Is War a Product of Evolution, Or Just a Flaw of Man?

By Melissa Lafsky | November 13, 2008 1:58 pm

Humans have been historically eager to kill each other. Throughout history, we’ve thought up all sorts of nutty reasons to slaughter our fellow man that had nothing to do with immediate survival of the fittest. We tend to chalk all these wars up to cultural differences fed by a species-wide need to be ideologically right (and impose that right-ness on others), along with a knack for weapons discovery culminating in a technology boom that’s constantly supplying bigger and better ways to off each other. Add governments to the mix, and you’ve got a big steaming pile of questionably necessary interspecies violence.

So it’s a little—but not a lot—surprising that the growing scientific consensus is that war not only dates back to the origins of humankind, but has also played “an integral role” in or species’ evolution. According to this theory, which emerged during a recent conference at the University of Oregon, the war “instinct” was present in our common ancestor with chimps, and has been a “significant selection pressure on the human species,” as evolutionary psychologist Mark Van Vugt put it.

His and his colleagues’ reasoning goes something like this: Evidence exists to show that war and humans have been friends since the beginning (fossils of early humans show wounds consistent with combat injuries). As such, we would have evolved “psychological adaptations to a warlike lifestyle.” To this end, researchers have presented “the strongest evidence yet that males—whose larger and more muscular bodies make them better suited for fighting—have evolved a tendency towards aggression outside the group but cooperation within it.”

In other words, men have evolved to be team players within their own clans, and be warriors with everyone else—much like the behavior observed in chimpanzees, who regularly engage in short bursts of intergroup violence to weaken neighboring groups of males.

So should we resign ourselves to a future of ever-escalating violence due to our Darwinist predisposition for war? Not necessarily, says John Tooby, an evolutionary psychologist at the University of California at Santa Barbara, who insists on looking at the bright side:

“The interesting thing about war is we’re focused on the harm it does… But it requires a super-high level of cooperation [within military organizations].”

Fair enough. Now if we could just figure out how to apply that trait to government.

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MORE ABOUT: human nature, war

Comments (294)

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  1. TAE

    Wouldn’t it be great if we could unite all the men on the planet into one cooperative group via a war? Perhaps the only way we’ll ever by a truly unified global cooperative is if we discover an alien species and declare war on them…

  2. Moose Muffins. The team work originated in hunting medium to large animals. The problem is that war is not the same as basic human violence. The article incidentally reflects this. But it is rather amusing how academics tend to ignore those who are knowledgable of war when they make pronouncements about it. One has to wonder how they can get away with such behavior when in any other mode it would ruin their careers? Perhaps because soldiers are not really human and we can send them off to die with clear conscience? Somehow it is sad that such has to emerge in the same week as Armistice Day anniversary.

  3. Erik

    Better yet, TAE, maybe we can manage to unite mankind in opposition to some imaginary enemy. Maybe one who threatens to enslave us for eternity. Hey wait! We’ve got one! I Guess we have to give the Devil his due on this one. War and religion have always seemed like two complimentary instincts, one reinforcing the other (“fighting for God and country”). But who knows, waging the battle of good and evil on some fantastic battleground may be a useful diversion from the real thing. Better to duke it out with phantoms in your head than in actual combat. Someone could get hurt.

  4. Gordon5608

    I believe it is all rooted in the socio-biological specialization which tends to produce groupings sufficiently alike to guarantee a decent gene pool.

    These groupings – maybe 2000 people in human terms – then compete to get to the best breeding position and use the male as the way to progress their future.

    “Nature” needs to have lots of slightly differing versions of each species so that no matter what catastrophe occurs some will be better suited to thrive (Darwin) To keep your gene pool pure you need to repel outsiders and compete for resources.

  5. Bill

    I wonder if we could find a better example of ivory tower nonsense.

  6. brooks

    “I wonder if we could find a better example of ivory tower nonsense.”

    perhaps we could, if we knew just what you’re deriding here as “nonsense”. care to enlighten?

  7. “Us vs. Them” Naked Ape Mentality

    The human species evolved with ‘us’ vs ‘them’ social group competitiveness. Competition for territory and resources dictated that whichever group dominated, best survived, & was deemed superior. Whichever group out bred the surrounding groups and could best sustain warfare usually won out & whatever ‘gods’ they worshiped gained sway.

    This is facilitated when each group thinks of themselves as being The People aka ‘the chosen ones’. The Christian teaching that humans can ONLY approach God through Jesus Christ is a manifestation of this. It’s not enough to believe in God — you have to believe in Christ as the Savior in a very special way in order to properly go to Heaven. And, if you’re a Baptist, believing in Christ in a special way grants you superiority over Lutherans, Catholics, etcetera AND vice versa.

