Easter Island Ancient DNA Shoots Down One Rapanui Theory

By Gemma Tarlach | October 12, 2017 11:00 am
The massive carved Moai of Rapa Nui, or Easter Island, are as mysterious as the people who made them. (Credit Terry Hunt)

Easter Island, or Rapa Nui, is best known for its giant carved moai. (Credit Terry Hunt)

Thanks to its geography, the southeastern Pacific island of Rapa Nui — also known as Easter Island — has been in the center of a long-running debate about how early people may have sailed back and forth across the planet’s biggest ocean. One theory suggested that, long before Europeans arrived, the island was a meeting point for Polynesians and Native Americans.

Spoiler alert: a new study of ancient DNA from early residents of Rapa Nui says otherwise.

Easter Island, known for its moai — massive human figures erected all over the small island — has long held fascination for travelers and researchers alike. Archaeological evidence suggests that the island was first settled by Polynesians, perhaps less than a millennium ago.

Europeans didn’t show up until 1722, and the centuries between the arrival of its first residents — known as Rapanui — and a ship of Dutch explorers have held particular interest for scientists studying human migration.

Some researchers have suggested that the island’s location — roughly halfway between Tahiti and South America — would have made it a logical rest stop on (theoretical) prehistoric trans-Pacific travel routes, and a potential genetic melting pot for Polynesians and Native Americans. That theory got a boost in 2014 when a team found genetic evidence of Native Americans mixing it up with Rapanui well before Europeans were on the scene.

Easter Island, also known as Rapa Nui, sits in a remote spot of the southern Pacific. (Credit Wikimedia Commons/Xander89)

Easter Island, also known as Rapa Nui, sits in a remote spot of the southern Pacific. (Credit Wikimedia Commons/Xander89)

DNA: The Remix

That 2014 paper, showing modern Rapanui DNA has about 8 percent Native American ancestry, made headlines. But the study was conducted using genetic material from 21st century residents of the island. The conclusion that Native American DNA was added to the mix 19-23 generations earlier (sometime in the 13th to 15th centuries) was based on modeling, an area of genomics that can be imprecise.

Today, however, a separate team reports in Current Biology that ancient DNA, from five Rapanui discovered on Easter Island during archaeological excavations, tells a different story.

The researchers obtained and sequenced genetic material from three individuals dated to the pre-European period (from the 15th to 17th centuries) and two more from the 19th to 20th centuries. The team was able to sequence the entire maternally-inherited mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) from all five individuals, and also retrieved significant portions of autosomal DNA, or genetic code that’s found on the non-sex chromosomes. The data is the first genome-wide glimpse into ancient Rapanui lineage.

The result: None of the samples showed evidence of Native American ancestry.

Cue The Skeptics

Just as many people poo-poohed the 2014 paper that hinted at a pre-European contact DNA mash-up between Polynesians and Native Americans, I’m sure a lot of people will dismiss these findings. And it’s not an iron-clad case.

As the researchers themselves point out, all of the genetic material had some degree of degradation due to age and environment — ancient DNA preserves best in cold and dry climates and Easter Island is neither. For that reason, the team was unable to sequence the entire genome of any of the individuals analyzed.

It’s also possible, though unlikely given Rapa Nui’s small size, that the team’s sample of five individuals just happened not to include any Rapanui who did have Native American ancestry.

It appears most likely, however, that prior to the arrival of Europeans, local Rapanui did not have interaction with Native Americans. The admixture events, to use geneticist lingo, could have occurred with individuals of either Native American or mixed Native American and European heritage who visited the island after 1722. The team notes that historians have documented that at least 53 ships stopped at Rapa Nui in the first 140 years after Dutch explorers came ashore — and that doesn’t count landings by whaling ships which typically were not recorded.

But why, you may wonder, did the 2014 paper place the Native American-Rapanui admixture event as early as the 13th century? Well, modeling an ancient admixture event is tricky, and results can get skewed in a number of ways.

One potential monkeywrench in the 2014 paper’s modeling is an apparent bottleneck event on Rapa Nui in the late 19th century: An outbreak of disease wiped out much of the indigenous population, leaving as few as 100 Rapanui. These “bottlenecks,” in addition to being a human tragedy, wreak havoc with genetic models, which are based on relatively stable population sizes. Toss in a sudden and extreme decrease in a population’s genetic diversity — a bottleneck — and the chronology of when genes were introduced into that population (the admixture event) can get distorted.

For now, based on this latest data, it looks like advocates of an early trans-Pacific travel route and Polynesian-Native American contact will have to look elsewhere for evidence to support their claim.

Today's research clears up some of the backstory of the first residents of Rapa Nui...backstory...get it? (Credit Terry Hunt)

Today’s research clears up some of the backstory of the first residents of Rapa Nui…backstory…get it? (Credit Terry Hunt)

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Living World, top posts

Comments (20)

  1. OWilson

    The Atlantean DNA as well as the Apache DNA did not survive, but we should be cautious in our dismissal, even as we are enthusiastic about its inclusion! 🙂

  2. I have solved the Rapa Nui riddle! Compare,

    …Rapa Nui mo’ai
    … Shtreimlech

    Lost tribe of Israel.

