Mystery Joker Parodies Neuroscience

By Neuroskeptic | February 5, 2012 7:02 pm

Someone has created a hilarious spoof paper poking fun at neuropsychoanalysis (but all of fMRI takes some hits too): A Triple Dissociation of Neural Systems Supporting ID, EGO, and SUPEREGO.

Featuring gems such as

  • Authors “Steven Z. Fisher and Stephen T. Student” with contact details “mother@amaliastate.edu”.
  • “Twenty-four healthy participants (all 19-year-old white, male undergraduates who sat near each other in an Introductory Psychology course and were raised in upper middle class suburban New
    England neighborhoods) were scanned but 17 were excluded for not following instructions or falling asleep in the scanner.”
  • “If you’re like us, you’ve probably been thinking that Social Neuroscience, Neuroeconomics, and Developmental Social Cognitive Affective Clinical Neuroscience are just not cutting edge enough
    anymore. Do not despair. This study represents the first of what is likely to be a productive and active new field of Psychoanalytic Neuroscience.”

It really is very funny, but it’s also deadly accurate in its highlighting serious problems that plague a certain genre of neuroimaging papers. Who made it? The PDF appeared on Dropbox a couple of weeks ago and, while a few people have Tweeted about it, no-one has claimed ownership, yet.

For the record, it wasn’t me.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/05660407099521700995 petrossa

    Not much parody here, actually just reality. (that was sarcasm)

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/11760248140027990471 Professor Keith R Laws

    The most ironic apsect of this faux paper is how it corresponds closely to the recent paper by Carhart-Harris & Friston (2010)
    The default-mode, ego-functions and free-energy: a neurobiological account of Freudian ideas
    http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/133/4/1265.full.pdf+html

    Note Carhart-Harris & Friston are obviously wrong as they claim the posterior cingulate (rather than anterior) is part of the Ego system! Although of course, both may be wrong!

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/06964291131178286900 KM

    meh. the only impressive thing about this strenuous parody is the faithful typesetting.

    for those in the know, and who I'd presume is the intended audience of this piece, there *are* worthwhile critiques to be made of the emerging “cutting edge” subspecialties of cog neuro, but they've been made elsewhere and were more enlightening and/or more amusing. (the Bem paper and all its critiques were scintillating.)

    for the general public, this type of piece does a disservice by fueling the misperception that social-emotional brain imaging studies are all a bunch of baloney. ha ha egghead scientists, with their voodoo Freudian salmon!

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/00187465138890222167 LokaSamasta

    lol! It's all the rage. If 'science' won't do the science we want, we'll just make it up and leak it ourselves!

    A kind of white-hat version of blackmail.

    http://silencedbysilencedbyageofautism.blogspot.com/2012/01/hypertrophy-hypothesis-of-autism-put-to.html

  • Ivana Fulli MD

    Neuroskeptic,

    Your title should be :

    Mystery Joker parodies Neuropsychoanalysis

    it is not trivial matter for the French victims of this fraudulent sectarian enterprise of neurospychoanalysis who justify psychoanalytic views and methods abusing neurosciences.

    The neuroscientists have to stand against it if they have any morals.

    I truly thinks that the authors might desserve some day a Nobel peace Prize if their effort to denounce “neurospychanalysis” are successful.

    There is a long work ahead though to prevent neurospsychoanalysis writing and public talking to the French chatting classes justifying horrendous things;

    like the packing in wet cold sheets autistic children with lots of people around them asking them to let talk “their subconscient”

    and even the separation from the parents with the justification of the bad mothering causing the autism with a weak father unable to put his penis between the bad mother- unable to accept that she has no penis to use withoiut borrowing someone s'else and the autistic child.

  • Ivana Fulli MD

    Here the link to a post neuroskeptic wrote on neurospsychanalysis:

    http://neuroskeptic.blogspot.com/2011/10/le-pack-it-in.html

    About:
    Delion P (2011). Towards a dialogue between psychoanalysis and neuroscience: Connections that are both possible and necessary. Journal of physiology, Paris PMID: 21963531

  • Ivana Fulli

    Neuroskeptic,

    Pleeeeeeeeeeeease, do your good deed of the day and place there one deleted comment of mine about the danger of neuroscience for autisitc persons and family living in France.

