Male spiders play dead to avoid “sexual cannibalism.”

By Seriously Science | May 26, 2016 6:00 am

Spider sex can be pretty complicated… and kinky. Take wolf spiders, for example. It’s well known that female wolf spiders have a predilection for eating their partners during courtship, a behavior known as sexual cannibalism. Males, in turn, have developed their own tactics to avoid being consumed while still getting it on. This includes offering a “nuptial gift” of a tasty snack–for example, a dead fly or an eggsac from another female. The gift has been thought to help curb the female’s appetite, and/or to function as a physical shield that the male can hide behind. But, the action doesn’t stop there! This study, from 2006, describes a separate behavior adopted by male wolf spiders to avoid sexual cannibalism: playing dead! Known in scientific circles as “thanatosis,” it seems pretty effective for the male wolf spider: 100% of males who played dead were successful at copulating, versus only 58% of those who did not employ thanatosis. And if you are thinking of adding thanatosis to your own courtship ritual, here are some tips on how to go about it:

Females frequently interrupted copulations and could be aggressive towards males while attempting to depart with the gift. In response to interruptions, the male retained hold of the gift with his chelicerae and entered thanatosis (82%, n=28). When the female resumed consumption, the male resumed copulation.

If you need help thinking of a good “nuptial gift” for your own mate, might we suggest an extra large pizza?

Death feigning in the face of sexual cannibalism.

“Pre-copulatory sexual cannibalism by females affects male and female reproductive success in profoundly different ways, with the females benefiting from a meal and the male facing the risk of not reproducing at all. Read More

Wild pigs wash their food before eating… do you?

By Seriously Science | May 25, 2016 10:25 am
Photo: flickr/Steve Garvie

Photo: flickr/Steve Garvie

Do you rinse off your fruit before you eat it? Not many animals do, because it requires the capacity to distinguish between foods that do and do not need cleaning, as well as the ability to bring the food to a water source. Here, researchers show that European wild boar in a Swiss zoo have this ability — more specifically, they wash dirty apples (but not clean apples) in a creek before eating them. Only a few other animals, such as monkeys, have been shown to do this. I guess this means my toddler is less fastidious than a pig… at least some pigs.

Not eating like a pig: European wild boar wash their food

“Carrying food to water and either dunking or manipulating it before consumption has been observed in various taxa including birds, racoons and primates. Some animals seem to be simply moistening their food. However, true washing aims to remove unpleasant surface substrates such as grit and sand and requires a distinction between items that do and do not need cleaning as well as deliberate transportation of food to a water source. We provide the first evidence for food washing in suids, based on an incidental observation with follow-up experiments on European wild boar (Sus scrofa) kept at Basel Zoo, Switzerland. Read More

CATEGORIZED UNDER: eat me, fun with animals

Flashback Friday Pop quiz: which animal communicates by farting?

By Seriously Science | May 20, 2016 6:00 am

2458624643_2fd9768eda_zAnswer: Herring! It’s been known for quite some time that these fish make unusual sounds, but it wasn’t until these scientists captured wild herring and observed them in captivity that they realized these fish produce the sounds by expelling air through their anuses. Herring are more likely to make these “Fast Repetitive Tick Sounds” (abbreviated FRTs… we assume the pun is intended) when other fish are present, suggesting that FRTs are used for social communication. Now if only I could use my farts for communicating anything else besides “Retreat!”

Pacific and Atlantic herring produce burst pulse sounds.

“The commercial importance of Pacific and Atlantic herring (Clupea pallasii and Clupea harengus) has ensured that much of their biology has received attention. However, their sound production remains poorly studied. We describe the sounds made by captive wild-caught herring. Pacific herring produce distinctive bursts of pulses, termed Fast Repetitive Tick (FRT) sounds. Read More


Tiger moths use acoustic signals to tell bats “stay away, I’m toxic!”

