Does The Motor Cortex Inhibit Movement?

By Neuroskeptic | November 3, 2016 12:49 pm

A new paper could prompt a rethink of a basic tenet of neuroscience. It is widely believed that the motor cortex, a region of the cerebral cortex, is responsible for producing movements, by sending instructions to other brain regions and ultimately to the spinal cord. But according to neuroscientists Christian Laut Ebbesen and colleagues, the truth may be the opposite: the motor cortex may equally well suppress movements.

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CATEGORIZED UNDER: animals, papers, select, Top Posts

Advances in the Psychology of Passing the Salt

By Neuroskeptic | October 27, 2016 10:14 am

salt

I just came across a remarkable new paper on the science of salt-passing behavior: Expected Results Show that a Longer Nose Means Slower Times for Passing the Salt and Pepper: A Second Report

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CATEGORIZED UNDER: funny, papers, select, Top Posts

Does Effect Size Matter for fMRI?

By Neuroskeptic | October 22, 2016 5:00 am

fMRI researchers should care about (and report) the size of the effects that they study, according to a new Neuroimage paper from NIMH researchers Gang Chen and colleagues. It’s called Is the statistic value all we should care about in neuroimaging?. The authors include Robert W. Cox, creator of the popular fMRI analysis software AFNI.

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CATEGORIZED UNDER: fMRI, papers, select, statistics, Top Posts

Social Priming – Does It Work After All?

By Neuroskeptic | October 13, 2016 10:37 am

“Social priming” has been the punching-bag of psychology for the past few years.

untitledThe term “social priming” refers to the idea that subtle cues can exert large, unconscious influences on human behaviour. The classic example of a social priming effect was the “professor priming” study in which volunteers who completed a task in which they had to describe a typical professor, subsequently performed better on a general knowledge task. In other words, as the authors put it, “priming a stereotype or trait leads to complex overt behavior in line with this activated stereotype or trait.”

Although it was a booming research area for many years (that professor priming paper has 756 citations), social priming has lately come under heavy criticism. Many researchers have failed to replicate previously claimed effects. The field’s reputation also suffered when Diederik Stapel, a high-profile social priming researcher, was exposed as a fraud who faked data in dozens of studies.

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CATEGORIZED UNDER: papers, select, Top Posts, Uncategorized

Are There Too Few Jobs In Neuroscience?

By Neuroskeptic | October 10, 2016 10:31 am

brainquest1

Is European neuroscience facing a jobs crisis? Writing in The Lancet Neurology, Mario Bonato and Esperanza Jubera-Garcia sound the alarm:

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CATEGORIZED UNDER: science, select, Top Posts

Can Electricity Stimulate Your Brain To Work Faster?

By Neuroskeptic | October 3, 2016 4:05 pm

A widely-used ‘brain stimulation’ tool has no effect on the speed of the brain’s responses, according to a new study from Australian neuroscientists Jared Horvath et al.
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CATEGORIZED UNDER: papers, science, select, Top Posts

Open Data and CFS/ME – A PACE Odyssey Part 1

By Neuroskeptic | September 30, 2016 2:57 pm

Writing in STAT last week, Julie Rehmeyer discussed the release of raw data from the PACE study, a clinical trial which has long been controversial amongst the very population it studied: people with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME).item181216

Rehmeyer, a CFS/ME patient herself, reports:

Under court order, the [PACE] study’s authors for the first time released their raw data earlier this month. Patients and independent scientists collaborated to analyze it and posted their findings Wednesday on Virology Blog, a site hosted by Columbia microbiology professor Vincent Racaniello. The analysis shows that if you’re already getting standard medical care, your chances of being helped by the treatments are, at best, 10 percent. And your chances of recovery? Nearly nil.

The new findings are the result of a five-year battle that chronic fatigue syndrome patients — me among them — have waged to review the actual data underlying that $8 million study.

Earlier this month a British tribunal ruled that London’s Queen Mary University (QMU) should comply with a 2014 Freedom of Information Act request and share the (anonymized) raw data from the PACE study. The PACE researchers and the university had long resisted this move, but following the ruling, QMU admitted defeat. The data is now available here.

There has been an enormous amount written about PACE. Here’s my take: in my view, releasing the data was the right thing to do and should have been done all along. But what does the data show? How well does it support what the PACE authors claimed? Is the study “bad science” as Rehmeyer puts it?

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The Terrorist Inside Robin Williams’ Brain

By Neuroskeptic | September 29, 2016 11:11 am

The journal Neurology published a unique and touching paper today: it’s by artist Susan Schneider Williams, the widow of actor Robin Williams, who died by suicide in August 2014. It’s titled The terrorist inside my husband’s brain, the ‘terrorist’ being Lewy Body disease (LBD), the neurodegenerative disorder that, as Schneider Williams recounts, destroyed his life.

Robin Williams 2011 (Dan Steinberg/Invision/AP Images)

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CATEGORIZED UNDER: mental health, papers, select, Top Posts

Terrorist Fiske Jab: On “Destructo-Criticism”

By Neuroskeptic | September 25, 2016 6:30 am

untitled

A draft article due to appear in APS Observer caused widespread outrage this week. Susan Fiske, the former president of the Association for Psychological Science (APS), writes that bloggers and other online critics of psychology papers are running wild:

New media (e.g., blogs, twitter, Facebook posts) are encouraging uncurated, unfiltered trash-talk. In the most extreme examples, online vigilantes are attacking individuals, their research programs, and their careers. Self-appointed data police are volunteering critiques of such personal ferocity and relentless frequency that they resemble a denial-of-service attack that crashes a website by sheer volume of traffic.

Fiske goes on to call critics “bullies”, “destructo-critics” and, most notoriously, practioners of “methodological terrorism.” She says that these offenders “destroy lives” because they “attack the person, not just the work” and that “our colleagues at all career stages are leaving the field because of the sheer adversarial viciousness.”

Now, many people have responded to Fiske’s piece already (see Andrew Gelman, Sam Schwarzkopf, and many more.) Many people are unhappy at the use of language such as ‘terrorism’ to describe people who are just posting their thoughts about papers online.

However, I want to take a different tack.

Let’s suppose that Fiske is right and that some individuals, while pretending to be discussing science, are actually engaged in the targeted personal harassment of particular scientists. If that’s the case, what should we do?

In my view, we should name names (or pseudonyms!): we should hold the offenders accountable with reference to specific examples of their attacks. After all, these people (Fiske says) are vicious bullies who are behaving in seriously unethical ways. If so, they deserve to be exposed.

Yet Fiske doesn’t do this. She says, “I am not naming names because ad hominem smear tactics are already damaging our field.” But it’s not an ad hominem smear to point to a case of bullying or harassment and say ‘this is wrong’. On the contrary, that would be standing up for decency. If terrorists really are among us, we need to know who they are.

Another reason why I think Fiske (and anyone else in a similar position) should name names is that it helps to draw boundaries. Fiske acknowledges that not all bloggers are bad: “Not all self-appointed critics behave unethically.” So who are the ethical ones? It would help to know some examples of the ‘good’ critics because we could then know where Fiske draws the boundary seperating good criticism from bad. As it stands, Fiske’s denouncations can easily be read as aimed at the vast majority of those who debate science online.

In summary, I want to know who Fiske is calling a “destructo-critic” so I can judge the accuracy of the label. Am I one?

Brains + Sex = Controversy

By Neuroskeptic | September 20, 2016 11:08 am

What sex is your brain?

1843Well?

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