Over the past few days I’ve been trying to read a bit on the Sandawe. Most of the stuff I’ve been able to find is in the domain of linguistics, and is basically unintelligible to me in any substantive manner. The crux of the curiosity here is that the Sandawe, like their Hadza neighbors, have clicks in their language, and so have been classified with the Khoisan. Here’s some background:
The most promising candidate as a relative of Sandawe are the Khoe languages of Botswana and Namibia. Most of the putative cognates Greenberg (1976) gives as evidence for Sandawe being a Khoesan language in fact tie Sandawe to Khoe. Recently Gueldemann and Elderkin have strengthened that connection, with several dozen likely cognates, while casting doubts on other Khoisan connections. Although there are not enough similarities to reconstruct a Proto-Khoe-Sandawe language, there are enough to suggest that the connection is real.
I can’t speak to the validity of this at all, obviously. Some scholars do argue that the clicks in the Sandawe language were only acquired through interaction with peoples such as the Hadza, making an analogy to Xhosa, a Bantu language which has been strongly influenced by Khoi dialects. In any case, after having run ADMIXTURE a bunch of times on African population sets, and checked the genetic distances of the inferred ancestral ones, one thing that is clear is that the Sandawe don’t show a particularly close genetic relationship to the Bushmen, nor do they show a close relationship to the Hadza. In fact, the Hadza, Pygmies, and Bushmen show a closer relationship to each other, distant as it is, than to the Sandawe. The Sandawe themselves are distinctive from their Bantu neighbors, but, their connections seem more clear to the Masai and other peoples to the north.
Some of the anthropological stuff that I did find on the Sandawe not having to do with linguistics considered the issue of their status as hunter-gatherers, and their shift toward a form of agriculture within the past few centuries. Not surprisingly much of this literature consisted of ideologically shrill posturing, denouncing past scholarship for insensitivity and bigotry, while taking their own maximalist position. For example there has been the hypothesis that hunter-gatherer populations tend to be genetically and culturally isolated from agriculturalists, with several African groups used as exemplars. A group of anthropologists argue strenuously that this model may just be a construction of the biases of previous generations of scholars. But they offer little in the way of counterargument, more keen on uncovering the faults in the motives and methods of their predecessors than in building anything anew.
Genetics can help us a little here. Below are the results of ADMIXTURE and PCA I ran for a selection of populations. I pulled in some Behar et al. samples and merged it with the Henn et al. data set. The marker list was pruned down to ~160,000 SNPs. The limited selection of populations was conscious, insofar as I was exploring specific questions about the relationship of East African populations to Eurasian ones. At K = 8 the populations in my data set separated rather well. Do not take this separation as evidence that this K is a reflection of absolute concrete ancestral populations. Here’s the bar plot:
Some have asked what the point is in poking around African population structure when Tishkoff et al. and Henn et al. have done such a good job in terms of coverage. First, it is nice to run your own analyses so you can slice & dice to your preference, and not rely on the constrained menu provided by others. There’s value in home cooking; you can flavor to your taste. Second, you never know what data people might leave on your doorstep. I’ve received the genotypes of three Somalis. Nothing too surprising, a touch more Cushitic than the Ethiopians in Behar et al., but interesting nonetheless.
Also, you can see how ADMIXTURE tends to come to weird conclusions in certain circumstances. Below is a K = 12 run ~50,000 SNPs. I’ve included in a few Behar et al. and HGDP populations to the Henn et al. set, as well as pruned a lot of the African groups which seem redundant in terms of information. I’ve added a few geographically informative labels as well.
Observe below that there is a Fulani cluster. I think this is pretty much an artifact. At K = 7 the Fulani have a majority component which is modal in West Africa & Bantu speakers, and a minority component which is identical to the one modal in Mozabite Berbers from Algeria. The Mozabites reside in the far northern Sahara, and their modal component drops off as one goes east toward western Asia and the eastern Mediterranean. I suspect that what is showing up in ADMIXTURE is the ancient hybridization of the Fulani, and perhaps their demographic expansion from this core group. We have some glimmers of the prehistory of the Fulani, and no expectation for them to be such a distinctive cluster, so I naturally jump to these inferences. But it does make me reconsider the nature of the “Sandawe,” “Mbuti” or “San” clusters in ADMIXTURE. These populations are culturally distinctive in deep ways from their neighbors, so a reflexive inference one might make is that they’re “pure” ancient substrate groups which have been overlain and marginalized by their Bantu neighbors. But their prehistory is far murkier than the Fulani because of their geographical isolation, so there is far less to go on. These “ancient” isolated groups themselves may have gone through the same sort of distinctive recent ethnogenesis processes which we presume occurred with the Fulani (also, in the plot below the Biaka are pure; but in most of the bar plots they have a minor element which they share with their neighbors, probably due to greater admixture and interaction between western Pygmies and their Bantu neighbors than among the easter ones).