Lucy’s Demise: What Killed the Most Famous Fossil

By Gemma Tarlach | August 29, 2016 10:00 am

An artist’s reconstruction of Lucy in better times. The most famous Australopithecus afarensis, a species likely ancestral to our own, appears to have died from injuries sustained in a fall, according to new research. The study reignites an old debate about the early hominin lived. Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

She’s the most famous of our distant ancestral kin and, while it’s way too late to send flowers, we now know how Lucy died some 3.18 million years ago. The most famous Australopithecus afarensis appears to have died due to injuries sustained in a fall, according to new research. But it’s not quite case closed: The proposed scenario that led to her death is fanning the flames of an old debate about how the early members of our family tree lived.

Imaging an Icon

When her remains were unearthed in Ethiopia’s Afar region in 1974, Lucy kicked off a new era in the understanding of human evolution. At the time she was the oldest hominin fossil ever found. And instead of the odd jawbone, tooth or partial skull typically found by paleoanthropologists, much of Lucy’s skeleton was recovered — including enough to see she had traits handy for tree-climbing as well as for walking upright. More than 40 years on, paleoanthropologists still argue over whether she and other members of A. afarensis spent most of their time above ground or on it, walking fully upright.

The new findings, published today in Nature, don’t settle the debate. But they do add an intriguing new piece of evidence to the discussion. According to the researchers, the plausible explanation for the severe injuries Lucy suffered shortly before death is that she fell out of a tree.

A team led by anthropologist John Kappelman of the University of Texas at Austin determined through computed tomographic scans that several of Lucy’s bones had been fractured shortly before death. What’s more, by comparing the fractures to those seen in hospital ERs, the team was able to reconstruct Lucy’s last moments.

LucyÕs distal radius undergoes computed tomographic scanning. (Photo by Marsha Miller/UT Austin)

The wrist end of one of Lucy’s lower arm bones undergoes computed tomographic scanning, a technology that allows fossil whisperers to see a bone’s structure in much greater detail than ever before. Credit: Marsha Miller/UT Austin

Kappelman and company believe she fell from a height of about 40 feet — this is based on estimates of how much she weighed and the severity of her injuries — and researchers know enough about the environment in the immediate vicinity of where she lived to say she had to have fallen out of a tree.

The team arrived at their conclusions after CT scanning Lucy’s fossilized bones and generating more than 35,000 images. Fossils usually get pretty beat up in the time between an organism’s death and excavation by researchers. A lot of things can happen: predators can scavenge the bones, the remains can get washed down a river and tumbled in the water, and, of course, as layers of sediment build up on the bones, most are broken or crushed by the weight.

However, the resolution of the CT scans allowed Kappelman and his team to see something that could not be explained by the rough-and-tumble forces at work on a dead body that’s on its way to becoming a fossil. Lucy’s upper right arm bone provided the first clue: Kappelman noticed that after fracturing, bits of bone were still in place, which suggested that the soft tissue around the bone was still there, keeping everything together instead of spreading it around as we’d expected to see in a bare bone broken by the weight of sediment on top of it.

After that first hint, the team scrutinized Lucy’s scans and identified additional fractures she must have experienced shortly before death: The patterns of the fractures indicated she was still alive when they occurred, but there were no signs of healing, indicating she didn’t survive for long afterward.

The researchers came to the conclusion that she had fallen feet first out of a tree, landing on her heels and then stretching out her arms to brace herself as she toppled forward. The extent of the injuries suggest she died within moments after the fall.

UT Austin professor John Kappelman with 3D printouts of Lucy’s skeleton illustrating the compressive fractures in her right humerus that she suffered at the time of her death 3.18 million years ago. (Photo by Marsha Miller/UT Austin)

Anthropologist John Kappelman of the University of Texas at Austin strikes a pose with 3-D printed models of Lucy’s skeleton. The replicas demonstrate how her right upper arm bone experienced a nasty compressive fracture at the time of her death, one piece of evidence that led Kappelman’s team to conclude she had fallen from a tree. Credit: Marsha Miller/UT Austin.

To The Memory of Lucy

Determining Lucy’s cause of death isn’t just an interesting and impressive research finding (seriously…to be able to determine how bones fractured 3.18 million years ago is pretty dang impressive.). It also reignites the long-smoldering debate over whether Lucy and her kind were tree-dwellers or fully bipedal, terrestrial types like humans today.

Doubters will quibble over whether the intriguing conclusions from this CSI:Afar Region are definitive, but researchers outside of the team are quick to acknowledge the study’s importance.

“This paper is wonderful: It forces us to put Lucy in context,” says Harvard University paleoanthropologist Daniel Lieberman, who was not involved in the research but is familiar with the team’s conclusions. “It’s our job as scientists to be skeptical but they’ve made a very compelling case.”

Lieberman, who focuses on the evolution of the human body, has long believd that Lucy and her A. afarensis kin had a mix of traits that suggested they spent time both in the trees and on the ground. Given how heated debate has been about the A. afarensis lifestyle — often simplistically reduced to an either/or debate about whether the species was arboreal or terrestrial — Lieberman sees a special significance to conclusions by Kappelman’s team.

“It’s poetic justice, really,” Lieberman says. “Lucy is an iconic Australopithecus. She’s the poster child for the (A. afarensis) species. The fact that she died falling out of a tree is not surprising… Even if you’re good at living in trees, sometimes you’ll still fall out of one.”

Want more? Watch Kappelman and other members of the team discuss their research in a video from UT Austin. Working with the team, the Ethiopian National Museum is also making some of the high-tech scans available to the public at

UPDATE: Want even more? Listen to an interview I did the day the story broke with my “Central Time” friends at Wisconsin Public Radio.

