Anyone who’s paged through a women’s magazine will recognize this strategy: to make a product seem better, surround it with a scientific glow. “Clinical trials show lashes grow up to 400% fuller!” “27% reduction of dark spots in 10 weeks!” “Ceramides!” Does this actually help convince people to hand over their cash? A study using promotions for fake drugs suggests that might be the case.
“Graphs equal truthiness,” says Aner Tal, a researcher at Cornell University’s Food and Brand Lab. “That’s actually where this research was born.” When giving academic presentations, he says, he’s always been encouraged to use more graphs, numbers, and figures to make his arguments convincing. If other academics are swayed by these scientific-looking additions, what about consumers? Read More
Maybe you gave your last realtor a long series of must-haves: a washing machine in unit, proximity to the train, a gas stovetop. But there’s no way you’re as picky as the driftwood hopper. This minute crustacean will only live in rotting chunks of driftwood.
David Wildish, a marine zoologist at Fisheries and Oceans Canada, is one of very few scientists who study tiny animals called talitrids. These crustaceans include sand hoppers (also known as sand fleas) along with ocean-living species. Within this family, the driftwood hoppers are simultaneously homebodies and world travelers.
“They feed there and breed there” inside decaying driftwood logs, Wildish says. Tucked in their homes, driftwood hoppers are safe from the shorebirds that prey on ordinary sand hoppers. Females store their fertilized eggs inside a body pouch until they hatch, like a less charming kangaroo. Read More
Did you know this week is International Cephalopod Awareness Days? I’ll assume your gifts are in the mail. Today is dedicated to squid, and you can’t have total cephalopod awareness without discussing fake squid testes. This post was first published in September 2013.
The best way to stay out of trouble, if you’re a shimmery, color-changing little squid, might be to paint on some pretend testes. Scientists have found that certain female squid can switch on and off a body pattern that makes them look male. They use a never-before-seen cell type to do it, and it may be all for the sake of keeping the actual testes owners far away.
The opalescent inshore squid, Doryteuthis opalescens, lives in the Eastern Pacific and is one of the main species caught for food in the United States. So you’d think someone would have noticed its trick before. But the animals shift their colors all the time, and no one seems to have paid much attention to a certain bright stripe particular to females. Read More
Sometimes scientists need to make their research subjects’ lives harder. No matter how much affection they may feel for those flatworms or fish or pigeons, there are certain things they can only learn by forcing the animals to use more energy. But for animals living in the wild, this can be tricky. Now scientists studying rodents in Eastern Europe say they’ve found a convenient way to do it: just give the animals a quick shave.
Paulina Szafrańska, at the Mammal Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, is interested in energy budgets. The energy animals get from food, she says, is like money to be spent on their daily activities: scurrying around, hunting, keeping their bodies warm, and so on. “When we make a hole in the budget” by increasing the cost of one of those activities, she says, the animal has to cut back somewhere else. “We call it [a] trade-off.” How it chooses to spend the balance of its energy budget shows scientists what’s most important to the animal. Does it kick some eggs out of the nest? Eat its young? Invest in its immune system?
To tweak the energy budget of birds, for example, scientists can clip their feathers and make flight more difficult. In the lab, they can give animals less food. But for wild mammals, there are fewer options.
Here’s where the shaving comes in. Read More
It’s good to have a plan in case of emergency. If there’s a fire, take the stairs to the ground floor. If a bird tries to eat you, say “ERK ERK ERK” by grinding your spine bone against your shoulder bone until it drops you. That latter one will work best if you’re a certain kind of catfish (but feel free to try it and report back).
Our glossary of thorny catfish phrases is getting a little more complete, thanks to Lisa Knight and Friedrich Ladich at the University of Vienna. Thorny or “talking” catfish make up the family Doradidae and are native to South America. Back in 1997, a study by Ladich suggested that these catfish choose their distress calls based on the type of predator that has them in its grasp.
That research thread had since been abandoned. Picking it up again now “happened by chance,” Ladich says. “We had a large number of catfish in our lab,” he explains (who hasn’t been there?), and his student Lisa Knight wanted to investigate their alarm sounds. So the scientists set out to see whether Ladich’s hypothesis from the nineties held up. Read More
Survival tip: don’t hang around machines that have giant spinning blades. It’s a lesson bats have been slow to learn, judging by the large numbers of their corpses found beneath wind turbines. New video footage suggests some bats are attracted to wind farms because they can’t tell turbines apart from trees. If it’s true, this might help us find ways to keep them safer.