By Seriously Science | May 19, 2016 6:00 am

cisthene-martiniTIL that tiger moths have evolved a clever way to avoid being eaten by their biggest predators, bats. Storing up toxins (cardiac glycosides) from the plants they feed on as larvae make them “highly unpalatable” (read: disgusting). That’s cool in and of itself, but these moths take it a step further. This study shows that the moths use special organs called “tymbals” to broadcast sounds. Tymbals are related to the sound organs of cicadas, but tiger moths use the sounds like other species use bright colors: to warn potential predators to “Stay away, I’m toxic!” Maybe next time, bat!

Acoustic Aposematism and Evasive Action in Select Chemically Defended Arctiine (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) Species: Nonchalant or Not?

“Tiger moths (Erebidae: Arctiinae) have experienced intense selective pressure from echolocating, insectivorous bats for over 65 million years. One outcome has been the evolution of acoustic signals that advertise the presence of toxins sequestered from the moths’ larval host plants, i.e. acoustic aposematism. Little is known about the effectiveness of tiger moth anti-bat sounds in their natural environments. We used multiple infrared cameras to reconstruct bat-moth interactions in three-dimensional (3-D) space to examine how functional sound-producing organs called tymbals affect predation of two chemically defended tiger moth species: Pygarctia roseicapitis (Arctiini) and Cisthene martini (Lithosiini). Read More

Whose cheating is more likely to doom a marriage: husband or wife?

By Seriously Science | May 16, 2016 6:00 am
Image: Flickr/Billie Grace Ward

Image: Flickr/Billie Grace Ward

There are probably as many ideas about what makes for a good marriage as there are, well, marriages. But most of us can agree that on thing usually makes a marriage worse: adultery. But how common is infidelity, and does it matter who in the relationship cheats? These researchers dug through decades of survey results and found that although husbands are three times more likely to cheat, the marriage was equally doomed if either partner got some on the side. So much for “boys will be boys”!

Burning the Candle at Both Ends: Extramarital Sex as a Precursor of Marital Disruption.

“This study examines several aspects of the association between engaging in extramarital sex and the disruption of one’s marriage. In particular: is there a differential effect on disruption depending on the gender of the perpetrator? Read More

Flashback Friday: Why don’t octopus arms get stuck together?

By Seriously Science | May 13, 2016 6:00 am
Photo: flickr/Brian Gratwicke

Photo: flickr/Brian Gratwicke

Octopus arms are truly amazing. They can move in all directions, and they are covered in suction cups that stick to virtually every surface they come into contact with. So how do these incredibly adhesive octopus arms avoid getting all tangled up together? The research presented in this paper suggests that octopus suckers do not spontaneously stick to octopus skin (unlike other surfaces) due to a chemical embedded within the skin itself. However, this natural barrier that prevents sticking can apparently be overcome, because living octopi can grab and eat severed octopus arms. In fact, octopi are able to sense their own ex-arms and are less likely to eat those than the arms of other octopi. Which is good, because eating your own arms is completely disgusting. Seriously.

Self-Recognition Mechanism between Skin and Suckers Prevents Octopus Arms from Interfering with Each Other

“Controlling movements of flexible arms is a challenging task for the octopus because of the virtually infinite number of degrees of freedom (DOFs). Octopuses simplify this control by using stereotypical motion patterns that reduce the DOFs, in the control space, to a workable few. Read More


Nursing chaos: puppies can’t decide which nipple they like best!

By Seriously Science | May 11, 2016 6:00 am

According to these scientists, there’s something different between cats and dogs, and it’s not how much they love their owners! Previously, these authors tracked the nursing behavior of 52 kittens (11 litters) and found that each kitten decides on a favorite nipple within three days of birth. In contrast, they refer to the behavior of nursing puppies as simply “chaos”. Here, they wondered if the nursing behavior of puppies has something to do with domestication. To test this idea, they observed the suckling behaviors of four litters of captive dingos, and the result was… chaos! The scientists suggest that the differences between kitten and puppy nursing behaviors predates domestication. Perhaps they should focus their future efforts on filming nursing behaviors of wild felines… say, nursing cheetah kittens? I’m sure if they put the (super cute) data online, they would have plenty of volunteers to “analyze” it!