  • Ivana Fulli MD

    Pr Keith R Laws

    Thanks for letting us know:

    ///The most ironic apsect of this faux paper is how it corresponds closely to the recent paper by Carhart-Harris & Friston (2010)
    The default-mode, ego-functions and free-energy: a neurobiological account of Freudian ideas
    http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/133/4/1265.full.pdf+html///

    To my mind it is very sad that scientific journals can accept that kind of title- and may be that kind of work.

    Since Freud was a patent fraud as historian have demonstrated:he pretendeed to have founded a new cure and science when -for example – his famous patient Anna O trade with him cocaine legal providing by doctor prescriptions for a lot of money. She finished sadly her whealthy life in a mental institution when Freud's and cult followers ' books are full of the Freudian cure of that poor woman.

    Freud was a mediocre neurologist and a physician making hardly any enough money to live of his trade who reinvented himself and became rich enough and famous passing himself for the genial discover of a new science- that is a science who claim the definite understanding of the human mind and soul functionning , nothing less.

    Jean-Paul Sartre, French philosopher and writer (J-P S died in 1980 when Dr jacques lacan died in 1981) accused Freud of being the leader of a cult and wrote in his essay on the theory of emotion
    http://www.amazon.fr/Esquisse-th%C3%A9orie-%C3%A9motions-Jean-Paul-Sartre/dp/2253904651:

    J-P S inspired parts of dear DR Thomas Szasz's best sellers-as did Carlo Ginsburg- but Pr Szazs acknowledged his sources in his book ( I will use the SZASZ's traduction in English to cite J-P Sartre):

    ” The profond contradiction in all psychoanalysis, is that it presents at the same time a bond of causality and a bond of understanding between the phenomena it studies.

    This two types of relationships are incompatible(…)

    We do not reject the findings of the psychoanalysis when they are obtained by the unbderstanding.

    We limit ourselves to the denial that there is any value or intelligibility in its underlying theory of psychic causality (…)

    Thus psychoanalysis substitutes for the notion of bad faith ( Ivana Fulli's note: the 1914/1918 war soldiers malingering to escape the dreadful combats for example) the idea of a lie without a liar; (…) how is it possible for me to be lied to (note I Fulli to be lied to by one's unconscious) without lying to myself since it places me in the same relation to myself as the Other is in respect to me (not I Fulli:in psychoanalysis the therapist is supposed to let the client understand his “unconscious at work” just by listenning with a floating attention-some psychoianalysts are famous for reading the papers or sending mails when being paid to listen)

    its replace the duality of the deceiver and the deceived (note I Fulli: the malingerer pseudo-psychiatric ill patient and the gullible or greedy for money or fame psychiatrist), the essential condition of the lie, by that of the “id” and “the ego” ///

  • Ivana Fulli Md

    Emeritus Pr Thomas SZASZ's small in pages book which provided me with good English translation of extracts

    of J-P Sartre writing on Freud as the leader of a cult headed by Dr Jacques Lacan in J-P Sartre's times is:

    “Psychiatry. The Science of Lies”

    http://www.amazon.com/Psychiatry-Science-Thomas-Stephen-Szasz/dp/0815609108

    A good and easy read, for any neuroscientist and metal health worker and anybody interested in psychiatry or psychoanalysis -although as a psychiatrist I feel alien to a fellow psychiatrist conception of mental illness limited as malingering.

    I cannot understand his take on mental suffering- although of course malingering do exist but not only on psychiatry;

    be it only because the mental illnesses created by over prescription of Big Pharma drugs are real in the long term and even after a short time use, the withdrawal suffering mental illnesses from SSRI are real. Unlike T SZAZS I believe mental illnesses do exist –although the Big Pharma drugs over precription is changing the pictures of depression and psychosis and might be making the long time prognosis of depression and psychosis worst.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/11760248140027990471 Professor Keith R Laws

    Interesting test of fMRI faith – is this faux article less believable than the recent article by Carhart-Harris, David Nutt & colleagues stating that Psilocybin acts on the Freuducan Ego?
    http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2012/01/17/1119598109.short

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/11760248140027990471 Professor Keith R Laws

    Excuse my spelling – Of course I meant 'Freudian Ego'

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/06647064768789308157 Neuroskeptic

    KM: For those in the know, sure, none of these are entirely new but it's good to be reminded of them. And it is funny.

