Science Matters: Why George Will’s Math Is Wrong

By Christie Wilcox | June 10, 2014 7:21 pm
George "let me do the math" Will. Photo by Keith Allison

George “let me do the math” Will.
Photo by Keith Allison

In a recent opinion piece for The Washington Post, George Will decided to do a little math based on two “crucial and contradictory” statistics mentioned in the President’s recent report:

A. 20% of college women are sexually assaulted during their tenure at the university, and
B. 12% of rapes are reported to law enforcement

His overall message is that, clearly, women are lying about being assaulted to gain the “privilege” of victimhood, based on this mathematical argument:

The statistics are: One in five women is sexually assaulted while in college, and only 12 percent of assaults are reported. Simple arithmetic demonstrates that if the 12 percent reporting rate is correct, the 20 percent assault rate is preposterous. Mark Perry of the American Enterprise Institute notes, for example, that in the four years 2009 to 2012 there were 98 reported sexual assaults at Ohio State. That would be 12 percent of 817 total out of a female student population of approximately 28,000, for a sexual assault rate of approximately 2.9 percent — too high but nowhere near 20 percent.

Or, to put it into math equations:

98 reported assaults (at Ohio State) = 12% of the assaults that occurred

98 / 0.12 = 817 (total assaults)

817 / 28,000 = 0.029;

which means only 2.9% of the 28,000 female students at Ohio State have been assaulted.

Therefore, the 20% statistic is far too high, thus women must be lying about assault.

Here’s the thing: experimental design matters when it comes to statistics. There are several ways you can go wrong when interpreting statistics, any of which can be accounted for if you simply pay attention to the science that generated them—which George clearly didn’t. Read More

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Uncategorized

Emptying The Ocean: Trawling Leading To Deep Ocean Deserts

By Christie Wilcox | May 30, 2014 2:47 pm

The more research is conducted on the effects of trawling, the harder it is to make a case for why it is allowed—anywhere, ever. It’s especially hard to argue for high seas bottom trawling, the kind that dredges up roughly twice the area of the United States every year and, since the United Nations couldn’t agree on terms, is currently unregulated. Now, a study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences adds to the mounting evidence that our hunger for piscine protein is laying waste to parts of the planet we have never even seen, leading to lasting changes in the sea floor that prevent recovery.

Deep_desert_PLoS

Trawls are bulldozing millions of square miles of the sea floor every year. A new study in PNAS says that if such fishing is sustained, this is all that will be left. Image from Gewin 2004

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CATEGORIZED UNDER: Uncategorized

White Hot Insects: Climate Change Leading to Lighter Colors

By Christie Wilcox | May 27, 2014 10:00 am
Pieris_mannii

Lighter wins as climate warms: this butterfly, the Southern Small White (Pieris mannii), has continuously expanded its range northwards during the past ten years. Image c/o Nature Communications

Most of the discussion on climate change focuses on startling images of potential loss: the city of Miami underwater due to rising sea level or the lone polar bear on an ever-shrinking iceberg. But some of the greatest impacts of our continued inability to curb our carbon appetite are surprisingly small—little changes that may ultimately have big implications. It’s the butterfly effect—except, in this case, I literally am talking about butterflies.  Read More

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Uncategorized

April Sci-shimi: Penis Wars and Angry Birds

By Christie Wilcox | May 2, 2014 2:28 am

Welcome to Sci-shimi, my monthly roundup of  great science online! Like a delicious, fresh platter of sashimi, these tasty links are meant to be shared —どうぞめしあがれ 

This month’s mind-blowing science moment: An insect where the female does the penetrating during mating with a sexual organ never before described. Is it a penis? Ed says yes, Annalee says no. What do you think?

Best long-read: What’s in a name? Susan Milius explores fungal taxonomy.