Pattern of Nipple Use by Puppies: A Comparison of the Dingo (Canis dingo) and the Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris).

“Surprisingly little information is available about the behavior of newborn mammals in the functionally vital context of suckling. We have previously reported notable differences in the pattern of nipple use by kittens of the domestic cat and puppies of the domestic dog. Whereas kittens rapidly develop a “teat order,” with each individual using principally 1 or 2 particular nipples, puppies show no such pattern. Read More

Why do so many people hate the word “moist”?

By Seriously Science | May 9, 2016 6:00 am
Photo: flickr/MonkeyMyshkin

Photo: flickr/MonkeyMyshkin

Are there certain words that really get under your skin? If those words are “moist,” “crevice,” “slacks,” or “luggage” then you’re not alone. In fact, People magazine voted “moist” as the “most cringeworthy word” in English and actually made a video of their “sexiest men alive” saying the word. But why is “moist” so objectionable to 10-20% of the population? Is it the sound of the word, or is it the meaning? This author set out to answer that question, and he found that the meaning is the key. People associate “moist” with sexual connotations, which explains the recent rise in aversion to the word. Be sure to check out the table below: it’s not every day we see a scientific paper that includes the words “fuck” and “pussy.”

A Moist Crevice for Word Aversion: In Semantics Not Sounds

“Why do people self-report an aversion to words like “moist”? The present studies represent an initial scientific exploration into the phenomenon of word aversion by investigating its prevalence and cause. Results of five experiments indicate that about 10–20% of the population is averse to the word “moist.” This population often speculates that phonological properties of the word are the cause of their displeasure. Read More

CATEGORIZED UNDER: feelings shmeelings

Flashback Friday: Sleep-related erections throughout the ages!

By Seriously Science | May 6, 2016 6:00 am
Photo:flickr/Florin Gorgan

Photo:flickr/Florin Gorgan

The name of this historical analysis says it all. Everyone is curious about night-time boners, and apparently it’s not a new thing. You’re welcome.

Sleep-Related Erections Throughout the Ages.

“INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of sleep-related erections (SREs) has been known since antiquity.

AIM: To highlight historical, theological, and sexual medicine-related aspects of SREs throughout the ages. Read More

CATEGORIZED UNDER: how is babby formed?

Study concludes that inequality between economy and first class leads to “air rage.”

By Seriously Science | May 5, 2016 6:00 am
Fig. 1: Mr. Bean mockingly waving first class ticket.

Fig. 1: Mr. Bean mockingly waving his first class ticket.

Despite logging my fair share of miles, I have never witnessed a real-life “air rage” incident. But honestly, who doesn’t feel enraged after flying these days? Tiny seats, your knees shoved into your armpits, and paying $8 for a soggy sandwich would make almost anyone crack. Knowing that the lucky few who can afford a first-class ticket are sitting in (relative) luxury just feet away makes it even more unbearable. And, sure enough, these researchers claim that airline reported air rage incidents are nearly four times as likely on flights with first class seating. Not only that, but making passengers walk through first class to get to their crappy economy seats makes it even worse:

“Finally, our hypothesis that situational inequality—boarding from the front of the plane—would predict greater incidence of air rage in first class was supported: front boarding of planes predicted 11.86 greater odds of a first class air rage incident than boarding from the middle…”

The authors go on to claim that this is an example of how everyday inequality is leading to anti-social behavior. Whether or not that’s true, this study has actually made me dread boarding a plane even more than I already was.

Physical and situational inequality on airplanes predicts air rage.

“We suggest that physical and situational inequality are built into people’s everyday environments—such as the modern airplane—and that exposure to these forms of inequality can trigger antisocial behavior. Read More


Seriously, Science?

Seriously, Science?, formerly known as NCBI ROFL, is the brainchild of two prone-to-distraction biologists. We highlight the funniest, oddest, and just plain craziest research from the PubMed research database and beyond. Because nobody said serious science couldn't be silly!
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