In Lake Alexandrina, New Zealand, a population of snails is under threat from a parasitic flatworm, a fluke aptly known as Microphallus. The fluke chemically castrates its snail host and uses its body as a living incubator for its larvae. But the snails have a weapon against these body-snatching foes – sex.
The New Zealand mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum is found throughout island’s freshwater habitats. They breed either sexually or asexually through cloning, and the two strategies vary in prevalence throughout the lake. In the shallower waters round its margins, sex is the name of the game, but in the deeper waters towards the lake’s centre, snails are more likely to opt for cloning.
Kayla King from Indiana University has shown that it’s the concentration of the local parasites that drives this gradient of sex. The flukes spend their adult lives in ducks and they rely on the birds inadvertently scooping up their larvae while feeding. In Lake Alexandrina, ducks only feed in the shallow waters around the lake’s margins so these areas are hotspots for parasites, and for co-evolutionary wars between them and their snail hosts. Sex provides the snails with the genetic ammunition they need to stay in the game.
The snails and their parasites beautifully support and illustrate the principles of the Red Queen hypothesis, which suggests that one of the chief benefits of sex lies in providing the genetic innovation necessary to outfox parasites in evolutionary arms races.