A blanket of smoke from fires in Siberia is so huge it can be seen from nearly 1 million miles away in space

By Tom Yulsman | July 22, 2016 7:14 pm

It’s a tad faint, but a smudge of smoke is clearly visible in the image below, captured by a spacecraft in deep space

Siberia

This image was acquired by the EPIC camera on NOAA’s DSCOVR spacecraft when it was 975,074 miles from Earth on July 21, 2016. Bluish-gray wildfire smoke over Siberia can be seen within the circled area. Make sure to click the image to open it in a new window, and then click on it again to enlarge it. (Source: http://epic.gsfc.nasa.gov/ )

The Deep Space Climate Observatory spacecraft hovers between the Earth and Sun, keeping a constant eye on our planet’s sunlit side from about a million miles away.

Yet even from that extremely distant vantage point (called Lagrange Point 1), DSCOVR’S camera was able to discern a broad blanket of smoke from wildfires raging in Siberia.

Look for the smoke within the circled area in the image above, acquired by the EPIC camera on July 21, 2016. Click the image to open it in a new window, and then click on it again for a close up view. The smoke is clearly visible.

How much of Siberia is burning?

Despite all the smoke, the Russian government says burning in not terribly extensive. On July 18th, it reported that 77 fires were burning on 45 square miles of territory, an area smaller than Washington D.C. For the year to date, the government says 2,583 square miles have burned.

But Grigory Kuksin of Greenpeace Russia, quoted in a story in Phys.Org, says the government is playing down the extent of the burning. By his accounting, 27,027 square miles have burned so far this year — an area larger than West Virginia.

It’s difficult to know what the precise number is. But given the extensive smoke blanket — which stretches across at least 2,000 miles of Siberia from west to east — I’m guessing that the figure is closer to the estimate from Greenpeace. Read More

Huge amounts of heat are available to fuel Atlantic hurricanes, yet nothing’s happening. What’s going on?

By Tom Yulsman | July 21, 2016 6:11 pm

These animations and images help provide the answer

Atlantic hurricanes

An animation of satellite imagery shows dry and dusty air streaming out over the Atlantic from the Sahara Desert. One image, acquired by the Suomi NPP satellite, shows the scene in natural color on July 20, 2016. Note the dusty scrim streaming out over the ocean from Africa’s west coast. The other, based on data from NASA’s Terra and Aqua satellites, highlights dust in tones of yellow, orange and red. Dry and dusty air tends to inhibit the development of Atlantic hurricanes through a number of mechanisms. (Images: NASA Worldview. Animation: Tom Yulsman)

The Atlantic hurricane season started with a bang, but since then? Nada.

Atlantic hurricanes

Warm colors show areas of high ocean heat content in July. (Source: NOAA/AOML)

This despite a huge amount of oceanic heat available to feed these meteorological beasts, as the animation at right shows. (Click to expand it.)

The first hurricane this year, Alex, swirled in the North Atlantic in mid January. That was shockingly early: Since record keeping began, only two other hurricanes are known to have formed in the Atlantic during January, according to Weather Underground’s Bob Henson.

Following Alex, there have been three other named storms. The last one was Tropical Storm Danielle, which dissipated on June 21.

The broadest picture of the dearth of Atlantic hurricanes since then looks like this:

When tropical cyclone activity is high in the Pacific — as it has been recently — things tend to remain calm in the Atlantic. That’s because the rising air that occurs over the eastern Pacific’s stormy areas results in sinking air over the Atlantic. And sinking air is very unfriendly to Atlantic hurricanes.

Beyond that, several factors associated with a phenomenon known as the Saharan Air Layer, or SAL, also inhibit formation of Atlantic hurricanes. Read More

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Uncategorized

The first half of 2016 was the warmest such period by far in a record dating back 137 years

By Tom Yulsman | July 19, 2016 1:47 pm

Global warming continues, but with El Niño’s passing, Earth’s fever has moderated a bit

2016

Global surface temperature anomalies for the period January 2016 through June 2016. Higher than normal temperatures are shown in red and lower then normal termperatures are shown in blue. (Source: NASA/GISS)

This past month nudged out June 2015 as the warmest on record, according to data just released by NASA.

That makes the first six months of 2016 the warmest first half of any year since 1880. June’s record warmth also means we’ve experienced nine months in a row of record setting temperatures.

A separate analysis released today by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration also shows that the first half of 2016 was the warmest.

By NASA’s reckoning, the first half of 2015 was previously the warmest such period on record. “But 2016 has blown that out of the water,” said Gavin Schmidt, head of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, at an online briefing today.

Given the torrid start to the year, 2016 is very likely to finish as the warmest year on record. Read More

Flame broiled Alaska: With soaring temperatures and crackling lightning, wildfires erupt across the state

By Tom Yulsman | July 18, 2016 12:36 am
Alaska wildfire

Natural and false-color satellite views of wildfires in Alaska on July 15th, 2016. (Source: NASA Worldview)

After months of record-setting warmth culminating in extremely high temperatures last week, much of Alaska was primed for wildfire.