    For lay people, I wouldn't want them to go away with the message that all fMRI is rubbish but equally they shouldn't go around thinking that everything they read in the newspapers about it is true.

    Because if they did that, they'd believe that neuroscientists have the power to detect lies, diagnose autism, predict your decisions before you make them, read your thoughts and know your political opinions… all from one scan.

    We need to steer a course between the Scylla of neuro-hype and the Charybdis of neuro-denialism.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/17686665037607780553 RAJ

    fMRI stidies have taken their own hit, by the promoters of fMRI themselves. who now concede that slight head movement during fMRI produces false positives and spurious results. In an article on false positives in fMRI,Steve Patterson, a professor of neuroscience specializing in autism said “It really, really, really sucks. My favorite result of the last five years is an artifact,”.

    In the comments I also found that parody may be much more powerful than subjecting the reader to dry scintific jargon.

    Read the article and my comments at:

    http://sfari.org/news-and-opinion/news/2012/movement-during-brain-scans-may-lead-to-spurious-patterns

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/06647064768789308157 Neuroskeptic

    Good point RAJ. See also my post on that issue

  • ehe

    Lays don't care about science. If there's a science piece in the paper they'll skip it. The media killed science – butchering facts and findings beyond recognition. No lay believes in the authority of science. May as well call it the “death of science” following on from the “death of art”.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/18379669883853001278 TheCellularScale

    I like their references.

  • alter

    Pr Keith R Laws

    where in that recent article of David Nutt et al, they say Psilocybin acts on the ego?

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/06647064768789308157 Neuroskeptic

    TheCellularScale: Everything is brilliant from the title down to the references and author affiliations. So many jokes on one A4 page.

  • Ivana Fulli MD

    alter,

    Waiting for Pr Keith R Laws answer to your question “where in that recent article of David Nutt et al, they say Psilocybin acts on the ego?”, you mlight find interesting to consider also:

    ///However, Nutt’s findings conflict with those of other studies.

    “We have completed a number of similar studies and we always saw an activation of these same areas,” says Franz Vollenweider at the University of Zurich in Switzerland. “We gave the drug orally and waited an hour, but they administered it intravenously just before the scans, so one explanation is that the effects were not that strong.”

    And according to Keith Laws, a neuropsychologist at the University of Hertfordshire, UK, the results could be explained in another way. “Deactivation of the mPFC and PCC are linked to anxiety and anticipation of pleasant and unpleasant experiences,” he says. “This is a stressful situation, even for experienced drug users, and I suspect that they measured something to do with anxiety.”///

    Nature
    doi:10.1038/nature.2012.9878

    http://www.nature.com/news/psychedelic-chemical-subdues-brain-activity-1.9878

    In those occasions, I think good clinical research will come to the rescue of fRMI people.

  • alter

    Ivana,

    Thanks for the comments.
    I also found where in that paper they refer to this notorious 'ego' (should really get rid of this habit of not reading the last page) but then again that has to do with the previous paper of Carhart-Harris, doesnt necessarily undermine the findings of this paper. although the inconsistent results could do so..

  • alter

    and about the possibility that anxiety or anticipation could be the explanation of these results, I'm not sure.. the study was placebo-controlled.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/11760248140027990471 Professor Keith R Laws

    In reply to the Cellular Scale
    The recent Psilocybin article states:
    “The high metabolic activity of the PCC and the
    default-mode network (DMN) with which is it associated (26) has
    led some to speculate about its functional importance, positing
    a role in consciousness (28) and high-level constructs, such as the
    self (29) or “ego” (30, 31).”
    Referencing Carhart-Harris' other work on Freudian Ego – did you not see it? or do you interpret it differently
    They argue that psilocybin reduces DMN activity and they say DMN activity =ego
    hence magic mushromms affect ego

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/11760248140027990471 Professor Keith R Laws

    alter said…
    and about the possibility that anxiety or anticipation could be the explanation of these results, I'm not sure.. the study was placebo-controlled.

