The Cheater’s Guide to Interstellar Travel: A Conversation with Slava Turyshev

By Corey S. Powell | February 28, 2019 11:56 pm
Simulated view of an Earthlike exoplanet, reconstructed by a space telescope located about 100 billion kilometers from the Sun. (Credit: Slava Turyshev)

Simulated image of an Earthlike exoplanet, reconstructed by a space telescope located about 100 billion kilometers from the Sun. (Credit: Slava Turyshev)

Science fiction is a genre committed to the concept of “run before you can walk.” Long before anyone knew whether heavier-than-air flight was possible, writers were imagining travel to other planets. By the time interplanetary space probes were a reality in the 1960s, the storytellers had long since moved on to thinking interstellar.

Today, two or three generations of happy nerds have grown up in a world saturated with science fiction TV shows and movies featuring the word “star” in their titles. When we hear astronomers discuss the detection of possible Earthlike planets around other suns, then, it’s only natural that we want to go there and take a look. We’ve been conditioned to imagine that it’s possible.

In truth, it’s not–at least, not yet. But there may be a way to cheat a little, to get the benefits of interstellar travel without going the full distance. To find out how that might work, I called up Slava Turyshev, a research scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory who has spent many years thinking about how to bend the rules of space exploration by exploiting the rules of bent light.

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I Left a Piece of My Heart on the Dusty Sands of Mars

By Corey S. Powell | February 28, 2019 10:21 pm
Opportunity turned its camera back on the path it had traveled across the dunes of Mars in 2010. (Credit: NASA)

Opportunity turned its camera back on the path it had traveled across the dunes of Mars in 2010. (Credit: NASA)

“Any man’s death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind, and therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee.” The quote is so familiar that most people have no idea where it originally comes from (I’ll admit, I had to look it up myself to be sure: It is Mediation XVII from John Donne’s Devotions upon Emergent Occasions.) In recent years, though, the words have taken on new meaning, at least for those of us who are devoted to astronomical exploration. Any space robot’s death diminishes us as well, it seems.

So it was with the Cassini spacecraft’s terminal plunge into Saturn in 2017; one popular Twitter feed, called @CassiniNooo, was devoted entirely to screaming “noooooo” as the final day approached. And so it was again earlier this month when NASA officially declared the death of the Opportunity rover, which had spent more than 14 years exploring Mars on what was designed to be a 90-day mission. The eulogies were passionate and moving. People also tried to make sense of why they were so upset. They offered a lot of plausible explanations, but I think they missed out on the most interesting one.

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MORE ABOUT: Opportunity

Life is a Highway (of Flying Space Rocks)

By Corey S. Powell | February 28, 2019 11:26 am

One section of this Moon rock (arrow) has a strangely Earthlike composition–most likely because it started out here before being blasted to the Moon by an asteroid impact 4 billion years ago. That would make it the oldest known intact sample of our planet. (Credit: NASA/USRA)

It has been a great week for humans banging on things around the solar system. Japan’s Hayabusa2 probe touched down and grabbed a sample of asteroid Ryugu; NASA’s InSight is hammering into the surface of Mars; and a private Israeli spacecraft named Beresheet is heading toward an April landing on the Moon. But we are just beginners at the game. Nature has been banging and moving things around in the solar system for billions of years–and doing it with impressive efficiency.

Case in point: a rock nicknamed Big Bertha, and officially known as NASA catalog #14321. It was collected during the Apollo 14 mission by astronaut Alan Shepard, who picked it out because it contained an unusual-looking fragment. His instincts were spot-on. That chunk of Big Bertha really isn’t like the surrounding Moon rocks, most likely because it did not originate there. According to a study by David Kring of the Lunar and Planetary Institute and his colleagues, the fragment actually started out on Earth.

This is the first clear example of terrestrial material traveling to another world–and more evidence of the interplanetary highway running through the solar system.

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What Happens When You Go Beyond the Final Frontier?

By Corey S. Powell | January 31, 2019 4:55 pm
The best-yet view of MU69 (aka Ultima Thule) from New Horizons. Even sharper views are still sitting in data storage aboard the spacecraft. (Credit: NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI)

The best-yet view of MU69 (aka Ultima Thule) from New Horizons, showing craters and intriguing hints of layering. The larger lobe appears to have a thick-pancake shape. Even sharper views are still stored in the solid-state memory aboard the spacecraft. (Credit: NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI)

It was a New Year’s Eve like no other. First of all, the big celebration started a half hour after midnight. Children were waving mini-flags, surrounded by throngs of giddy planetary scientists. And four billion miles away, one billion miles past Pluto, the New Horizons spacecraft was flying past an enigmatic object called 2014 MU69–better known by its nickname, Ultima Thule.