Things had been quiet until then, despite the warmest January through June period in Alaska since 1895.

Then the lightning came — with a sudden vengeance: some 45,570 strikes between July 13 and 16th.

The result: Flames finally exploded through Alaskan landscapes, with 114 new wildfires resulting in a more-than-100,000-acre increase in the total number of acres burned in Alaska this season, according to the Alaska Division of Forestry.

During one day last week, the acreage burned was one-third of the total that has burned during the entire season. As of July 16th, 481 wildfires had burned 299,632 acres of Alaska. Read More

In case you missed it: Juno’s first view of Jupiter from orbit

By Tom Yulsman | July 16, 2016 12:24 pm
Juno

Jupiter as seen from from NASA’s Juno spacecraft. (Source: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS)

The image above is the Juno spacecraft’s first view of Jupiter and some of its moons after it entered orbit around the gas giant on July 4th.

Published by NASA on July 12, it consists of data acquired by the JunoCam when the spacecraft was 2.7 million miles from Jupiter.

Juno was heading away from the planet on its first 53.5-day “capture orbit” — the beginning of its orbital mission. On Oct. 19, the spacecraft will execute its final engine burn of the mission, placing Juno into a 14-day orbit and marking the start of the primary science mission.

SEE ALSO: Happy Birthday, Earth Read More

Why is the Sun spinning like a pinwheel?

By Tom Yulsman | July 15, 2016 11:58 am

First the Sun develops a big hole, and now it’s flipping end over end. But once again, not to worry — all is well.

An animation of images taken by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory on July 6, 2016. The animation shows the Sun in extreme ultraviolet wavelengths normally invisible to our eyes. (Source: NASA)

An animation of images taken by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory on July 6, 2016 in extreme ultraviolet wavelengths appears to show the Sun spinning like a pinwheel. (Source: NASA)

A few days ago, I posted a video showing a gigantic hole in the Sun’s atmosphere. Now, NASA has published an animation showing the Sun spinning end over end like a pinwheel.

What’s going on?

For a detailed explanation of the hole in the Sun, go here:

What’s up with that huge dark hole in the Sun?

And now, what’s up with the pinwheeling Sun?  Read More

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Astronomy, select, Stars, Sun, Top Posts

Latest forecast is less bullish on La Niña

By Tom Yulsman | July 14, 2016 1:04 pm

Even so, there’s still better than a 50/50 chance that this weather-influencing phenomenon will emerge during fall and winter

La Niña

Sea surface temperature in June 2016 compared to the 1981-2010 average. The blue tones indicative of cooling in the central tropical Pacific suggest La Niña may develop later this year. (Source: NOAA Climate.gov map by Dan Pisut, based on GEO-Polar data.)

In the latest forecast, La Niña — the cool opposite to El Niño — is still favored to develop by winter. But the odds have dropped over the past month.

The U.S. Climate Prediction Center now pegs La Niña’s chances of developing at 55 to 60 percent. That’s down from odds of 75 percent just a month ago.

If it does develop, it is likely to be a relatively modest one, according to the CPC.

SEE ALSO: As El Niño fades, here comes La Niña Read More

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Climate, ENSO, select, Top Posts, Weather

Outer solar system survey strikes, well, ice: New dwarf planet orbiting beyond Neptune is discovered

By Tom Yulsman | July 11, 2016 8:40 pm
Dwarf Planet Animation

An animation of three images showing the slow motion of a newly discovered dwarf planet across the sky over three hours. (Source: Outer Solar System Origins Survey)

It all began with a small dot moving across a computer screen.

That dot has now turned out to be a new dwarf planet, temporarily dubbed “RR245.” It’s a chunk of rock and ice about two thirds the size of California (north to south) orbiting amidst other small, icy worlds in the nether reaches of the solar system beyond Neptune.

Its discovery was announced today by an international team of astronomers. The dwarf planet is roughly 435 miles across (700 kilometers). And it’s orbit is one of the largest for any dwarf planet.

“This is a large icy world that’s bright enough that we can now study its surface composition . . . in detail,” says Michele Bannister of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey, or OSSOS. “It’s on an orbit that’s relatively unusual among the known dwarf planets: quite eccentric, and in the past gravitationally perturbed by Neptune.”

According to the International Astronomical Union, which decides such things, dwarf planets are celestial bodies that orbit the sun, are not moons, have enough mass to take on a nearly round shape, and whose gravity has not cleared out the neighborhood around their orbits.

In 2006, the IAU demoted poor Pluto from regular planet to dwarf planet.

OSSOS was designed to map the orbital structure of the outer Solar System. The goal: “To decipher its history,” says Brett Gladman of the University of British Columbia in Vancouver. “While not designed to efficiently detect dwarf planets, we’re delighted to have found one on such an interesting orbit.”