  3. Philip Olson

    When I think about it, if the mariners were skilled enough to find that island reliably, then they would not have needed to. It was silly in all other contexts as well. We have a great many educated folks that are bored out of their minds.

    • Lucille Hino

      In addition to the dna analysis of skeletons excavated on Easter Island, there is, if you look at ice age mapping of the pacific, a chain of islands from the Marquesas to Easter Islands. The natives have, since the first visitors from Europe, claimed their ancestors came from there

  4. RebelSoldier

    The Polynesians developed the skills and technology to spread out from the Philippines over the last 4,000 years. They had to learn to conquer the oceans and read its geography. There really wasn’t much need for that in South America. Also civilization in Peru and Ecuador was constantly being pushed back by long droughts and rains that washed away abobe cities. So despite Thor Heyerdahl,l today I think that aside from a balsam boat being carried with half dead fishermen to Easter Island. It was a Polynesian affair. I wonder if being actually interested in history and having opinions about it still puts me the same bag of doofus characters as the other bored bags of hot air you seem to attract. The idea grabs their attention but any digging around scientifically with what the article is saying is more than they can garner the intellectual capacity for.

  5. Easily Anused

    The real story of how Easter Island was colonized begins in World War II when Hitler and his most ardent followers loaded into the time travel device and launched themselves back into the time stream. Unfortunately, they didn’t calculate in planetary location and when they re materialized a thousand years in the past on a different day and month than when they left the earth wasn’t there. They had to wait for the earth to come around to where they floated in space and let gravity pull them back down to the surface. Unfortunately, this crash destroyed their advanced technology and they landed on the opposite side of the world then where they intended. Fortunately the survivors found land and in thanks to their great leader who lead them through time to a new land and surely victory over their adversaries they carved the first great statue to Adolph: The first Moai.

    • Suzanne Lee

      Watch Star Trek much? Very entertainING. Thanks. Hitler had has an alien base in the Artic, since maybe we’ll see him again around 2041? Not him maybe but him embodied as ??? Adolphus Midler??

      • Easily Anused

        We see him again as soon as cloning technology takes off. It will be decided that the only genetics that can be enslaved for slave labor belongs to those who really ruined the world.

  6. Carol Shetler

    Thank goodness for the scientific method, that helps us learn whether what we THINK might be true actually IS or not.

    • harry_rosenberg

      The scientific method recognizes experimental or other types of error. There is always a “residual error” however small in conclusions to be drawn. So IS or NOT IS must always be stated with its measure of uncertainty to carry its proper weight into posterity. Then there is the psycho-social aspect that haunts the journalist, as well as the rest of us, in forming our belief/knowledge systems.

      • OcamsCudgel

        the psycho social aspect is really present in another piece in Discover this week, where the author asserts “inequality” is a negative and arose with the advent of farming, when in fact unequal access to nutrition, hunter gather ranges are a key part of what spurred hominid evolution.

        And Easter Island it self has been a kind of laboratory of poor logic, with assertions of what happened in that very unrepresentative place being relevant elsewhere

        • harry_rosenberg

          What farming did was to provide leisure time for humans to think. That took awhile to get us where we are today. Our brains didn’t change with farming, our conquering “nature” did. Agree on how you interpret Easter Island!

    • OcamsCudgel

      Except the earlier studies indicating earlier dates for admixture were peer reviewed science. That 2014 was certainly published and certainly used the scientific method.

      It is actually common sense, and generalists outside of scientific method that prevailed in generating the critique of the science from 2014 study and the new science on Easter Island aDNA

      There are literally hundreds of peer reviewed aDNA studies that use living human populaions DNA to make assertions, certainly backed by the “consensus” that should be examined — and will e as recovery of aDNA from long dead samples advances.

  7. nik

    Just because there is no native american DNA present doesn’t necessarily mean that they were never there.
    It could just mean that the Polynesian Rapanui didnt find them attractive enough to mate with them, for which they cannot be blamed.

  8. Lucille Hino

    The link of skeleton dna to Polynesians is about people. i have read “arguments” against the theory because of chickens and sweet potatoes. What lengths to deny mounting scientific analysis in an attempt to disprove the navigational skills of the Pacific Islanders. Trading food products is not necessarily the same as human settlement; but the real issue is the injured ego of those who have maintained throughout their professional careers that an oceanic route should be ignored

  9. Lucille Hino

    The biggest leap of faith: Journal of Anthropology of Royal Society of England 1881 when Marquesas was discovered; reports of bearded men, similar to Maori. Those bearded men representations look just like the odd lonely Moai on Easter Island, as well as bearded gods in S. America. Visits to ancient pre incans didn’t necessarily mean they would leave their dna, but they certainly would leave enough of the impression to be documented in their history. Personal view: the standing moai remind me of great leaders who want to leave bigger and bigger monuments to themselves, but I don’t know what anyone would think of Mt Rushmore if there was no one to tell the tale

  10. So what were the Ancient Easter Islanders’ haplogroup?

    It’s not mentioned in the entire article.

  11. Whiskey Jack: Lord of Pith

    Were these five dead bodies of Chiefs, or common people?


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