Runner up: Angry Birds Part 1, Barbarism From Above by Jake Buehler. Think birds are fluffy and cute? Think again. (And don’t say I didn’t warn you it is a LONG read…)

Read More

Should We Stop Using Vinegar To Treat Box Jelly Stings? Not Yet—Venom Experts Weigh In On Recent Study

By Christie Wilcox | April 9, 2014 6:00 am
The dreaded Chironex fleckeri, studied in the new research, and responsible for some of the worst stings in the world. Photo by Dr. Robert Hartwick

The dreaded Chironex fleckeri, responsible for some of the worst stings in the world. Does new research change everything we thought we knew about how to treat stings? Experts don’t think so. Photo by Dr. Robert Hartwick

When you’re stung by a box jellyfish, you know it almost immediately. These somewhat squarish shaped cnidarians are armed to the bell with some of the most painful venom in the world. Long tentacles are packed with millions of stinging cells, called nematocysts, each with its own microscopic, needle-like harpoon-tipped tubule waiting to plunge into your flesh and inject the animal’s intense venom. The pain is not only debilitating, it can also be deadly. More than 60 deaths from box jelly stings have been reported in the last forty years.

Being stung is an awful experience. The best course of action is to remove any tentacles quickly to ensure that nematocysts that haven’t fired don’t get the chance to add their venom to the sting, and then treat for pain. Luckily enough, scientists discovered early on that vinegar (~5% acetic acid solution) irreversibly prevents nematocysts from firing, allowing people to rinse off tentacles without causing more trauma (which is also how the folk remedy of peeing on a sting originated, though vinegar is more effective and far less gross). For this reason, vinegar has been the go-to emergency response to box jelly stings for more than twenty years. It is currently the primary recommended treatment by the Australian Resuscitation Council, the American Heart Association and the American Red Cross.

“Now (we’re saying) don’t do what we’ve been telling you to do for the last 30 years,” Jamie Seymour, associate professor at James Cook University, told reporters at The Australian. Seymour’s sudden change of heart is the result of new research published by him with colleagues from the Cairns Hospital, including lead author Philippa Welfare. Other news sites have been quick to cover the story which originated in a press release from James Cook University, warning that “vinegar on jellyfish sting can be deadly” and that “Queensland researchers have discovered the cure can kill.”

Not so fast, guys.

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CATEGORIZED UNDER: Health, More Science, select, Top Posts

March Sci-shimi: waves from the Big Bang and more

By Christie Wilcox | March 31, 2014 11:59 pm

Welcome to Sci-shimi, my monthly roundup of  great science online! Like a delicious, fresh platter of sashimi, these tasty links are meant to be shared —どうぞめしあがれ 

This month’s mind-blowing science moment: Gravitational waves—remnants of the birth of the universe—detected for the first time. Read how the discovery is exciting physicists, challenging old models, and leaving us in awe. (also, Sean Carroll’s excellent take, and follow up piece, When Nature looks unnatural.)

Best long-read: How malaria defeats our drugs, by Ed Yong

Read More

CATEGORIZED UNDER: More Science, select, Top Posts

Trust the “trust hormone”? Oxytocin can increase deceit

By Christie Wilcox | March 31, 2014 4:36 pm
500px-Oxytocin.svg

Oxytocin, the “moral molecule”. Image by Calvero c/o Wikimedia Commons

Oxytocin has perhaps the best reputation of any molecule on the planet. In a culture of chemophobia where any compound is fair game for attack, oxytocin has been heralded as “The Source of Love and Prosperity“. If you listen to the tales, this “moral” molecule—the “trust hormone“—is the “most amazing molecule in the world,” and is your one-stop shop for love and happiness. All you have to do is give someone a hug, and your brain will be flooded with the magic stuff.

