Sacred in the Mundane: Closing Arguments on Science and Religion

By Adam Frank | April 13, 2008 6:00 pm

Adam FrankSo it’s time to finish the thread on this discussion of science and religion. Many thanks to Melissa and DISCOVER for giving me the space to paint some ideas on this most contentious but vital subject. I am also extremely grateful to everyone who shared his or her thoughts in the comments. I learned a great deal from those discussions. In closing, I think its appropriate time to ask why the issue of “Science vs. Religion” or “Science and Religion” or whatever you want to call it matters at all. Why should we care? To answer that question, it’s best to face backwards.

Some time between 70,000 and 50,000 years ago, something wonderful happened inside the heads of our hunter-gatherer ancestors. The light went on. We woke up to a sky full of repeating patterns, to an Earth incessantly shaped by wind and water, to environments shared with a wild abundance of life. Most importantly, we woke up to interior lives that responded to this vast “found” world with an emerging culture of painting, carvings, and music.

An essential aspect of this new human culture was mythological narratives of origins and endings. These grand myth systems set us in context against the backdrop of the experienced universe. Our mythologies created meaning by both explaining the world and interpreting the human place within it. Imagination and observation were braided strands of these narratives. Builders of Neolithic monuments with their multiple astronomical orientations were, in their way, paying attention to the world while simultaneously attending to internal responses to the night sky and the cycle of the seasons.

These were our beginnings. These were the imperatives that would later evolve into the modern forms of science and religion. We have been at this game for a long time.

The reason I, as a non-believing scientist, care about the so-called science and religion debate is because it touches something very deep and very ancient in us. As a passionate advocate for science, I believe the current form of the debate, with its insistence on a narrow choice between faith and reason, misses something elemental in our long march across those millennia. Asking questions about science and spiritual endeavor (as opposed to institutional religion) means going beyond what science explains.

While the tired traditional debate is always about explanations (the sullen arguments for creationism) a broader discussion does not have to keep this focus. In the end, we are asking what science means as cultural endeavor. We are asking how it creates meaning as a background of ideas and stories which sets us against our day-to-day lives. And that is exactly the point at which we might see something simultaneously ancient, new, and full of possibilities.

A different and enlivened perspective on science and religion would remember where we came from over 50,000 years. It would acknowledge the function within us that spiritual endeavor carried for all that time. It would understand how we cannot help but carry on with these traditions of thinking and feeling. Then it would use what we have learned and take us someplace new.

Science is one of the supreme achievements of human culture—it is one measure of the best we are capable of, and the best we can aspire towards. Our lives have been made immeasurably richer through its practice and its boons. What has mostly been missed, however, is the capacity of its worldview to open us up to that character of life that can only be called sacred.

Rather than thinking of this contentious word “sacred” as speaking to some imaginary supernatural realm, we could see it differently. We could see it as that attitude of attention that science asks of us in response to even the smallest thing. Every sunrise, every birdsong, every anthill passed on the way to some errand is worthy of rapt of attention if we are willing to step through that doorway. Science is not a philosophy; it’s an approach to the world with rules which guide our attention and reason. In that approach, it shows us what is sacred in the mundane. It makes the ordinary stand out and speak for itself. Through that attention, science simultaneously connects us with many millennia of spiritual tradition, and turns those traditions on their head. What is sacred is not part of some far-off realm of ideals and angels. It is right before us, always.

There is no doubt that the fruits of science and technology have enriched our lives. There can also be no doubt that our world has become saturated with its poisons as well. From climate change to resource depletion, we face issues so vast and so new that marshaling the collective will to act will require new mythologies of our planetary habitation. Any path forward to get us through this dangerous bottleneck cannot focus simply on the application of science. It must go farther to embrace the wise application of science. That will not be a simple matter of reason. Our response to the challenges we face will also come from what we hold most dear, what overflows with value for us. In a word our response will come from what we take to be sacred. That is why the science and religion debate matters. That is why finding a different perspective on science and spiritual endeavor is about more than echo chamber debates about creationism vs. Darwin.