    How does placebo-controlled relate to my argument about anxiety at all?

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/11760248140027990471 Professor Keith R Laws

    Alter – after scrolling further down the comments here, I see you did find the Ego reference in the paper
    - so, a) I was correct in my assertion and b) yes, it helps if you dont have a policy of ignoring the last page

    Please come back about the anxiety issue – I would like to hear your argument (re 'placebo-controlled'); and why you think anxiety cannot account for the reduced DMN activity

  • Ivana Fulli MD

    Alter,

    The active treatment psilocybine group might have had a bit of a “bad trip” giving them more anxiety than the placebo of psilocybine group.

    Be it because poorly design study without enough calm and empathy around (and frankly not everyone like IV injections when your population is not IV drug users of course)-god forbid I would think that of that team;it is just that it has to be eliminated and it was just a passing thought.

  • alter

    Pr Keith R Law,

    (ok a little public embarrassment was a good lesson: always finish the article! )But I still think that a speculative discussion part alone cannot undermine the findings. What's interesting for me is what would we have thought just by looking at the results and not the interpretations of the authors?

    And about anxiety,
    It depends whether we are talking about 'anticipation' or actual 'anxiety'.
    For 'anticipation' being the explanation of the findings, I think placebo control can rule that out, because subjects should have the same anticipations following the injection, whether it is placebo or the drug. the same goes for an anxiety induced by the injection or just the thought of having a bad trip while trapped in the scanner!

    For drug-induced 'anxiety', subjects fill out a survey during and following the scanning, and if I remember correctly they don't report anxiety…hum?

    although, I'm a bit concerned that the placebo and the drug were always administered in the same order (again IIRC). any experienced mushroom user can discriminate between having or not having the psychological effects, so if it doesnt happen in the first round, they'd know there's much more possibility to get the drug in the second round.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/11760248140027990471 Professor Keith R Laws

    Alter
    “For drug-induced 'anxiety', subjects fill out a survey during and following the scanning, and if I remember correctly they don't report anxiety…hum?”

    Hum…Perhaps you can point me to the anxiety data in the paper

  • alter

    So i did not remember correctly but thank god there's the complete survey in the supplementary data. there's no direct question for anxiety, but some related ones such as :
    I feared losing control of my mind,
    I felt afraid,
    I felt suspicious or paranoid.

    all have higher ratings in the drug round of course, but the “drug – placebo” ratings is much lower than those of all the other questions. for example, for 'afraid' question, the rating is 13.7 vs. 5.8 .
    while for visual changes its 75.3 vs. 7.1

    I don't know how decisive this survey could be, but I don't generally expect someone who would usually get anxious on psilocybin to volunteer for an experiment.

    That said, there are some funny questions in the complete form as well, such as ” I lost all sense of ego” , to which they have rated 34 vs 3. :) I don't even know what it means to lose sense of ego.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/11760248140027990471 Professor Keith R Laws

    Alter
    so, lets establish
    a single anxiety measure which shows a (percentage) doubling of anxiety? No one doubts high scores would occur for 'geometric shapes' or whatever – they are tripping
    The measures are no comparable of course – the bottom line is one item with doubling of anxiety

    Plus a five fold increase in 'fear of losing my mind' – yes?

    So are you claiming they did not experience anxiety?

  • alter

    No I'm not claiming that.

    Now I understand that it can be a possibility, that drug induced anxiety could have had a role in the results. Although it's still not so convincing to me that it's the only responsible factor, since all the other ratings have way more than double increase. Am I wrong to consider the context when it comes to subjective reports? I mean, is it entirely wrong to think that when other subjective reports have a much higher increase, the increase in anxiety could be negligible?

    and if it really is anxiety that they have measured, does it explain the results, deactivation in those areas?