    It’s all about ‘usuns’ being the superior social culture (aka ‘chosen ones’) & the rest being “thoseuns” (inferior — thus worthy of domination). It’s all quite primitive [think of the song, “Onward Christian Soldiers” then remember the Crusades]. Not at all what Christ represents = Love & Wisdom.

  8. Russ

    Feelings rule, whether plant or animal, and territory is a basic feeling, perhaps arising out of the feeling of hunger. Warfare is the name given to social animals acting upon territorial feelings. It goes back well beyond chimps. Even brainless sea anemonies try to kill their neighbors. Humanity cannot escape it until their brains evolve the capacity to hold such feelings in abeyance. We seem to be making progess, albeit too slowly.

  9. J. Brownowski

    It goes something like this:
    Early man is very, very hungry. See’s large animal with sharp horns. He knows he will die but hopes not. Hope works fifty percent of the time, so he ritualizes it. He discovers how rituals can manipulate others and religion is born. Utilizing this new found power he sends others out for food. Weapons escalate. War is the tool of acquisition. Are we flawed? It depends on who wins.

  10. According to Richard Dawkins, religion is an evolutionary survival advantage because it makes believers act cohesively, thereby increasing their success in warfare.

  11. visapatri

    The inherent principel of the nature is – survival of the fittest.This has been the creed since the evolution of life.When the so called civilisation evolved,the fragmentation human race also evolved.The result of such fragmentation was evolution of wars for survival.
    The development of civilisation resulted in evolution of RELIGIONS which resulted in deeper fragmentations in human society.The religions, which are to be means for uplifment of humans to a higher plain, have instead become a curse resulting in wars.
    The wars will be part of every generation as long as human mind does not uplift itself to higher plain and realise the nature ,i.e God ,in its true sense .

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    Per?embe, 04 ?ubat 2010 14:45

    Say?n K?tahyal?;20.01.2010 tarihinde Taraf Gazetesinde yay?nlanan ??Bir Ermeni Milliyet?isi olarak Hrant Dink???ba?l?kl? yaz?n?za;

    ??Hrant Dink?ten T?rk milliyet?ilerinin ??renece?i ?ok ?ey var… T?rk kimli?ine ve k?lt?r?ne, T?rk ge?mi?ine sonuna kadar ba?l? olan, T?rkl?k ile ilgili bir ?ey konu?uldu?u zaman heyecanlanan, yery?z?nde ya?ayan t?m T?rklerin derdiyle hemhal olan, T?rk dilinin ?e?itli leh?elerinden birini bile i?itti?inde kalbi k?t k?t atan T?rk??lerin, T?rk milliyet?i ya da ulusalc?lar?n?n Hrant?tan ??renece?i ?ok ?ey var…?? ifadeleri ile ba?lad?n?z..

    ?leri de, T?rk??lerin, Hrant?tan ??renece?i ?eylerden birini de ba?ka kimliklere sahip insanlar?n haklar?na da sonuna kadar sahip ??kmak olarak ifade ettiniz. Bu i?i de g?n?m?z T?rk??lerinin Hrant Dink?ten ??renmesi gereken temel milliyet?ilik dersi olarak yazd?n?z.

    Bak?n?z Rasim Bey?

    T?rk??ler olarak genelledi?iniz z?mre, rozet, ?ekil ve sembol feti?istleri ise buna diyecek hi?bir ?eyim yok, ancak bu genelleme, ayd?n, d???nen ve ara?t?ran, ger?ekten bu milleti kar??l?ks?z olarak seven T?rk??leri de i?ine al?yorsa ki bunda ??phe yok, burada bir T?rk milliyet?isi olarak susmam m?mk?n de?ildir?

    ?ncelikle belirtmem gerekir ki hakk?nda fazla bilgi sahibi olmad???n?z anla??lan T?rk?? ideoloji; b?t?n muhabbet ve sevgisi ile ?z k?lt?r?ne ba?l?d?r ama bu noktada saplant? sahibi, a??r? ve ba?naz de?ildir. Hedefi T?rk milletini ekonomik sosyal ve idari a??dan muas?r ve mutlu etmek olan T?rk??l???n, hi?bir toplum ve ?rka kar?? ?ekimserli?i de k???msemesi de s?z konusu de?ildir. Aksine T?rk?? ideoloji, t?m k?lt?rlere ayr?ca de?er verip, sayg? duymaktad?r. Bu siyasi g?r???n mihenk ta?lar?ndan olan G?kalp?e g?re; T?rk??ler, bir?ok ac?mas?zl?klar?yla kar??la?t?klar? uluslara kar?? bile siyasi ?rg?tlerine kar?? tedbir almakla birlikte, uygar ve k?lt?rel yap?lar?n? ara?t?r?p, d???n?r ve sanat??lar?na k?ymet vermekle y?k?ml?d?rler?