Fifty-thousand years ago, when we began the radical, ceaselessly creative act of creating culture, the seeds of both science and religion were already present. Now, with a fully mature scientific tradition developed, we come to another turning point in evolution that will likely demand a creativity that is just as radical.

I’ll keep posting on these other topics at www.constantfire.com while starting work on my next book (and continuing with the astrophysics day job of course).

Adam Frank is a professor of astrophysics at the University of Rochester who studies star formation and stellar death using supercomputers. His new book, “The Constant Fire, Beyond the Science vs. Religion Debate,” has just been published. He will be joining Reality Base to post an ongoing discussion of science and religion—you can read his previous posts here, and find more of his thoughts on science and the human prospect at the Constant Fire blog.

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Evolution, Science & Religion
MORE ABOUT: Adam frank, creationism

Comments (236)

  1. I would think that most of us regard life as sacred. As science begins to embrace the autopoietic definition of life, that the planet is alive. If science has shown us anything it is that we are not taking care of this living planet very well and that all human activity, if it is to continue, will have to get in balance and work in harmony with the living natural world. Once science does this, and the religious accept the living creative creation as well, we will be well beyond the debate.

  2. jayne

    “What is sacred is not part of some far-off realm of ideals and angels. It is right before us, always”.

    Adam – this quote, for me, says it all. I want to thank you for opening up this topic in such a thoughtful and eloquent manner – both here and in your book.

  3. Mike Gottschalk

    Ditto with Howard and Jayne. We readily get trapped in the the grass is greener motif, whether it takes the form of material accumulation or spiritually transcending this world for another; in either case we off load our vulnerability of Being and settle for mere existing as we distract ourselves and build false protections that slowly suffocate the genius found in- and -by Human Being.

    When you think about it, Life has “transcended” itself from all of the universe toward our little planet in a manner unique to anything else we know. Why do we look for a metaphysic outside of this life before us? We are the metaphysic aren’t we? And why don’t we exercise more trust and belonging with the Life from which we emerge? Human being is the only one who can respond to Life in terms of ‘beloved’, and all too often we pass over this opportunity of com-passion through eyes that fail to see the meaning and opportunity of Being. When we come to experience our unique level of response-ability in a manner that I would call erotic, then we will know proper responsibility.

    I agree with Adam that we need to find wisdom that is engendered from more than a pure reason which can’t seem to get past utility and efficiency. I find it disturbingly ironic that Kurzweil et. al. with the backing of NASA and Google are driving A.I. toward technical singularity as a means to save the world: “Forget the god of myth and imagination, we can program one to save us!” This irony would only be comical to me if we weren’t at such a delicate time in which real Human Being is called for.

    I began my adult life as a Biblical theologian. Today, I hold Scientific insight on equal footing with Biblical insight. From this point I would argue that for Human Being, “heaven” is first meant as an emergent phenomenon that arises when we act towards it: I see “heaven” as the successful endeavor of this Life which transcends itself in bodies capable of understanding it, and endowed with opposable thumbs, can create worlds that only humans can. It’s up to us to create a world commensurant with such genius- we have everything we need to accomplish this if we’ll dare to step into this genius that Human Being is capable of. But this stepping in brings us face to face with our vulnerability of being….

  4. Mike Gottschalk

    An addendum: It’s not that I don’t want A.I. science to do its thing, I just think that the “singularity” expressed in subjective experience is missed in a big way. And it’s in this domain of singularity that we need to find our wisdom and I don’t see how artificial intelligence can help in this crucial endeavor.

  5. “That is why finding a different perspective on science and spiritual endeavor is about more than echo chamber debates about creationism vs. Darwin.”

    I completely agree! We must do more than just debate, both are here to stay.

  6. Steve F.

    Hi Adam:

    I’ll miss the blog. Do you have anywhere else to recommend to go for a non-polarizing debate?