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/11760248140027990471 Professor Keith R Laws

    I am not sure that Neuroskeptic wants a long tangential discussion on this board – if he is happy for it & anyone is interested (apart from us) then I will post a detailed response

  • Ivana Fulli.

    professor Keith R Laws,

    Please do post on the subject- since it is a very promizing therapy on the condition that big mistakes are not repeated (ie when psychiatrists put naked psychoapths on mushrooms and worsened their outcomes).

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/06647064768789308157 Neuroskeptic

    Sure, go ahead! Comments so far have been interesting.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/11760248140027990471 Professor Keith R Laws

    Let me clarify why I say that the reduced DMN activity may reflect anxiety being measured in the recent Carhart-Harris-David Nutt psilocybin study.

    1) it seems quite feasible to me that being stuck in a scanner on psilocybin (delivered by IV) could be anxiety-provoking. The IV administration produced a massive rush in participants (nothing like the gradual onset from magic mushrooms).
    Moreover, the reduced activity of the DMN in the Carhart-Harris study does not accord with the increased DMN activity seen in comparable studies (where the IV introduction of drug has not been used) For example, Vollenweider and colleagues administered the drug orally and waited an hour for onset(and obtained increased activity – as Carhart-Harris expected to find)

    2) The authors give one piece of information on anxiety in the supplementary materials. This shows a doubling of anxiety on one measure (which they report as nonsignificiant); and a five times increase on the statement “I feared losing control” (which might also be viewed as a proxy for anxiety)
    Several things are notable about this:
    a) they report only the mean anxiety as a percentage (before and after i.e the doubling effect of anxiety) but do not report the variances – it is therefore very difficult to know what is happening – why would a doubling of anxiety not reach significance? The most likely reason is huge variance in anxiety responses (and this seems possible as they do report SDs combined across conditions and as the SD is larger than the mean anxiety, the data are clearly skewed.
    b) Interestingly, Carhart-Harris did measure and report on anxiety in their pilot for this study (giving means and SDs) – claiming no significant change in anxiety http://jop.sagepub.com/content/early/2010/05/16/0269881110367445.abstract
    However, this lack of significance simply reflects a lack of power (ie small sample size) – I calculated the effect size for the nonsignficiant anxiety measure and it reveals a cohen's d pf 1+ i.e. more than one standard deviation increase in anxiety – that is very large

    3) reduced DMN activity is precisely what is associated with anxiety (e.g. Zhao et al 2007) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0720048X07000770
    Moreover, it is in *precisly* the specific regions of DMN highlighted by the psilocybin study (e.g. MPFC)

    4) Anticipatory responses that precede expected emotional events also impact the MPFC (as per the psilocybin study) e.g. Hsieh, J.C. et al. (1999); Ploghaus, A. et al. (1999) Porro, C.A. et al. (2002) Knutson, B. et al. (2001)

    Now you may argue that the placebo condition overcomes the anticipatory anxiety, but perhaps not when all subjects receive placebo first and psilocybin second – the latter might be expected lead to greater anxiety the second time (as the subject knows it will be time to trip!

    The alternative explanation proposed by Carhart-Harris et al suggests that reduced DMN activity “…is consistent with Aldous Huxley’s “reducing valve” metaphor and Karl Friston’s “free-energy principle”, which propose that the mind/brain works to constrain its experience of the world.” (or indeed, turning off Freud's ego)

    You pay your money and you make your choice

  • alter

    Thanks Prof. Laws!

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/04065560098512286494 tryptych

    Professor Laws – I'm not sure how the paper by Zhao et al is very relevant?

    Their study involved patients with anxiety disorder – not generally normal people under natural stress. Are there studies that show similar deactivation of the DFM in those not diagnosed with anxiety disorder, but in regular anxious experimental conditions?

    Second, the anxiety patients actually saw less deactivation than controls in the MPFC, although they did see more deactivation in the PCC, so I'm not sure I would say it's *precisely* the same.