    Yani o dedi?iniz temel milliyet?ilik dersi bu ?lkenin T?rk??leri taraf?ndan Hrant Dink?ten de?il Ziya G?kalp?ten yakla??k 100 y?l ?nce zaten al?nm??t?r. Hem de Ermeni ter?r ?rg?tlerinin Do?u b?lgelerimizi kas?p kavurdu?u bir d?nemde?

    Ayr?ca kad?n T?rk milliyet?ileri i?inde ayr? bir yeri olan M?fide Ferid?de h?manist T?rk milliyet?ili?inin temellerini tam bu d?nemde atm??t??

    Ancak, sormadan duramayaca??m;

    Sizin ifadeleriniz ile evrensel insanl?k idealine ba?l? olup, evrensel bir ahlak, ideal ve vicdana sahip olan birinin TKP-ML gibi bir yap?lanma ile ne i?i olabilir? Veya bu ki?i, h?cre evlerinde, ?st?nde ?? Ermeni Soyk?r?m?n?n Hesab?n? Soraca??z!??yaz?l? pankartlar bulunan, T?KKO gibi ac?mas?z bir ?rg?te nas?l ?ye olur. ASALA gibi elinde T?rk kan? bulunan bir ?rg?te nas?l sempati besler? Bunlara insanl?k onuru ad?na bir a??klama yapa biliyor musunuz?

    ?lgili yaz?n?z da Hrant i?in ?? Bu topraklar?n evlad?yd?. Bu topraklar? yani T?rkiye?yi ?ok seviyordu. Tam anlam?yla bir T?rkiye insan?yd???diyorsunuz, bizde vefat edenin arkas?ndan konu?mak gelene?e ayk?r?d?r ama maalesef ben sizin siyah? beyaz gibi g?steren ifadelerinize g?z yumamayaca??m ve gelenek ad?na ayk?r? bir tav?r sergileyece?im?

    Acaba her birimiz ayr? bir Hrant?dan m? bahsediyoruz?

    Bu topraklar? ?ok seven, T?rklere ve T?rkiye?ye sevgi besleyen biri ??T?rk?ten bo?anacak olan o zehirli kan?n, yerini dolduracak olan asil kan, Ermeni?nin Ermenistan?la kuraca?? asil damarlar?nda mevcuttur?? der mi?

    23 Nisan 1996 da Agos Gazetesinde ??23,5 Nisan ??ba?l?kl? yaz?s?nda;??Yery?z?n?n d?rt bir yan?na “savrulmu?” Ermeni Ulusu’nun tarihinde ?ok ?nemli bir kara g?nd?r 24 Nisan. ??-be? Ermeni yan yana gelmeye g?rs?nler. Al?rlar ellerine pankartlar? d?k?l?rler sokaklara hemen. Nedir b?t?n bunlar?n sebebi, ni?in yollara d??er bu insanlar 24 Nisan’da? Tarih, 24 Nisan 1915’in ?afak vakti. ?zellikle ?stanbul’daki Ermeni ayd?nlar?, yazarlar, sanat??lar, ??retmenler, avukatlar, doktorlar, mebuslar teker teker al?n?rlar evlerinden. G?t?r?l?rler… Ve bir daha da geri d?nmezler. ??te, birka? g?n sonra b?t?n Osmanl? ?mparatorlu?u s?n?rlar? i?inde ger?ekle?tirilen “Tarihsel Ermeni Dram?”n?n ba?lang?c?d?r bu tarih.?? Diyen ve sizin, Ba?ka kimliklere sahip insanlar?n haklar?na da sonunda kadar sahip ??kard? diye takt?m etti?iniz Hrant Dink,1915 ?ncesinde Do?u ve G?neydo?u B?lgesinde Ermeni Ter?r ?rg?tlerinin yapt??? katliamlardan ni?in bahsetmedi? Orada bulunan T?rk ve K?rt halklar?n?n ac?s?n? ne kadar duydu?Ne kadar duyurdu?

