In the film Slumdog Millionaire, Jamal Malik, a teenager from Mumbai’s slums, wins India’s version of Who Wants to be a Millionaire? As the film continues, flashbacks reveal how events in Jamal’s life inadvertently furnished him with the knowledge to answer all fifteen questions and net the top prize. The film illustrates how some of life’s most useful events have no apparent value at first; their true worth lies in allowing us to exploit future opportunities. It’s a lesson that evolution also teaches, time and time again.
One such lesson has just been narrated by Jesse Bloom from the California Institute of Technology and stars the H1N1 flu virus. One of our main defences against this dangerous infection is the drug oseltamivir, better known as Tamiflu. The drug was generally effective against the H1N1 swine flu from last year’s pandemic, but it doesn’t work against seasonal strains of H1N1 that naturally circulate among humans. In 2007, the first signs of resistance emerged and within a year, virtually all strains of seasonal H1N1 were shrugging off Tamiflu. And we’ve only just worked out why this happened.