The orbit of the newly discovered dwarf planet, RR245, is shown with the orange line. Objects as bright as, or brighter, than RR245 are labeled. RR245 is the 18th largest in the Kuiper Belt. (Source: Alex Parker, OSSOS team)

The orbit of the newly discovered dwarf planet, RR245, is shown with the orange line. Objects as bright as, or brighter, than RR245 are labeled. RR245 is the 18th largest in the Kuiper Belt. (Source: Alex Parker, OSSOS team)

I emailed Michelle Bannister to ask her some questions about the nature and significance of the discovery. Here are some of my questions, and her responses:

* Why is it important to identify these objects beyond the orbit of Neptune? What have we been learning about the origin and evolution of the solar system by doing a survey such as this?

With OSSOS, we are mapping the detailed structure of the orbits of the populations in the outer Solar System. The trans-Neptunian objects are the remnant population that trace how the Solar System formed and then changed as a result of the migration of the giant planets. Our survey will help answer when, and how, Neptune migrated.

Bannister is referring to the large gaseous planets of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, which migrated after their formation during the early evolution of the solar system.  The vast majority of dwarf planets were destroyed or thrown from the Solar System in the gravitational chaos that occurred as the giant planets moved out to their present positions.

But RR245 appears to be an exception. It survived, turning up in 2016 as a small dot on a computer screen…

* I gather that we still do not know the precise physical nature of this dwarf planet. How can some of those details be filled in? And what might they tell us of interest? (Note: I’ve added the links below to help explain the answer.)

We have upcoming observations planned with larger telescopes to obtain spectra to investigate the surface composition of RR245. Our collaborators will also be looking for opportunities to measure an occultation: If RR245 passes in front of a distant star, the time it takes for the star to blink out and reappear will give us a minimum and very exact size of RR245.

* For readers who may have heard about the evidence published last winter pointing toward the existence of so-called “Planet-X”, what connection is there between these two realms of research?

No connection. The orbit of RR245, while very distant, is dominated by the gravitational influence of Neptune. This object does not go the many hundreds of AU distance that are needed to provide any constraint on the hypothesis for a ninth planet.

The “AU distance” Bannister refers is an astronomical unit, which is the mean distance from the center of the earth to the center of the sun.

* Lastly, how long does RR245 take to make one orbit around the Sun?

733 years.

What’s up with that huge dark hole in the Sun?

By Tom Yulsman | July 11, 2016 10:48 am

Not to worry, everything’s under control

An animation of images of the Sun acquired by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft on July 11, 2016 highlights a dark area covering the top of the Sun known as a "coronal hole." (Source: NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory)

An animation of images of the Sun acquired by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft on July 11, 2016 highlights a dark area, called a “coronal hole,” covering the top of the Sun. In the animation, the Sun is seen in extreme ultraviolet light. This highlights the atmosphere —the Sun’s corona. Hot, active regions are bright. The dark coronal hole is an area where very little radiation is being emitted. (Source: NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory)

Every once in awhile, the Sun develops a huge “hole” — a dark patch in its outer atmosphere, or corona, like the one visible above.

This is the Sun, as seen today by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory.

I’ve posted about these coronal holes before, but I really like this animation, as well as the one below offering a visualization of what’s actually going on.

SEE ALSO: The Sun blows its top — again  Read More

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Astronomy, select, Stars, Sun, Top Posts

Arctic sea ice: yet another record falls

By Tom Yulsman | July 8, 2016 7:31 pm

June’s extent of sea ice was the lowest on record for the month

record

An animation of images from NASA’s Terra and Aqua satellites shows the shrinkage of floating sea ice in Baffin Bay during June of 2016. (Images: NASA EOSDIS. Animation: Tom Yulsman)

With the exception of March, every month so far this year has set a record low for the extent of Arctic sea ice.

The National Snow and Ice Data Center reports that in June, the extent of floating ice in the region was 525,000 square miles below the 1981 to 2010 long-term average. That’s an area equivalent to California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington and Idaho combined.

And it means June saw the lowest amount of sea ice for the month in the satellite monitoring record, which began in 1979.

record

Click to enlarge

The animation of satellite images above shows the shrinkage of sea ice in Baffin Bay between Greenland on the right, and Baffin Island on the left. The first image was acquired on June 10, and the second on July 4th. When watching the animation, keep in mind that open water appears almost black. (Click on the thumbnail at right for a labeled image of the Arctic region that can help you get your geographic bearings.)

Right now, sea ice extent in this area is running considerably below average.

In the animation, note how generally white ice gives way to bluer ice. That’s an indication of melting on the surface of floating sea ice.  Read More

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ImaGeo

ImaGeo is a visual blog focusing on the intersection of imagery, imagination and Earth. It focuses on spectacular visuals related to the science of our planet, with an emphasis (although not an exclusive one) on the unfolding Anthropocene Epoch.
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