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Living World, top posts
  • John C

    Great(2.0×10^5) Grandma!!

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  • Rehbock

    Maybe she pulled the football from Charlie one too many times.

    • Billy J Payahsape

      Obviously they just looked at the video from the security cameras in the area. Geeez

  • Tom Bice

    If I wasn’t so lazy I’d write a book of fiction in which somebody going through hypnosis therapy finds out that thy were Lucy in a previous life.

  • Ken M

    How could anyone know the monkey’s name if we weren’t around? Sounds like these scientists just twiddle their thumbs and make stuff up!

    • MoeizW

      I believe she was tagged soon after birth.

    • plantman13

      Are you serious? Or is this sarcasm? I hope the latter.

    • Veronica Celesti

      …They had to put a name to the collection of fossilized bones so they’re not stuck referring to it as “the heap of fossilized bones over there”.

      I’d honestly love to see you accomplish a feat that only a scientist can accomplish. Spoiler alert: you can’t. You’re in no position to insult them or the work they do.

    • John C

      “Lucy” acquired her name from the song “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” by the Beatles, which was played loudly and repeatedly in the expedition camp all evening after the excavation team’s first day of work on the recovery site.

      And an ape like creature actually, since monkeys have tails.

    • Marc R

      @KenEmm:disqus Bruh, are you high? It’s obvious ! They read the name on her tombstone. Duh !

    • BaSH PR0MPT

      Sounds like these science-critics just twiddle their thumbs and make stuff up. Seriously Ken, you bring shame on your parents and teachers by the complete manner in which you’ve seemed to endure education and retain nothing of it.

    • Jerry

      Ken- “its better to be silent and let the world think your an idiot then to speak and remove all doubt” -Samuel L. Clemens aka Mark Twain

    • applecreeker

      It’s called creative wishful thinking. You need an advanced degree to do it. Don’t try this at home!

    • Helen Fenerty-Lange

      Because we named her stupid!

    • MrFurious26

      You’ve all fallen victim to one of the classic blunders, the most famous of which is “never get involved in a land war in Asia”, but only slightly less known is this: “Never go in against Ken M when you’re online”!

      Go ahead and give Ken M a google, folks.

    • D Jane Do

      Really? Are you kidding me?! Louis Leakey discovered Lucy and named her. Actually, I think it was his wife that discovered the skull. And Lucy is not a MONKEY!

  • applecreeker

    If she hadn’t fallen from the tree we might still be arboreal! The Fall of Man (woman) would be the “big step for mankind” we have been seeking. But then, she died so that family tree kind of dead ends. Evolution loses again!

  • Metal_bender

    The authors are clearly not speculating, as they shouldn’t. BUT: From the fact that bone fragments were held in place by soft tissue until the body was well under ground/undesirable as food, I infer that no scavengers were around for the first 2-4 days after her death. Hard to believe that none noticed all that protein for the taking. Thus, it is possible – probable – that someone cared in some way for her body. If a chimp dies, what do the rest do about it? Could someone have put some stones over her, protecting her body from said scavengers? (well, yes, “could.” I’m wondering if “did” is more likely.)

  • Martha Bartha

    Lucy? You got some splanin to do!

  • Pierre-François Puech

    Did Lucy have had a bad fall? Misconduct may come from the fact that the publication of this article has not been sufficiently discussed. Do not forget that ‘Forensic’ comes from the Latin word ‘Forum’, this because a statement was to be discussed on the forum to be accepted. The evidence provided by the study of the archaeological site of Lucy gives twists to the article stating the falling tree as cause of the death of Lucy [The fossil bones of this female subject were discovered outgoing from a layer of sand of an old river bank of the Awash in Ethiopia that has no pollen tree].

    Nature magazine should not be content with a “plausible scenario for the demise of Lucy,” as said by paleoanthropologist William Jungers of the State University of New York at Stony Brook, who reviewed the paper for Nature. Normal fossilization processes can specifically result in bone fractures found. The fact that the mandibular symphysis and both condylar necks were fractured certainly indicates a very severe blow to the symphysis. This is the only possible conclusion and when it comes to topics fossilized likelihood is that fractures are the result of 3.18 My fossilization process [ compactions, tectonic events, erosion and transport since Lucy fragments have been collected from a modern soil surface the same of the sandstone unit at the top of Hill, stratigraphycally situated in the upper part of the Hadar Formation, says Maurice Taieb in charge of the geology aspect of Lucy site]

  • Pingback: The Latest on Lucy: Early Hominin Spent Serious Time in Trees - Dead Things : Dead Things()

  • charlie

    Did she fall, or was she pushed?

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  • DesVet

    All debate aside, why is it that ONLY Lucy has been discovered? Not even another “skull” or bone in keeping with the “age” or “evolutionary stage” xyz. in the same area of discovery?
    One should think if “she” is genuine and a “human” ancestor that “she” would be in a “group” at least, if not in a “society” that revered “their” members and placed them in a specific location after “death” no matter how it came about.
    Also, why do all these “specimens” have to be “early human ancestors” or not designated as “latter” evolutionary “simians” of the Ape Family that simply died off do to some “catastrophe” while the early “human” has not just simply been discovered yet? Just as plausible since “we” have not been able to actually “find” a specimen yet that has some sort of “record” of intelligence or found in a “cemetery like” area?

    • JAFischer

      If there were more remains you’d call them fake because you think the Bible is science.

    • Pierre-François Puech

      Lucy’s body floated in a river to beach on a sandy bank. The skull was not found after very important research. These are the hazards of the fossilization process. Before thinking about fossil hominids it is necessary to have studied geology well. Then, and only then, it is possible to read in the book of nature. All knowledge requires a conditioning, that of nature can take the path of geology when it comes to dig up our past on earth


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