When radio signals from New Horizons finally reached Earth the next morning, they revealed that the mission was a smashing success. The first images of MU69 showed that it is a double-lobed object, apparently created from the delicate joining of two primitive planetary building blocks, or planetessimals. It was everything the mission scientists had hoped for. The only thing that felt off about the triumphant event was the object’s name: not only because some people objected to the Nazi mythology attached to Ultima Thule, but because of the name’s literal meaning of “beyond the known world.”

The moment that New Horizons reported back, MU69 became part of the known world. The probe had lived up to its name, pushing back the horizon of human understanding, so that it can be pushed back farther, again and again, in the future. There is no final frontier anywhere in sight, and that is what truly made the New Year’s encounter so exciting.

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Once More, Into the Unknown

By Corey S. Powell | December 31, 2018 2:26 pm
Snapshot of the solar system, highlighting the various populations in the Kuiper Belt (colors). That whole outer zone is unexplored...but not for long. (Credit: Wes Fraser, National Research Council of Canada)

Snapshot of the solar system, highlighting the various populations in the Kuiper Belt (colors). That whole outer zone is unexplored…but not for long. (Credit: Wes Fraser, National Research Council of Canada)

Novelists have “It was a dark and stormy night.” For planetary scientists, the equivalent cliche is, “We expect to be surprised.” The story of every new space mission seems to begin that way. No matter how intensely researchers study some solar-system object, no matter how they muster the best resources available on Earth, they are inevitably caught off-guard when they get to study it up close for the first time. And no matter how worn and familiar that cliche may sound, it also rings true every time. Nature’s creativity surpasses human imagination, time after time.

Even by those standards, the flight of the New Horizons probe past Ultima Thule tonight is something special. In the words of Alan Stern, the mission’s principle investigator and spiritual leader, “We’ve never, in the history of spaceflight, gone to a target we know less about.” It’s a type of object never seen up close before, a small (30 kilometers wide) member of the Kuiper Belt. Even more exciting, it belongs to the so-called “cold classical” region of the Kuiper Belt, meaning that it probably has remained largely unchanged for more than 4 billion years, frozen in deep storage 6.5 billion kilometers from the Sun.

Will it look battered from ancient collisions? Will it be covered with organic molecules from the early solar system? Will it resemble Pluto’s moons, or look like a fresh comet, or like something else entirely? Nobody knows.

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50 Years Later, Still Processing Apollo 8’s Message of Hope and Desolation

By Corey S. Powell | December 24, 2018 12:31 pm

The photo that remade the world: Earthrise photographed by Bill Anders, at 16:40 UT on December 24, 1968. The foreground area of the moon is a little over 100 miles wide. This version has been color-corrected and rotated to a more natural orientation. (Credit: NASA)

Some two billion years ago, the first photosynthetic algae evolved the ability to respond to light—the brilliant Sun by day, the spectral Moon by night. Around 700 million years ago, primitive eye-pits appeared; then, during the Cambrian era, arthropod-like creatures gazed at the sky through true eyes, sensing the lunar rising and setting with their arthropod-like comprehension. So it continued, into the succeeding chapters of life featuring mammals, primates, hominins, and Homo sapiens, the last of them plotting the Moon’s movements and mapping the pockmarked terrain of Earth’s companion.

Then, 50 years ago, the perspective flipped. Apollo 8 took off on a figure-eight pattern around the Moon and, on December 24, 1968, three NASA astronauts peered out at the first Earthrise in the history of life. Most of the reminiscences now popping up across the media focus the Earth itself, seen gibbous and gorgeous from afar. But the true power of the image comes from its juxtaposition of two views never seen before: our blue planet, wrapped with air and water and hope, contrasted with the extraordinary gray desolation of the Moon.

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MORE ABOUT: Apollo, Earthrise

It’s a Small Solar System After All

By Corey S. Powell | November 30, 2018 10:56 pm
Asteroids Ryugu (left) and Bennu (right), shown side by side roughly to scale. Soon we'll be getting to know a lot more miniature worlds like these. (Credit: JAXA, left, NASA-GSFC/U-Az, right)

A tale of two asteroids: Ryugu (left) and Bennu (right), shown side by side roughly to scale. Ryugu is just under 1 kilometer wide; Bennu is about 500 meters. Soon we’ll be getting to know a lot more miniature worlds like these. (Credit: JAXA, left, NASA-GSFC/University of Arizona, right)

Many years ago, this magazine was owned by the Walt Disney Corporation, and I would sometimes get one of the company’s songs stuck in my head: “It’s a Small World,” the relentless musical accompaniment to the ride of the same name at Disney World in Florida. That song has popped up in my brain again recently, but in a very different and more majestic context. We are entering a new stage in the exploration of the solar system, one that inverts the theme of much that came before. Big is out and small is in.

