land, walking on legs and breathing air just fine, thank you very much.

Romer’s Gap is that period in between, when the tetrapod fossil record largely goes dark, leaving paleontologists to scratch their heads over the surf-to-turf transition.

“This is a time when tetrapods really got going and started walking about, and yet we had no evidence, or very little evidence, about what was going on then,” says paleontologist Jennifer Clack, professor emeritus at Cambridge University and the lead author on an exciting new study, the first to find sedimentary hints of the tetrapods living it up on land.

Published today, the research describes five new tetrapods from that mysterious gap in the record, and they matter. Because you, me, your pet dog, your pet iguana, your pet cockatoo, your fantasy pet Deinonychus that you keep asking Santa for (surely I’m not the only one…): All of us descended from tetrapods. Their fishy-to-leggy story is ours. Read More

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Living World, top posts
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