Scientific Salami Slicing: 33 Papers from 1 Study

By Neuroskeptic | March 3, 2018 5:49 am

Salami slicing” refers to the practice of breaking scientific studies down into small chunks and publishing each part as a seperate paper.


Given that scientists are judged in large part by the number of peer-reviewed papers they produce, it’s easy to understand the temptation to engage in salami publication. It’s officialy discouraged, but it’s still very common to see researchers writing perhaps 3 or 4 papers based on a single project that could, realistically, have been one big paper.

But I’ve just come across a salami that’s been sliced up so thinly that it’s just absurd. The journal Archives of Iranian Medicine just published a set of 33 papers about one study. Here they are – this is a rather silly image, but it’s a silly situation:


Yes, a single survey of the mental health of the Iranian population has been published 33 times. 31 of these papers (all published on the same day) are devoted to the Iranian provinces – there are 31 provinces of Iran, and each province got its own paper listing the results from that area. The author lists are more or less identical every time.

This degree of slicing is not standard practice when publishing national epidemiological statistics, for obvious reasons. For one thing, it will make it difficult for readers to compare rates of disease across different provinces. They’d need to consult all 31 papers. Then they would need 31 citations to refer to all of those papers if they publish the comparison. It’s just not practical.

Writing the 31 provincal papers would also have been a huge amount of work for the authors, although they seem to have cut some corners here, because the papers contain a lot of overlapping text. I guess however you slice a sausage, all the pieces contain the same meat. Here’s a sample of the overlap:


As well as the 31 province papers, there are 2 other Archives of Iranian Medicine papers that sum up the whole mental health survey (1, 2). One or two summary papers like this are what you’d expect to see from a study of this kind. The provincal data would usually be included in these papers as a supplementary material.

Oh, and one of the summary papers has already been cited 34 times – guess where 33 of those citations come from?

So why did Archives of Iranian Medicine allow this? On Twitter, it was spotted that one of the authors is an associate editor at the journal, which may be relevant. The Editor-in-Chief of Archives of Iranian Medicine is not listed as an author, but he is thanked in all of the papers for his “comprehensive support” of the project.

Overall, this is the worst case of salami slicing – or sosis slicing – I’ve ever seen.

CATEGORIZED UNDER: funny, papers, science, select, Top Posts
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  • Uncle Al

    mental health of the Iranian population” No religious State is sane. By definition, it must demand of its population what is empirically invalid as a test of faith made real by sacrifice. One dies of starvation though with a belly filled with God, Socialism, rights, or memes. Reality plays a dead hand – but its all picture cards. Drawing aces requires work not faith.

    • Mojtaba Soltanlou

      @Xemist:disqus that is so weird to associate it with religion and also the way that you generalize it to a nation. For instance, look how religious Americans are, and how crazy Tramp and his state is, so, is it true to conclude that stupidity to Americans? I do not think so.

      • Uncle Al

        lslam is a religion of love, peace, and acceptance, If you say otherwise, you are 9/11-deserved hater. America’s faith is in its dollar, named as a historical statement (Joachimsthal doing uranium, too). Trump is the most extraordinary man to occupy the Oval Office, Thomas Jefferson and Teddy Roosevelt included.

        Did you watch the Oscars, even only until you puked? Jibbering gun posers were surrounded by hundreds of armed guards. Salami tactics are SOP aggression,


        • Herman Minister

          Words words words, political, freshman sociology textbook, conspiracy, lonely basement dweller, history, mystery, glistery, cultural impotence, hegemony cricket, blah blah blah, words again, why does nobody like me?, sociorealistic Bauhaus Volkswagen, dum-te-dum, I know what I like in your wardrobe. There! Argue with me. Pleeeese…

    • William Holz

      *Looks at current administration of United States*


    • jrkrideau

      I think you have to diffentiate between a religious state (or one living under religious law) and the people living there. The Ottoman could be characterized as a religious state but most of the inhabitants were, presumably, sane and a large proprotion of the population were not members of the state religion.

      Jim Jones and his mob were insane.

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About Neuroskeptic

Neuroskeptic is a British neuroscientist who takes a skeptical look at his own field, and beyond. His blog offers a look at the latest developments in neuroscience, psychiatry and psychology through a critical lens.


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