    1997 de Kanal 7?de kat?ld??? bir program da kendisine sorulan ??T?rkiye Ermenileri olarak Cumhuriyet’e katk?lar?n?z nelerdir???sorusu kar??s?nda ??lg?na d?nmek ve neyimiz kalm?? ki ne verebilecektik tarz?nda ifadeler buyurmak m?d?r ger?ek?ilik? O d?nemde ya?anan ac? olaylar? i?ine duygusall?k kat?lm?? ifadeler ile suland?r?p, ger?ek nedenlerini irdelemeden T?rk milletine mal etmek midir realizm?

    Pe?inen s?yleyeyim ki Hrant, sizin yaz?n?zda belirtti?iniz gibi evrensel de?erlere sahip, bulundu?u ortam ile bar???k bir ayd?n de?il, kan, soy ve ?lk? ba?? ile ba?l? oldu?u Ermenistan?a hizmet bab?nda ?lkemizde Truva At? vazifesi g?ren bir Ermeni milliyet?isi idi.

    Ve bu i?i diyalog, ?zg?rl?k, e?it yurtta?l?k, insan haklar?, birlikte ya?am gibi kavramlar?n arkas?na saklanarak gayet profesyonel bir ?ekilde icra ediyordu.

    Yine 16 Haziran 2006 da Agos Gazetesinde yay?nlanan ??Tek yol “Bir arada ya?ama 1 ??adl? makalesinde,??Kendimize d?ner de ??yle bir yak?n tarihimize bakarsak, “Birlikte ya?amay? savunman?n bizde hi? de yeni bir olgu olmad???n?, bu ?lkede 100 y?l ?nce de ayn? sorunlarla k?vrand???m?z? g?rebiliriz. Son y?zy?l?n? s?rekli toprak ve halk kayb?yla ge?iren Osmanl?’n?n geriye kalan halklar?, 1908 Me?rutiyet ilan?yla birlikte sokaklara d?k?lm??, T?rk’?, Rum’u, Ermeni’si, Yahudi’si kol kola g?nlerce ?enlikler yapm??, “H?rriyet, e?itlik ve adalet” ?ark?lar?yla sarho? olmu?lard?. Ne var ki birlikte ya?amak ?yle yukar?dan birilerinin bah?edece?i bir l?tuf de?il, birlikte ya?ayan halklar?n birlikte ?retmeleri gereken bir uygarl?kt?. Nitekim b?yle olmad??? i?indir ki, Me?rutiyet’in ilan?ndan ve bu birlik co?kusundan birka? ay sonra Osmanl?’n?n en ac? katliamlar?ndan biri ya?and? ve 31 Mart Vakas?’yla birlikte Adana’da 30 bini a?k?n Ermeni kom?u mahalle insanlar?nca katledildi??? T?rkiyeliler olarak en b?y?k s?k?nt?m?z bu: Tarihle hesapla?amamak.?? Diyen Hrant, Ermeni delege Episkopos Mrg. Moucheg’in k??k?rtmalar?yla ba?layan bu b?y?k karga?ay? neden kom?u mahalle insanlar? dedi?i T?rklere mal etti? Bu ac? olaylar? sadece T?rk milletine mal eden zihniyeti samimi bulmam?z nas?l m?mk?n olabilir? Bumudur t?m halklar? kucaklayan h?manizm?

    Bir yaz?s?nda ??Ne T?rk ne de K?rt halk?na ge?mi?te ya?ananlardan ?t?r? herhangi bir kin duymuyorum. En b?y?k iste?im ise bu iki halk?n bug?n birbirinden kopmamas? ve ge?mi?te bizlerin ya?ad??? t?rden dramlar?n tekrar ya?anmamas?.?? Deyip ba?ka bir yaz?s?nda ??Devlet heyecan?n? bilirim. Ermenistan kurulmadan ?nce ben de K?rtler gibi mutsuzdum. Ama bu ayr?l?k??l??? do?urmamal?. Yoksa Kuzey Irak?taki devletten de olurlar. (…) K?rt olsam Kuzey Irak?ta parlamentosu, okulu ve ordusu olan bir K?rt Devleti beni heyecanland?r?rd?.? Diyen H?rant??n bu ?eli?kili ifadeleri ona g?venmemiz konusunda bizi hakl? ??karm?yor mu?

    Say?n K?tahyal??

    Hrant?tan bir ?eyler alma konusunda ki ikram?n?z? maalesef geri ?evirmek zorunday?z, ??nk? Kurtulu? Sava??n? ?rg?tleyen ve bu devleti kuran 100 y?ll?k T?rk??l?k ideolojisinin, bir yenilik olarak, Hrant?tan alaca?? hi?bir ?ey yoktur!

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