    Perhaps I could summarize my perspectives as well, many of which are inspired by the teachings of the Baha’i Faith (see, for example, the Wikipedia entry on the Baha’i Faith and Science).

    1. First of all, there is no conflict between and religion – correctly understood – and science – correctly understood.

    2. Both are engaged in the same process – engendering understanding and transcending ignorance and the blind responses of our biological heritage.

    3. Both can be encumbered by prejudice, ignorance, willful misinterpretation, ignorant misrepresentation, power politics, tradition, and ideology.

    – Science has been used as support for the greatest atrocities humanity as committed – the Holocaust, the massive slaughters of the pogroms of the communists in the Soviet Union, China, and Cambodia. The weapons it created have enabled a seemingly endless parade of death – from nuclear bombings in Japan to gas attacks on Kurds in Iraq.

    – Religion has been used to support the Crusade, the wars of religion in 17th century Europe, countless conflicts around the world, the wars between Shia and Sunni Islam, and modern terrorism.

    – In none of these cases are the underlying truths of science or religion destroyed by its misuse. Solar energy, properly used, can power the planet. Improperly used, it can burn it down or drown it. Powerful things work that way.

    4. Going, forward, it is vital that science and religion go hand in hand.

    – Religion needs to be cleansed from prejudice, intolerance, ignorance, and misrepresentation. No better instrument for this exists than science.

    – Science, left to its own devices, falls into a blind materialism bereft of the knowledge of its truest ends, a victim of the very blind evolutionary forces it acknowledges as the heritage of our past. It inculcates a priesthood of a few – self-appointed scientific authorities – rather than a recognition of the equality of all. Blindly, it creates mythologies and cosmologies as popular explanations, unaware that the time of mythologies and cosmologies is past.

    5. The highest realities – the pursuit of truth and the freedom from ignorance – are spiritual pursuits – indeed should be considered as defining of spirituality – and are at the core of what it is to be human. They are at the heart of science and religion as well.

    6. Religion must be in conformity with science.

    – The great religions of the world are “revealed religions”, the teaching of persons of the stature of the Buddha, Christ, Mohammed, and now, Baha’u’llah. Their teachings cannot be understand without investigation, application, and evaluation – the scientific process. Without this process, religion becomes blind faith.

    – With this process, religion has again and again shown itself to be the animating forces of great civilizations, indeed, the creator of science itself.

    – We need this an animating force more than ever now if we are to transcend our endless hatreds, prejudices, and wars and create a true world civilization, an opportunity right in front of us and beckoning visibly.

    There is more, but this is already a rich mix!

    Warmly,
    Steve F.

  7. Mike Gottschalk

    Jayne, I wrote a new note to you on the previous post. ( This is feeling like the last day of camp to me.)

  8. So just a note. I will be continuing to write on all this stuff over at

    http://theconstantfire.blogspot.com/

    so I welcome everyone’s participation.

  9. vel

    “Every sunrise, every birdsong, every anthill passed on the way to some errand is worthy of rapt of attention if we are willing to step through that doorway. ”

    This seems to advocate having no standards of quality at all. Anything is worthy of “rapt attention”? Every squirming mass of maggots? Every seeping gangrenous wound? Why?

  10. JZ

    I would say, that yes, that squirming mass of maggots is most definitely worthy of rapt attention – the evolutionary adaptations that make the maggot way of life possible is as amazing in its essence as the song of the warbler in the tree. Think not? Check out the parasitoid wasp life cycle! Or how parasites can manipulate the behavior of their hosts. Not everyone sees this, but every scientist I know posesses this profound wonder about the world – the sublimely gross as well as the beautiful. I am often frustrated/dissappointed by people’s lack of wonder at both the mundane and sublime manifestations of life around them. I can’t entirely communicate why I love telling my biology classes about parasite life cycles, but ultimately it’s an appreciation of how natural selection and other evolutionary forces have shaped life – so finely tuned, and yet often exceedingly inefficient. But, if it works, it persists.

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