“I wish we knew for sure” how big a problem wind farms pose to bats, says USGS research biologist Paul Cryan. Other researchers have estimated that tens of thousands—or even hundreds of thousands—of bats are killed every year by wind turbines in the U.S. and Canada.
Without a good idea of the population sizes of these bats, it’s hard to put those numbers in perspective. But we do know that bats have long lives and reproduce slowly, which makes them vulnerable. “Bat populations do not respond quickly to rapid losses,” Cryan says. And some species of bats seem to die at turbines more often than others, so the danger may not be evenly spread out. The safest solution, Cryan says, is to find ways of stopping bat deaths as soon as possible: “We might have the luxury of time and we might not.” Read More
The flailing of a gymnast who’s missed a step on the balance beam might not be far off from what the rest of us experience every day. Each step we take is really a tiny fall, a mathematical model suggests. The random-looking variation in our footfalls is actually a series of corrections. Our strides are all screw-ups—but thanks to the fixes that happen without us knowing, our walking routines look like a perfect ten.
Manoj Srinivasan, who runs the Movement Lab at Ohio State University, and Yang Wang, a doctoral student at the time, studied walking down to the millimeter. They put motion-capture markers on people’s feet and pelvises, as if preparing their legs to star in Avatar 3. Then the 10 subjects walked on treadmills at various speeds, while cameras captured every motion.
The data showed that no one was a perfect walker. Read More
Why is it that every time I try to insert a USB plug it’s backward? Shouldn’t it be right at least half the time by dumb luck? Whatever my problem is, a dextrous new robot doesn’t have it. The robot’s advantage is that its fingertips don’t just feel—they see, too.
Researchers at Northeastern University and (where else?) MIT created the plug-savvy bot. They started with an existing factory-worker robot called Baxter and gave it a pair of pinching fingers. Then on one finger, they added a shrunken-down and adapted version of a sensing technology called GelSight, invented a few years ago.
GelSight creates a precise sense of touch by, essentially, combining it with vision. It uses a small box (below) surrounding a rubber surface that’s coated in metallic paint. A different color of light shines across the surface from each of the box’s four sides: red, green, blue, and white. Read More
If you wish your internet procrastination breaks involved fewer weird Facebook relatives and more animal hordes, you’re in luck. The citizen-science enablers at the Zooniverse have just launched a new project called Penguin Watch. You can count penguin babies, squint at rocks, and be back to work before your coffee cools. And help scientists, if you’re into that.
The Zooniverse hosts over two dozen crowdsourced science projects. You can click and scroll through stars, craters, the ocean floor, and even old notebooks to help researchers classify data. (The project called Snapshot Serengeti has already been completed, though, probably because I did half the photos myself.)
The newest dataset comes from remote cameras that are monitoring more than 30 penguin colonies in Antarctica. To participate, users view photos and tag adult penguins, chicks, eggs, and any other animals lurking nearby. The Oxford University scientists behind the project, led by zoologist Tom Hart, say they have about 200,000 images to get through. So I jumped in. Read More
Can’t eat poison without dying? Maybe your gut microbes are to blame. Rodents in the Mojave Desert have evolved to eat toxic creosote bushes with the help of specialized gut bacteria. Although scientists had long suspected that bacteria might be key to the rats’ power, they proved it by feeding the rodents antibiotics and ground-up feces.
The desert woodrat or Neotoma lepida lives in dry parts of the western United States. (You might know woodrats as “pack rats”; they build elaborate nests out of debris they’ve hoarded.) In the southern part of the desert woodrat’s range, a bush called creosote grows. Its leaves are coated in a toxic material—the key ingredient, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, normally damages the kidneys and liver of rodents. Yet desert woodrats that live in the creosote bush’s range can eat it without any trouble. In fact, the amount of creosote a desert woodrat eats in just a day would kill a laboratory mouse.
University of Utah biologist Kevin Kohl says it’s “conventional wisdom” that the woodrat’s ability to eat poison comes from the bacteria that live in its gut. But it was difficult to study any animal’s gut microbes before recent advances in DNA sequencing, he says, because most of these bacteria can’t be grown in the lab. Research on gut microbes and toxic foods has usually been done in farm animals, and with just one compound at a time instead of a whole poisonous plant.
Now Kohl captured wild woodrats in Utah to find out what was really happening. Read More