Archive for July, 2012

“We took a rat apart and rebuilt it as a jellyfish.”

By Ed Yong | July 22, 2012 1:12 pm

Kit Parker has built an artificial jellyfish out of silicone and muscle cells from a rat heart. When it’s immersed in an electric field, it pulses and swims exactly like a real jellyfish. The unusual creature is part of Parker’s efforts to understand the ways in which muscles work, so that he can better engineer heart tissue. And it has a bizarre intended purpose: Parker wants to use it to test heart drugs. I wrote about his work for Nature, so head over there for the main story. Meanwhile, here’s my full interview with Parker about the jellyfish. He’s a fantastic interviewee – you’ve got to imagine him almost shouting this stuff.

Building a jellyfish using rat tissue isn’t exactly a typical everyday idea. Where did it come from?

My group does cardiovascular research and I spend a lot of time thinking about building tools for early-stage drug discovery. We’re known for making actuators and things you can measure contractility with, and using micro-scale tissue engineering to build tissues on chips. Several years ago, I got really frustrated with the field. Drug companies are screaming because their drug pipelines are running dry. We don’t have good ways of treating a lot of these heart diseases in the clinic. It dawned on me that probably the reason why is that we’re failing to understand the fundamental laws of muscular pumps.

I started looking around for inspiration in a simpler system. This was late 2007, and I was visiting the New England aquarium. I saw the jellyfish display and it hit me like a thunderbolt I thought: I know I can build that.

That spring, we had a visitor: John Dabiri from CalTech, a famous fluid mechanician. He does a variety of propulsion studies on various species. He was walking down the hall and I grabbed him and said: John, I think I can build a jellyfish. He didn’t know who I was. He looked at me like I had a horn growing out of my head but I was pretty excited and waving my arms, and I think he was afraid to say no. So, he said yeah. He sent a graduate student Janna Nawroth to my lab for four years. Three of my postdocs who are on that paper are now professors – this is the best of the best that we put on that project.

And what did you actually do?

We took a jellyfish, and did a bunch of studies to understand how it activates its muscles. We studied its propulsion and we made a map of where every single cell was. We used a software programme that we had developed a few years ago, borrowed from law enforcement agencies for doing quantitative analysis of fingerprints, and we used it to analyse the protein networks inside the cells.

We found something very interesting right away: the electrical signals that the jellyfish uses to coordinate its pumping are exactly like that of the heart. In the heart, the action potential [electrical signal that travels along nerves – Ed] propagates as a wave through cardiac muscle. That’s how you get this nice, smooth contraction. The activation has to spread like when you drop a pebble in water. The same thing happens in the jellyfish, and I don’t think that’s by accident. My bet is that to get a muscular pump, the electrical activity has got to spread as a wavefront

After we had the map of where every cell was, we took a rat apart and rebuilt it as a jellyfish.

Why study jellyfish?

The one that we used is a juvenile – it’s like a thin monolayer of cells. It’s a very simple structure to build.

The great thing about this is that most tissue engineering is just arts and crafts. We throw cells together and we say, ‘It looks like a liver; there’s a bunch of cells’. Or we throw heart cells together and hope that we build bits of heart. But if I’m building an aircraft or bridge, we don’t just throw concrete and aluminium and alloys together. We do mechanical testing on the substrates. We have mathematical models and computer simulations to understand the flight of the aircraft. We know how the bridge is going to work. Some engineers build out of copper or concrete or steel. I build things out of cells. If I’m going to be an engineer rather than an artist, I’m going to need to build quality control methods into what I’m doing.

Nobody is going to get into an airplane unless they’ve done computer simulations and assumed that they’ve manufactured this within allowable tolerance. It’s not just guesswork. No one’s going to want a tissue-engineered heart or other organ put into their body unless they’ve got some manufacturers’ specification. The great thing about the jellyfish is that you can do all these highly quantitative propulsion studies. That’s why I had to have John Dabiri’s team with this – they’re the best in the world at biological propulsion. And we were able to match quantitatively match the exact same propulsion characteristics in our medusoid – our engineered jellyfish – as the real one.

The most interesting thing is that the mouth of the jellyfish is inside the bell. In order to feed itself, it creates a vortex on the power stroke that throws particulate matter up towards its mouth. We thought if we’re good, if we’re really good at this, we’re going to recreate that vortex, and we did. We found that it depended on some very precise organisation of the protein networks inside the cells.

The whole idea was to bring engineering design methodology with tissue engineering, with a very rigorous set of parameters to show that our tissue-engineered jellyfish is very much a jellyfish. Morphologically, we’ve built a jellyfish. Functionally, we’ve built a jellyfish. Genetically, this thing is a rat.

So, the jellyfish isn’t the endpoint. The point of building it, and getting it to behave exactly like a normal jellyfish, is to show how much you understand about how the cells work. Is that it?

That’s right, but it depends on the lens through which you do this. For the marine biologist who’s interested in how jellyfish swim, we’ve demonstrated how important the muscular structure is and the protein alignment inside these cells for the jellyfish to survive and feed itself. The jellyfish scientist looks at this different rather than someone who’s trying to mimic biological propulsion. They look at this as how do you build something that can propel itself with this peristaltic pumping. The tissue engineer looks at this as applying the tissue engineering methodology to the highest possible standard to tissue engineering, which hadn’t been done before.

If you’re a cardiovascular physiologist or a company doing discovery, you look at this and say: wow, for years, all we’ve measure in a dish is contractility. But there’s a big difference between that and pumping. Now we’ve shown that we can build a muscular pump in a dish. You’ve got a heart drug? You let me put it on my jellyfish, and I’ll tell you if it can improve the pumping.

The first two or three years of any drug’s lifetime is always spent in a dish. We filed a patent on this to use this and variations on it as a drug discovery assay. The next stage is to see if we can build this out of human cells. And we’ll probably build a variation on the jellyfish for actual drug-testing.

In your paper, you describe the jellyfish as a synthetic organism.

Usually when we talk about synthetic life forms, somebody will take an existing living cell and put new genes into the cell so that it behaves in a different manner. That’s synthetic biology but I think it’s overstating what you did. We built an animal. I think we’re taking synthetic biology to a new level. It’s not just about genes. It’s about morphology and function.

So has this study got you further towards understanding the “fundamental laws of muscular pumps”?

Yeah it has. The heart and your guts both have action potential wavefronts that propagate through the tissue. We’re going to try this in an octopus and squid, but my bet is that to get a muscular pump, you have to organise the electrical activity in the same way. You have this clean wavefront, not a single pulse down a one-dimensional nerve fibre. It’s got to spread as a wavefront.

We also found that the muscle cells in a jellyfish are shaped freakishly differently to a cardiac muscle cell. But if you strip away the outer part of the cells, the protein networks within that cell are universally built in the same way and aligned among cellular aggregates in the same way. We think structure begets function. What I’m really pleased about is that everything that my group has learned about the heart in terms of structure and function equally applies to the jellyfish. I feel like we’re learning some fundamental biology here. Some people do basic biology by deconstructing stuff. Engineers do basic science in a different way. What we’ve done is learned something about the basic science by building it de novo.

What’s next?

Bait. Tissue-engineered bait. I want to go fishing and have a much better form of bait. That’s the only thing that’s going to impress my family. They could care less about this high-order science. They want to know if they can win a bass tournament.

Seriously, there are lots of different things. We’re going to develop this into assays for drug discovery. That’s pretty important to use. We’re working on that. We’re looking to reverse-engineer other marine life-forms too; we’ve got a whole tank of stuff in there, and an octopus on order. We’re trying to build larger and smaller versions of the jellyfish so we can look at drug effects.

I've got your missing links right here (21 July 2012)

By Ed Yong | July 21, 2012 12:00 pm

Top picks

Chris Mims has started a column for BBC Future on biomimicry. This is one of those perfect combos of writers and topics. First up: “Robot swarms bring buildings to life”

Neurocritic uncovers Zak’s sad transit from oxytocin skeptic to TED-produced hyperbole machine. I love the first & last photo mash-ups. Why is he punching himself in the chin?

Great feature on Rob Knight, the microbe master who is sequencing the Earth

“The sequencing of this little girl’s exome was crowd-funded. Makes me feel good about humanity,” says Misha Angrist.

Lightning strikes in a storm bigger than worlds. By Phil Plait.

Person With Autism Manages To Do Something.” That satirical piece was inspired by this atrocity, where we learn that autism gives you magical water-finding powers like a human dowsing rod.

What does space smell like? A: Seared steak, hot metal, welding fumes. And the centre of the galaxy smells of rum.

Astonishing. The 5 men who agreed to stand beneath an exploding nuclear bomb. With a video of them, while the bomb goes off. By Robert Krulwich.

Your geography classes were right! Witness the formation of an oxbow lake observed via Google Earth. Very cool!

Handy! How to succeed in science without doing any – a tipsheet for aspiring fraudsters, by John Timmer.

How can institutions prevent scientific misconduct? Is it tasers? <reads> Oh. Not tasers. Sadface. Along similar lines, Chris Chambers on 12 ways of revamping psychology in the face of recent fraud cases

“At current electricity prices, Yoda would be worth about $2/hour.”

Abandon hope all ye who gaze upon the giant scaleworm Eulagisca

This great review by Adam Rutherford doubles as a quick yet punchy primer for what science is: “a utility belt for ignorance”.

The horrifying physiological and psychological consequences of being Aquaman. By Andrew Thaler. Oh the aquamanity!

We’re just in feminism… all women in the first world are feminist by default” – Great interview with Caitlin Moran.

Oy, the Olympics. But this piece from Alexis Madrigal, about how the gorgeous, evocative and FAKE sounds that you’ll hear, is really interesting.

A Vintage Scientific Paper Published as a 38-Stanza Poem

How fossil faeces are preserved: an explainer from Slate

What does a trip into space do for the religious experience? Great piece by Becca Rosen.

Why on Earth is Google going after the drug cartels?

A beautiful post on injectable particles that can oxygenate blood and save lives, from the scientist who created them. A great portrait into the reasons we get into research



Okay, fess up: who made a hole in Mars? It was you, wasn’t it?

Robert Krulwich on palaeontology’s frozen moments. With those turtles that are permanently shagging

Some persistent dino myths.

This is what great science writing can do. This is why the benchmark is Carl’s to set

What would happen if a lion fought a tiger? An actually interesting discussion.

To get your dumbass idea covered, announce it as an art project. Like this guy who wants to make an Elvis-mouse hybrid. Hint: there is no Elvis-mouse hybrid.

HIV Cure Is Closer As Patient’s Full Recovery Inspires New Research

How We Changed Penguins Just by Watching

Cold weather + snow melt + oil spill = 186 ex-dolphins

Neanderthals ate plants, medicated with herbs, didn’t floss very well

Building an artificial volcano might give you an awesome lair, but it won’t solve global warming

The funky physics of making animals transparent

How to guarantee that intelligent people will talk past each other: start a discussion about science communication.

Geoengineering – does fertilising the sea with iron work?

People who speak up against homeopathy get branded as Big Pharma shills. Well here’s an actual Big Homeopathy Shill

‘Performance-enhancing technologies will advance to a point at which they will…demand an Olympics all of their own’

Whole brain teaching? Oh god, it’s another Brain Gym. Help us.

Moss perfume leads to sex

Sea stars evolve into new self-fertilizing species in under 16,000 years

Does thinking really hard burn more calories? Apparently not. Thus ruining my 30-yr workout

Ridiculous way to add no taste to a soup: Hong Kong Imported 10 Million Kilograms of Shark Fins Last Year

Martin Robbins takes on the disappointing & counterproductive tactics from Greenpeace. (“Which ones?” I hear you say.)

After 3 hours of sexy wrestling, male dumpling squid can’t swim too fast

Chris Stringer talks human origins, Neanderthals, Denisovans and lots more.

Not even God’s holy rain will stall the advance of the hummingbird menace. All is lost.

US food and drug agency defends massive spy operation against its own scientists. Sure it does

WWHHAAAAATTT DDIIIDD YOOUU SSAAYYY? Can whales/dolphins learn to protect their hearing from human noise?

This piece: “Behold my ignorance. Let me lecture you.” Hint: if you know “absolutely f**k-all about science”, do some research first.

“How effective & persistent are fragments of male genitalia as mating plugs?” I dunno, Science, why don’t you tell me?

A use for 3D printing: assault weapons and handcuff keys

Will guinea worm be the 3rd ever disease to be wiped out (after smallpox & possibly rinderpest)?

Dave Nussbaum takes on some ignorant claims about how psychology isn’t a science.

“The best conservation practices often involve killing.” Just like blogging, then.

Clamtongue. Not a disease, but a case study in opportunistic science outreach

Solid piece on how NASA’s arsenic bacteria claim like a bigfoot sighting

UNESCO set to award science prize sponsored by African dictator

Nothing changes. 1650 woo ad claims that coffee “cures the Dropsy, Gout, and Scurvy”. It does, however “quickens the Spirits, and makes the Heart Lightsome”.

A great interview with Ivan Oransky about the medicalization of society

Newfound monkey flower reveals evolution in action

One of the best things on the “impact” agenda, by Jon Butterworth.

Vincent Racianello and the TWIV crew discuss that vaccines-recombining-into-viruses paper

The 11 Ways That Consumers Are Hopeless at Maths. Disappointingly, there are 11 ways.

“I am German. As English farces go, this was far from a pleasant experience.” – Quirin Schiermeier on being sued for libel

Not sure what to make of this: it’s a site for people to anonymously report suspicions of image fraud and data manipulation. Obviously, spotting misconduct is important, but between the anonymous tips + blogger, the light pot-stirring tone, and the potential for misuse, I have some misgivings.

Why, oh why, does it keep raining? An excellent explainer/graphic. Also, SCREW YOU, JET STREAM

Jon Eisen on the rise of the ‘ome



“Given current technology and the proper training, would it be possible for someone to become Batman?” I love the list of potential candidates that includes Larry Page and Mark Zuckerberg.

My Slate piece on oxytocin inspired a funny spoof Twitter account @OXYTOCINHULK, which is NOT me, as shown by this clear documentary evidence

Heh. XKCD on geology

…”The Daily Mail, whose unofficial motto appears to be “What Fresh Hell Is This?”…

God admits humans not most impressive creation. “It’s mountains,” He says

So THAT’S where they go! Ingested Pen Turns Up 25 years later

I gots yer cosmic ultraviolence right here. A slideshow of colliding galaxies.

ED-209 to be introduced by G4S for Olympic Security

Whale shark really sucks.

The sad fate of Superman: transitional power source

The molecule Wnt underlies wing patterns of butterflies. Why, oh why, wasn’t this paper called “Wnt Beneath My Wings”?

All 135 Space Shuttle launches, playing simultaneously

Carl Zimmer. Turn. Around. Very. Slowly…



The Save button gets the Slate treatment

“Could this be the most bizarre assassination technology? Surely not. So I went looking for some more.”

Adam Rogers explains why being an urban planner in Gotham City would be a smart career move. Also, Batman

Let journalists do their jobs

A brief rant on why “Hey, check out my new blog” is a really terrible way of getting ppl to read your new blog

“With the exception of the Black Death, nothing can ruin a city like the Olympics

The Internet is not the Web. How to tell the difference

That Marissa Mayer is a female CEO is cool. That she’s a pregnant CEO is awesome.

“Put enough restrictions on reporters, and they’ll cover the restrictions.” Why you don’t get to check your quotes.

Seth Mnookin on the Huffington Post’s continuing tactic to shiv even its small amount of decent science writing with some truly anti-vaccine shilling.

Wikipedia are having a hard time promoting enough admins

An awesome catalogue of failure: a compilation of the various Olympics disasters so far

Graphing every idea in history. A social network that includes Aristotle!

Journatic, the news machine, steps up from byline fabrication to plagiarism & loses the Chicago Tribune. I tried to call them for a comment but got put through to a figment of someone’s imagination…

Good news about news (but I cringed at “The Times pays the bloggers with recognition and traffic”)

5th graders send “the world’s LARGEST correction letter”. Billboard: “DEAR KIDS, WE REGRET THE ERROR.”




Transformer protein changes from nunchucks to flower

By Ed Yong | July 19, 2012 1:50 pm

Your body is full of little pieces of origami. They’re proteins – the molecular machines that keep your cells ticking over. Each is a long sequence of amino acids that folds into a complicated three-dimensional shape. The classical view is that the shape is fixed, and set by the protein’s sequence.

But Bjorn Burmann from Ohio State University has found a bacterial protein that can refold into two radically different shapes, each with very different roles. While there are some other proteins that can change shape, none can do so to such a dramatic degree, and many that do cause disastrous brain diseases.

I’ve written about the study for The Scientist, so head over there for the details.

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Molecular biology

Will we ever run the 100 metres in 9 seconds?

By Ed Yong | July 18, 2012 7:54 am

Here’s the ninth piece from my BBC column

In 2008, at the Beijing Olympic Games, Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt ran the 100m in just 9.69 seconds, setting a new world record. A year later, Bolt surpassed his own feat with an astonishing 9.58-second run at the 2009 Berlin World Championships. With the 2012 Olympic Games set to begin in London, the sporting world hopes Bolt will overcome his recent hamstring problems and lead yet another victorious attack on the sprinting record. He is arguably the fastest man in history, but just how fast could be possibly go?

That’s a surprisingly difficult question to answer, and ploughing through the record books is of little help. “People have played with the statistical data so much and made so many predictions. I don’t think people who work on mechanics take them very seriously,” says John Hutchinson, who studies how animals move at the Royal Veterinary College in London, UK.

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Sparrows sound sexier in the cold

By Ed Yong | July 17, 2012 7:05 pm

As first light tickles the air, songbirds croon to proclaim their territories and woo potential mates. There are many possible explanations for the timing of the beautiful dawn chorus, including the fact that sound travels further during the early hours of the day.

But Michael Beaulieu and Keith Sockman from the University of North Carolina have found another for the list. It’s based on a very simple observation: dawn is often very cold. And female Lincoln’s sparrows find songs sexier if they hear them in the cold.

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Return of the Oxycautioner

By Ed Yong | July 17, 2012 2:58 pm

Following yesterday’s Twitter rant about oxytocin, the hype hormone, Laura Helmuth from Slate contacted me to do an extended cut. That piece is now up. I elaborate on my problems with the hype, what the current state of oxytocin science is, and why it’s damaging, at greater length. If you’re a fan of science, snark and conjunctions, check it out.

Imagine a molecule that underlies the virtues that glue societies together. Imagine that it brought out the better angels of our nature with just a sniff and could “rebond our troubled world.” Imagine that it was the “source of love and prosperity” and explained “what makes us good and evil.”

Well, carry on imagining. This is a story about oxytocin, and oxytocin is not that molecule.

And thanks to everyone here and on Twitter for the supportive comments. It seems there’s been a simmering undercurrent of frustration over this, among neuroscientists, physiologists and science writers particularly. Happy to help. And thanks to Laura too – I always like it when bloggy hype-busting rants get a chance to go mainstream.

Image by Samout3

Engineering mosquito gut bacteria to fight malaria

By Ed Yong | July 16, 2012 3:00 pm

A malarial mosquito is a flying factory for Plasmodium – a parasite that fills its guts, and storms the blood of every person it bites. By hosting and spreading these parasites, mosquitoes kill 1.2 million people every year.

But Plasmodium isn’t the only thing living inside a mosquito’s guts. Just as our bowels are home to trillions of bacteria, mosquitoes also carry their own microscopic menageries. Now, Sibao Wang from Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health has transformed one of these bacterial associates into the latest recruit in our war against malaria. By loading it with genes that destroy malarial parasites, Wang has turned the friend of our enemy into our friend.

Many groups of scientists have tried to beat malaria by genetically modifying the species of mosquito that carries it – Anopheles gambiae. Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena, who led Wang’s new study, has been at the forefront of these efforts. In 2002, his team loaded mosquitoes with a modified gene so that their guts produce a substance that kills off Plasmodium.

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Oxytocin: the hype hormone

By Ed Yong | July 16, 2012 9:09 am

The Guardian has run a woeful ad interview about oxytocin, featuring Paul Zak who has a book to sell about the topic. This follows on from their woeful ad interview about oxytocin last August, featuring Paul Zak who has a book to sell about the topic. (In the middle, there was a decent piece by Gareth Leng, who does not have a book to sell about the topic – a momentary lapse, I’m sure.)

You may have heard of oxytocin as the “moral molecule” or the “hug hormone” or the “cuddle chemical”. Unleashed by hugs, available in a handy nasal spray, and possessed with the ability to boost trust, empathy and a laundry list of virtues, it is apparently the cure to all the world’s social ills.

Except it’s not.

As per usual, it’s a little more complicated than that. I had a bit of a rant about oxytocin hype this morning on Twitter, which Rachel Feltman kindly collected into a Storify. It’s below, or you can search for the hashtag #schmoxytocin. Alternatively, a link to the actual page on Storify.

Also, here’s a link to my New Scientist feature about oxytocin (PDF) where I talk about why it’s much more than a simple “hug hormone” and why hype about oxytocins has the potential to do some real damage to vulnerable people.

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I've got your missing links right here (14 July 2012)

By Ed Yong | July 14, 2012 12:00 pm

Top picks

Best flashmob ever performs/is Ode to Joy. This will lift your spirits. Thanks to Megan Garber.

Maryn McKenna shows how it’s done with a detailed investigation into the link between chickens, antibiotics, and 8 million urinary tract infections every year. Awesome journalism, right here.

Faith in humanity restored! Nobel laureate hangs out on street corner dispensing physics advice. The fact that he has an “ASK A NOBEL PRIZE-WINNING PHYSICIST!” sign just makes this even better.

BLOODY HELL. Literally. This is what the venom of the Russell’s pit viper does to blood. Nature: it is better than you.

What if you tried to hit a baseball pitched at 90% the speed of light? XKCD is now fielding questions, with predictably awesome results.

Heartbreaking testament to the limits of personalised medicine. To quote Helen Pearson; “What $45k, a son working at Illumina & a genome sequence can buy a dying mother: a few weeks.”

Giant sperm need a giant sperm cannon. Hur hur.

Embarrassed bat foetus is embarrassed. It’s the new monkeyfacepalm!

READ THIS: No Newsweek, the web is not driving us mad. By Vaughan Bell.

Good sci communication doesn’t presume our interest, it takes responsibility for sparking it”, or “Why the Flame Challenge Failed”

How to reform social psychology – a good post by Dave Nussbaum, and important in the light of the recent scandals that I’ve reported on.

This is the first photo uploaded to the web, and it features Tim Berners-Lee dressed as a woman.

Two papers came out refuting the Arseniclife “discovery”. Some good coverage from Alan Boyle at MSNBC and Matthew Herper at Forbes. Boyle gets a long string of replies from Felisa Wolfe-Simon, the showman behind the original paper. Carl Zimmer live-blogs a talk from Rosie Redfield: “NASA failed big time. But the process of science did not fail.” And Becca Rosen narrates what the Arseniclife story means for science, all the way from the beginning.

Devastating piece about the job market for US science grads. Similar situation in many other countries. Look at that monster comment thread!

Why I am unlucky but you are careless. Another great column by Tom Stafford.

Lots of Amazon extinctions to come, as “extinction debt” mounts. Ian Sample reports. Woman takes secret pictures of her visit to the clinic to fight disinformation and empower women

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Another psychologist resigns after a data detective's investigation

By Ed Yong | July 12, 2012 3:01 pm

Last month, I wrote about the case of Dirk Smeesters, a psychologist who resigned from his Dutch University after an investigation found signs of misconduct in two of his papers. Unlike previous cases of fraud in psychology, Smeesters was busted not by internal whistleblowers who knew intimate details of his case, but by an external party who looked at his papers and did some statistical detective work.

Last week, I interviewed Uri Simonsohn, the stats sleuth in question. During the interview, he mentioned that by the time he saw Smeesters’ work, he had already started looking at another psychologist, whom he suspected of misconduct. That individual had apparently been investigated by his university, although no details had been released.

Simonsohn has now revealed to me that the mysterious other party is Lawrence Sanna, a social psychologist formerly at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and more recently at the University of Michigan. Sanna worked on judgment, decision-making, and more recently morality. One of his latest papers – apparently showing that the link between physical altitude and moral behaviour was more than just metaphor – was widely covered.

UNC confirmed that they had launched a review, and University of Michigan confirmed that Sanna left his post effective 31 March 2012. But there the details stop. While Erasmus University Rotterdam released a full report on its investigation into Smeesters, neither of Sanna’s institutions are revealing any details about the investigation’s outcome or the reasons for Sanna’s resignation. UNC informed me that NC law forbids them from revealing information about personnel matters such as this.

I’ve written up the story for Nature News – and carefully, because of the relative lack of information. Head over there to find out the full story of Simonsohn’s investigation, the timeline of his contact with Sanna and the universities, and the fate of some of the suspected papers.

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Neuroscience and psychology

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