But as many (most notably Ed Yong) have pointed out, oxytocin isn’t the sweet compound we’re told it is. Sure, it has been associated with generosity, desire, and trust, but oxytocin has a dark side, too. It can increase envy and gloating, promote cliques, and even decrease cooperation. Now, a new study published today in PNAS adds to the molecule’s moral ambiguity: huffing oxytocin can lead to dishonest behavior if that behavior is seen as being for “the greater good”. Read More

MORE ABOUT: Neuroscience, Oxytocin

Repost: Conversations With My Grandpa

By Christie Wilcox | March 25, 2014 3:19 am

This year marks the 25th anniversary of the Exxon Valdez spill. At the time, it was the biggest oil spill in US history.  As far as the cleanup is concerned, the Exxon spill is far from over. But Exxon isn’t the spill that weighs on American minds. I wrote the following post in June of 2010, when an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil platform stole the title of the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. 21 years after Exxon, and BP proved that oil spills are still a big problem—four years after Deepwater Horizon, has anything really changed? 

Oil supplies the United States with approximately 40% of its energy needs. Billions upon billions of gallons are pumped out of our wells, brought in from other countries, and shipped around to refineries all over the states. 1.3 million gallons of petroleum are spilled into U.S. waters from vessels and pipelines in a typical year. Yes, it would be great if we never spilled a drop of oil. No matter how hard we may try, though, the fact is that nobody is perfect, and oil spills are an inevitable consequence of our widespread use of oil. The question is, once the oil is out there, how do we clean it up?

Nowehere is this issue more glaring than in the Gulf of Mexico right now, where 35,000 to 60,000 barrels of oil are spewing out of the remains of the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig every day. The spill has enraged an entire nation. But perhaps my grandfather put it best, when I asked him what he thought about how BP and the US is responding to the spill.

“They’re friggin’ idiots.” Read More

February’s Sci-shimi: Chestnuts, Chloroplasts, and Conferences, Oh My!

By Christie Wilcox | February 28, 2014 11:43 pm

Welcome to Sci-shimi, my monthly roundup of  great science online! Like a delicious, fresh platter of sashimi, these tasty links are meant to be shared —どうぞめしあがれ 

This month’s mind-blowing science moment: Meet the woman who developed a way to run 30 blood tests with a single drop.

Best long-read: Resurrecting a forest, in which Carl Zimmer explains how genetic tinkering may help bring back the American chestnut, complete with a time-lapse video:

Best non-science long-read: The dark power of fraternities by Caitlin Flanagan (with the best opening paragraph of all time).

Extra-special shout out to Danielle Lee, butt-kicking science blogger, who was chosen this month as one of the White House’s Champions of Change. Danielle, you rock so hard it’s giving me whiplash!

Read More

CATEGORIZED UNDER: More Science, select, Top Posts
MORE ABOUT: Link Roundup, sci-shimi

So Much More Than An Aquarium—A Behind-The-Scenes Look At Shedd

By Christie Wilcox | February 25, 2014 5:22 pm

Earlier this month, I was in Chicago for the American Association for the Advancement of Science’s annual meeting. It was a whirlwind of fascinating scientific talks, engaging workshops (one with me!), and delightful networking with some of the greatest science writers, editors, and press officers. But that Sunday, I slipped away from the conference with my friend (and excellent science writer) Allie Wilkinson. There was, of course, only one thing in Chicago that was worth missing the exquisite program provided by AAAS: The Shedd Aquarium.

A lionfish at the Shedd Aquarium. Photo by Christie Wilcox

A lionfish at the Shedd Aquarium. Photo by Christie Wilcox

The Shedd Aquarium is the largest indoor marine mammal facility in the world and houses over 30,000 animals that are seen by some 2 million visitors annually. A few million gallons of seawater flow through its diverse and engaging exhibits, which range from local fisheries to exotic reefs from thousands of miles away. Highlights include the oldest aquatic animal on exhibit in the world (Granddad the lungfish), an abundance of marine mammalsa wobbegong and a sawfish, and—my personal favorites—several species of lionfishes. But beyond experiencing the aquarium itself, Allie and I were treated to a personal behind-the-scenes tour, led by communications & public relations manager Nicole Minadeo with help from Dr. Kristine Stump, Shedd’s newest research postdoc.

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CATEGORIZED UNDER: More Science, select, Top Posts
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