Have you ever witnessed a creationist and an atheist having a fight? If so, you’ve likely seen firsthand the subject of this paper: what happens when a member of a group (e.g., a creationist) is criticized by a non-member (e.g., an atheist). It has now been scientifically proven that no matter how logical the arguments of the non-group member are, they will probably be rejected. Even the authors describe their results as depressing.
Shooting the messenger: Outsiders critical of your group are rejected regardless of argument quality.
“People are more resistant to criticisms of their group when those criticisms are made by an outgroup rather than an ingroup member, a phenomenon referred to as the intergroup sensitivity effect (ISE). The current study compared four competing models of how argument quality would moderate the ISE, with a view to establishing the complex interrelationships between source and message effects in group-directed criticism. Read More
The increasing popularity of commercial movies showing three dimensional (3D) images has raised concern about possible adverse side effects on viewers.
Methods and Findings
A prospective carryover observational study was designed to assess the effect of exposure (3D vs. 2D movie views) on self reported symptoms of visually induced motion sickness. The standardized Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was self administered on a convenience sample of 497 healthy adult volunteers before and after the vision of 2D and 3D movies. Read More
“Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active constituent of cannabis. In recent years, the average THC content of some cannabis cigarettes has increased up to approximately 60 mg per cigarette (20% THC cigarettes). Acute cognitive and psychomotor effects of THC among recreational users after smoking cannabis cigarettes containing such high doses are unknown. The objective of this study was to study the dose-effect relationship between the THC dose contained in cannabis cigarettes and cognitive and psychomotor effects for THC doses up to 69.4 mg (23%). Read More
“Introduction. Research indicates that (i) women’s orgasm during penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is influenced by fitness-related male partner characteristics, (ii) penis size is important for many women, and (iii) preference for a longer penis is associated with greater vaginal orgasm consistency (triggered by PVI without concurrent clitoral masturbation). Aims. To test the hypothesis that vaginal orgasm frequency is associated with women’s reporting that a longer than average penis is more likely to provoke their PVI orgasm. Method. Three hundred twenty-three women reported in an online survey their past month frequency of various sexual behaviors (including PVI, vaginal orgasm, and clitoral orgasm), the effects of a longer than average penis on likelihood of orgasm from PVI, and the importance they attributed to PVI and to noncoital sex. Read More
“It is a common belief that we are experts in the processing of famous faces. Although our ability to quickly and accurately recognise pictures of famous faces is quite impressive, we might not really process famous faces as faces per se, but as ‘icons’ or famous still pictures of famous faces. This assumption was tested in two parallel experiments employing a recognition task on famous, but personally unfamiliar, and on personally familiar faces. Read More
“Five studies examined whether the practice of regifting-a social taboo-is as offensive to the original givers as potential regifters assume. Participants who imagined regifting a gift (receivers) thought that the original giver would be more offended than participants who imagined that their gifts were regifted (givers) reported feeling. Read More
“During the drying of drops of nanoparticle suspensions, segregation can occur by internal fluid flows toward the contact line, if the contact line is pinned. This leads to a characteristic ring deposit or coffee stain. On solid substrates coffee staining can be eliminated through the use of solvent mixtures that promote Marangoni flows to oppose these drying-induced flows. Read More
“Previous research has demonstrated that a pleasant drawing (a smiling face) on a restaurant bill increased the number of tips left by clients. A similar experiment was carried out using a drawing of the sun since it is known that tips increase on sunny days. Read More
“Gift-giving involves both the objective value of a gift and the symbolic meaning of the exchange. The objective value is sometimes considered of secondary importance as when people claim, “It’s the thought that counts.” We evaluated when and how mental state inferences count in gift exchanges. Because considering another’s thoughts requires motivation and deliberation, we predicted gift givers’ thoughts would increase receivers’ appreciation only when triggered to consider a giver’s thoughts, such as when a friend gives a bad gift. Read More
“While watching 30-min television (TV) programs that contained either food-related content or non-food-related content, participants were asked to eat two types of candy by explicitly being told that we were interested in how the TV program influenced their taste and therefore they needed to consume some of those candies. Read More