The hot destinations in space right now are comets and asteroids–including asteroid Bennu, now coming into view of the ambitious OSIRIS-REx probe. The most innovative robotic explorers are the size of a briefcase. And in NASA’s latest pivot, the long-term plan to send humans back to the Moon and on to Mars is set to begin on a decidedly modest scale, with a set of low-budget, privately built lunar explorers. Cue the mental music: “It’s a Small Solar System (After All).”

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MORE ABOUT: asteroids, InSight, JAXA, Mars

Scientists Clash with Corporations in a Battle for the Soul of Mars

By Corey S. Powell | November 13, 2018 9:29 am
Life on Mars: One of the scientists spies on a new commercial drilling site in Season 2. (Credit: National Geographic/Richard Donnelly)

Life on Mars: One of the scientists spies on a new commercial drilling site in Season 2. (Credit: National Geographic/Richard Donnelly)

Mars the planet is a unique world: a little like Earth, a little like the Moon, but entirely a world unto itself. Mars the television show is similarly one of a kind, an unusual amalgam of scripted science fiction and serious science documentary. The fictional part of the story begins in 2033, when the spacecraft Daedalus lands on the Red Planet to establish the first human outpost there. But as so often happens in space exploration, things don’t go exactly as planned…

Season 1 of Mars was an intriguing experiment in world-building: The scripted part of the series painted a plausible portrait of how a crewed Mars mission might unfold, accidents and all, while the documentary portion grounded the story with commentary by marquee-name experts including astronaut Scott Kelly and SpaceX rocket guru Elon Musk. If the two halves didn’t entirely mesh, they at least bolstered each other. The interviews provided a reality check for the storytelling, while the dramatic elements emphasized what is really at stake. Season 2, debuting now, admirably builds on that foundation.

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What “First Man” Gets Fabulously Right About NASA: An Interview with Apollo 15 Astronaut Al Worden

By Corey S. Powell | October 13, 2018 11:41 pm
Neil Armstrong (left) as portrayed by Ryan Gosling in First Man (Credit: Universal)

Neil Armstrong (left) as portrayed by Ryan Gosling in First Man (Credit: Universal)

First Man is not like other movies about the space race, and I mean that in a very good way.

I’ll admit, I was skeptical about the director of La La Land telling the story of Neil Armstrong’s historic landing on the Moon. (Would there be songs? A scowling J.K. Simmons?) It turns out to be a synergistic pairing of artist and material. First Man brushes aside the expected saga of space cowboys saddling up their steel horses, delivering instead a moving narrative of NASA’s glory days as seen through Armstrong’s eyes.

That’s an especially impressive achievement given Armstrong’s famously private and controlled personality. Director Damien Chazelle and actor Ryan Gosling (as Armstrong) use that reticence to their advantage, examining the personal, emotional, and intellectual rigor that made the Apollo 11 triumph possible. It all adds up to a nerve-wracking and fabulously engrossing story, but at times I wondered how closely it aligned with reality. So I spoke with Al Worden, the Command Module pilot on Apollo 15, who knew Armstrong and also served as a technical advisor on the film. Worden strongly validated the authenticity of First Man. He also offered a lot of unexpected insights along the way.

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With a Rain of Robots, the Asteroid-Exploration Era Has Truly Begun

By Corey S. Powell | October 3, 2018 3:42 pm
The MASCOT lander captured this shot of Ryugu from an altitude of 20 meters, just before touching down on the asteroid. (Credit: MASCOT/DLR/JAXA)

The MASCOT lander captured this shot of asteroid Ryugu from an altitude of 20 meters (60 feet), just before touching down. More images and data will arrive in the next few days. (Credit: MASCOT/DLR/JAXA)

The MASCOT has landed.

As of two weeks ago, humans had never put a single robotic explorer on an asteroid. Now we have three of them hopping about on Ryugu, a 900-meter-wide object currently orbiting on the other side of the Sun. On September 20, Japan’s Hayabusa2 probe dropped two little landers, MINERVA II-1a and II-1b. They promptly sent back dizzying images from the surface. Then last night (October 3), the mothership deployed MASCOT, a much larger rover that is now performing a battery of studies during its rushed, 16-hour lifespan. A fourth rover and sample collection are yet to come.

What we are witnessing here is not just a single spectacular mission (though Hayabusa2 certainly is), but the beginning of a new era of solar system exploration. When the New Horizons probe flew past Pluto in 2015, that marked the end of humanity’s initial reconnaissance of the nine classical planets and the beginning of a closer look at the little-explored small objects that hold so much information about the formation and evolution of the solar system, and perhaps about the emergence of life on Earth.

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MORE ABOUT: asteroids, comet, Hayabusa

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