    Further – there is no functional connectivity analysis in the Zhao paper, unlike Carhart-Harris et al, where they have used PPI analysis. In the Zhao paper we could simply be seeing correlation between regions that have no link, are not part of the same network. As opposed to Carhart-Harris where they are deriving the relationships between the regions.

    The paper says the patients received the drug or the placebo in a “balanced order”. I'm not sure what this means but it suggests that the order on drug/placebo was varied across the subjects. Which would seem to negate the concern about anticipatory anxiety by presenting at least some of the placebo trials with potential anxiety and thus controlling for it. Can anyone confirm that's what balanced order means in this context?

    Finally, one can tentatively accept the suggestion that there is reduced DMN activity due to psilocybin without having to go along with their speculative linkage to Huxley, Freud and Friston.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/11760248140027990471 Professor Keith R Laws

    tryptych
    1.(Professor Laws – I'm not sure how the paper by Zhao et al is very relevant? Their study involved patients with anxiety disorder – not generally normal people under natural stress. Are there studies that show similar deactivation of the DFM in those not diagnosed with anxiety disorder, but in regular anxious experimental conditions?)

    ~ True, their ppts had anxiety disorder, but how would this necessarily alter any relationship between anxiety per se and deactivation?
    Even so, it makes no difference as studies of normal healty individuals experiencing induced transient anxiety also exist (as a search would indicate – I have selected one).
    For example, Simpson J R Jr, Drevets W C, Snyder A Z, Gusnard D A, Raichle M E (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:688–693
    Transient anxiety induced in normal subjects by having them anticipate a painful shock to the fingers of one hand. Blood flow was decreased during anticipatory anxiety, relative to an eyes-closed resting condition, in MPFC

    2.(Second, the anxiety patients actually saw less deactivation than controls in the MPFC, although they did see more deactivation in the PCC, so I'm not sure I would say it's *precisely* the same.)

    ~ I am saying there is sufficient similarity with the Zhao study (and with others of nhealthy individuals as outlined above) – the same areas are affected in the psilocybin study– In Zhao study, my recollection is that BOTH groups (anxiety and control) show deactivation under threat (it is a trend difference); and, less relative deactivation in anxiety disordered group may simply reflect chronic lowering of mpfc activity in that group i.e they have less scope to change downwards anyway!

    3. (Further – there is no functional connectivity analysis in the Zhao paper, unlike Carhart-Harris et al, where they have used PPI analysis. In the Zhao paper we could simply be seeing correlation between regions that have no link, are not part of the same network. As opposed to Carhart-Harris where they are deriving the relationships between the regions.)

    ~ Sure it’s a different method, but how would this alter the possibility of a link between deactivation and anxiety?

    4. (The paper says the patients received the drug or the placebo in a “balanced order”. I'm not sure what this means but it suggests that the order on drug/placebo was varied across the subjects. Which would seem to negate the concern about anticipatory anxiety by presenting at least some of the placebo trials with potential anxiety and thus controlling for it. Can anyone confirm that's what balanced order means in this context?)

    ~ The paper clearly states “Subjects received placebo (10-mL saline) in the first scan and psilocybin (2 mg in 10-mL saline) in the second” – you will see it ‘secreted’ if you check the paper again. Hence it would raise anticipatory anxiety as well

    5. (Finally, one can tentatively accept the suggestion that there is reduced DMN activity due to psilocybin without having to go along with their speculative linkage to Huxley, Freud and Friston)

    ~ Yes, I was responding in context of previous discussion – you may argue psilocybin reduces DMN activity without having any particular commitment to an explanation.
    What I am saying is that there are many (enough) reasons for thinking anxiety is a confound in the study

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/05021270186686459425 rainyday

    Professor Laws,

    if I may be so BOLD as to revive this thread, I was wondering if you have any thoughts on how an fMRI paradigm might be better used to study the brain mechanisms involved in the hallucinogenic effects of psilocybin?

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About Neuroskeptic

Neuroskeptic is a British neuroscientist who takes a skeptical look at his own field, and beyond. His blog offers a look at the latest developments in neuroscience, psychiatry and psychology through a critical lens.

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