Several months ago I put up a post which reviewed the geographical connections within the total genome content of the Cape Coloureds of South Africa. These peoples (plural because distinctive ethnic groups such as the Griqua were subsumed into this category in the 20th century) are of diverse origin, though generally their African and European ancestry has been highlighted. To the left I’ve reedited a plot which illustrates the inferred proportion of ancestry from various groups in modern Cape Coloured populations. Note that there is a substantial proportion of Asian ancestry, both South and East Asian. This makes historical sense as during the period of the founding of the Cape Colony a substantial number of Southeast and South Asian slaves were transferred from the Dutch East Indies, as well as from Madagascar, which itself has a Southeast Asian component in its population. Additionally, observe that the Bushmen & Khoikhoi element has been separated from the Bantu element. Archaeologists assume that the former are indigenous to South Africa, while the latter arrived within the last 2,000 years as the edge of the Bantu expansion which swept out of Nigeria east and south. These two populations are obviously both African, but their common ancestry is very deep. In some phylogenies Bushmen may be represented as the outgroup to all other human lineages, implying that one has to go very far back indeed for a common ancestor. In other words, the Bushmen are not the “oldest” human population, but have the oldest point of common ancestry with other human populations (e.g., the last common ancestor between a European and an East Asian may be ~30,000 years ago, but that between a Bushmen and a European may be ~80,000 years ago).
But these studies do not tell us everything about the demographic history behind the ethnogenesis of the Cape Coloureds. In this case uniparental lineages, mtDNA which traces the matriline and and nonrecombinant Y chromosomes (NRY) which trace the patriline may offer some value. Unfortunately too often because of methodological considerations we have looked at the uniparental lineages first, and then the total genome content, which I think inverts the optimal order in terms of putting genetic findings in context. A new study focuses on the Cape Coloured mtDNA and NRY lineages, with the previous findings in mind, Strong maternal Khoisan contribution to the South African coloured population: a case of gender-biased admixture: