To our ears, the buzz of a mosquito is intensely irritating and a sign of itchiness to come, but to theirs, it’s a lover’s serenade. The high-pitched drone of a female is a siren’s song that attracts male mosquitoes. And a new study shows that when the two love-bugs meet, they perform a duet, matching each other’s buzzing frequency with careful precision.
The female Aedes aegypti mosquito (the carrier of both dengue and yellow fever) beats her wings with a fundamental frequency of about 400Hz, producing a pitch just slightly lower than concert A. Males on the other hand, have a fundamental frequency of around 600Hz, about one D above middle C.
Lauren Cator and colleagues from Cornell University discovered the sonic secrets of courting mosquitoes by tethering individuals to pins and moving the females past the males. On two-thirds of these fly-bys, the amorous mosquitoes harmonised. Neither took the lead – instead, both buzzers shifted their flight tones so that the male’s second harmonic (the second multiple of his fundamental frequency) and the female’s third had a mutual frequency of about 1,200 Hz. They synchronised in this way for about 10 seconds.