“A repeated measures 2 x 2 factorial design using a psychophysical experimental methodology was performed to quantify the effect of shaft design (straight and bent shaft) and shoveling technique (forward and backward progression) on heart rate, perceived exertion, productivity, trunk kinematics and load kinetics. Ten male subjects performed four 8-min trials of snow shoveling on a paved asphalt surface. The most notable finding was significantly less trunk flexion with the bent shaft (41.4 degrees ) than with the straight shaft design (49.2 degrees ). The study results led to a recommendation of a bent-shaft shovel for the purpose of reducing trunk flexion. In the absence of any strong positive evidence and due to poor subjective response to backward progression while shoveling, this technique was not recommended”
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